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Robinson Sheares 


This seventeenth volume of a Re-issue of the Dictionary 
OF National Biography comprises the forty-ninth, fiftieth 
and fifty-first volumes of the original edition, viz., Volume 
XLIX (Robinson- Russell) published in January 1897 ; Volume 
L (Russen-Scobell) published im April 1897; Volume LI 
(Scoffin-Sheares) published in July 1897. Errors have as 
far as possible been corrected, and some of the bibliographies 
have been revised, but otherwise the text remains unaltered. 

Three supplementary volumes, published in the autumn 
of 1901, and now forming the XXIInd and last volume of this 
Re-issue, supply (with a few accidental omissions) memoirs 
of persons who died while the original volumes were in 
course of quarterly publication. The death of Queen Victoria 
(22nd January 1901) forms the limit of the undertaking. 

*«* The Index and Epitome of the Dictionary, which is pub- 
lished in a separate volume, gives, with full cross-references, an 
alphabetical list of all memoirs in both the Dictionary (1885-1900) and 
the Supplement to the Dictionary (1901). 







Robinson S h e ares 






* 9 » 

V. /7 

G. A. A. . 
J.G.A.. . 
J.A-B.. . 
W. A J. A. 
W.A . . 
R.B-t . 
J.RK . 

K.a. . . 

T. B 

C. B> B. • 

D. J. B. . 
£. dl. B. . 

o« 1j« B> • < 

H. E. D. B. 


*^* The nameB of deeeaaed contribnton are marked thus f . 

6. C. B. . 
J.O. B. . 
G. 8. B. . 
W. B-T. . 

E. I. C 

j.L.a . 
w. s. c. . 

E- C-« . . 
AM. C-E 
J. C. . . - 
T.C. . . - 

G. A. Aitkin. 
. t J. G. Algeb. 

Thb Bey. John Anderson. 
W. A. J. Abchbold. 
Sib WAiiTEB Abmstbono. 


. t J. B. Bailet. 

H. F. Baesb. 

G. F. BuflBBLL Babkeb. 
. f Bfisa Bateson. 
. The Bet. BonaUd Batne. 

Thoicas Batne. 

C. B. Bbazlbt. 

D. J. Belobayb. 

. t E. M. Beloe, F.S.A. 

The Bey. Canon Leigh Ben- 
The Bey. H. E. D. Blakiston, 
D.D., Pbbsident of Tbinitt 

. f O. C. BOASE. 

The Bey. Pbov. Bonnet, F.B.S. 
g. s. bouloeb. 
BIajob Bboadfoot. 

E. Ibyinq Cabltlb. 
William Oabb. 

J. L. Caw. 

Bib Williau Selbt Church, 

Babt., K.C.B., D.M. 
Sib Ebnbst Clabxb, F.S.A. 
M1B8 A. M. Cooke. 
Thb Bey. Jambs Coopeb, D.D. 
f Thompson Coopeb, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . . W. P. Coubtnbt. 

H. C Sib Henbt Cbaik, E.CB. 

J. f James Cbanstoun, LL.D. 

L. C Lionel Cost, P.S.A., M.V.O. 

H. D Henrt Dayey. 

J. C. D. ... J. C. Dibdin. 

A. D Austin Dobson, LL.D. 

CD Campbell Dodobon. 

J. A. D. ... f J. A. Doyle. 

E. G. D. ... E. GoBDON DuFP. 

B. D BoBEBT Dunlop. 

F. B Fbangis Espdtasbb. 

C. L. F. . . . t C. Litton Falkineb. 

C. H. F. . . . Pbof. C. H. Fibth, LL.D. 
E. F>T .... ThbBt. Hon. Sib Edwabd Fry, 

G.C.B., F.B.S. 

J. G James Gaibdneb, C.B., LL.D. 

W. T. G. . . . t Prof. Sib W. T. Gaibdneb, 

M.D., LL.D. 

W. G f William Galloway. 

I B. G f BicHABD Gabnett, LL.D., C.B. 

G. G GoBDON Goodwin. 

A. G. The Bey. Alexander Gobdon. 

B. E. G. . . . 

B. E. Gbayes. 

J. C. H. . . . 

J. Cuthbebt Haddbn. 

«• A. &. . . . 

The Hon. Mb. Justice Hamil- 


\jm £L» BL, . , m 

C. Alezandeb Habbis, CM.G. 

A . J. H. . . . 

P. J. Habtoo. 

X. F. £[. . . . 

T. F. Hbndbbson. 

W. A. S. H. . 

W. A. S. Hewins. 

W. H. • ■ . • 

The Bby. Wiluam Hunt, 



vi List of 

W. H. H. . . Thk Rev. W. H. Hutton, B.D. 

A. J Thb Bby. Oahom Augustus 

Jbssopp, D.D. 

C. K f Gha&lss Kent. 

G. L. E. ... 0. L. KiNosroBD. 

J. E t JosBPH EiaoHT, F.S.A. 

H. E. OoLONBL Sib Hbmbt Enollts, 

B.A.» E.o.y.o. 

A L Ahdbbw Lano, DXitt. 

J. E. L. ... Pbof. Sib Jobn Enoz Laugb- 


T. G. L. . . . t T. G. Law. 

F. L f Thb Hon. Fbanois Lawuet. 

G. S. L. . . . G. S. liATABD. 

E. L MiBB Elizabbth Lbb. 

S. L SiDNET Lee, D.Litt., LLJ). 

B. H. L. . . . B. H. Leoob. 

E. M. L. . . . CoLoxTEL E. M. Llotd, B.E. 

J. E. L. ... John Edwabd Llotd. 

W. B. L. . . . Thb Bey. W. B. Lowtheb. 

J. H. L. . . . t The Bey. J. H. Luptom, D.D. 

H. T. L. . . . H. Thomson Lton. 

N. MaoC. . . t NoBMAN MacGoll. 

J. B. M. . . . J. Bamsat Maodonald, M.P. 

M.H ^neas Mackat, E.g., LL.D. 

J. A. F. M. . . J. A. FuiiLEB Mattland. 

E. G. M. . . . E. G. Mabchant. 

D. S. M. . . . Pbov. Mabooliouth. 

F. T. M. . . . Sib Fbank T. Mabziau, G.B. 

L. M. M. . . ftliSS MiDDLETON. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MiLLAB. 



G. Ll. M. . . Pbincipal Im^td Moboan, 

LL.D., F.B.S. 

S. J. N. . . . S. J. NlCHOLL. 

A. N Albebt Nicholson. 

G. Lb G. N. . G. Le Gbys Noboatb. 

E. N Miss Eate Noboate. 

D. J. O'D. . . D. J. 0*DoNooHUE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DoNOOHUB, F.S.A. 

T. O tTHB Bey. Thomas Olden, D.D. 

J. H. 0. . . . t The Bey. Ganon Oyebton. 



Hbnbt Paton. 

A. F. P. . . 

Pbof. A. F. Pollard. 

B. L. P. . . 

. B. L. Poole. 

S. L-P. . . 

Stanlet Lane-Poole. 


B. P 

Miss Bebtha Pobtbb. 

D»A. P. . . 

D'Abot Poweb, F Jt.G.S. 

G. W. P. . . 

G. W. Pbothebo, LL.D. 

B. L. B. . . 

Mbs. Badvobd. 

F. B 

. t Fbaseb Bab. 

W. B. B. . . 

. W. E. Bhodes. 

J. M. B. . . 

. J. M. Bioo. 

F. S 

The Bey. Fbancib Sandebs. 

T. S-D . . . 


T. S . 

Tbomab Sbooombb. 

W. F. S. . . 

W. p. Sedgwick. 

W. A. D. . . 

W. A. Shaw. 

G. B. S. . . 

Snt Geoboe B. SrrwBLL, Babt. 

G. F. S. . . 

Miss G. FsiiL Smith. 

B. H. S. . . 


G. W. S. . . 

The Bey. G. W. Spbott, D.D. 

L. S 

. t Sib Leslie Stephen, E.G.B. 

G. S-H . . . 

Gbobge Stbonach. 

0. W. S. . . 

C. W. Sutton. 

J. T-T . . . 

Pbof. Jambs Tait. 

H. B. T. . . 

H. B. Teddeb, F.S.A. 

D. Ll. T. . 

D. Lleufeb Thomas. 

S. T 

Samuhl Timmins, ^.S.A. 

T. F. T. . . 

Pbof. T. F. Tout. 

B. ll. V. • . 

GoL. B. H. Vetch, B.E., G.B. 

A. W. W. . 

A. W. Wabd, Litt.D., Masteb 

OF Petebhouse, Gambbidqs. 

M^» W. ... 

Paul Watebhouse. 

M. G. W. . 

. The Bey. M. G. Watkins. 

W. W. W. . 

Majob W. W. Webb. 

G. W-H. . . 

Ghables Welch, F.S.A. 

J. M. W. • . 

. t J. M. Wheeleb. 

s. w 

Stephen Wheeleb. 

W. B. W. . 

Pbof. W. B. WniLiAMS. 

S. W-N. . . 

Mbs. Sabah Wilson. 

A. N. W. . . 

Snt A. Natlob Wotj.arton, 


B. B. W. . . 

. B. B. Woodward. 

w. w. . . . 

Wabwick Wboth, F.S.A. 






B0BIN8OK, ANASTASIA, afterwards 
CorTTEBBOvPsTEBBOBOireH(<2. 1765), Singer , 
irtt ddest daughter of Thomas Bohinson, 
portrait-painter, who was descended from a 
good familr in Leicestershire. According to 
Lffd Oxford (JETor/. MS. 7684, f. 44), her 
motfaer was a member of the Roman catholic 
£uiul J of Lane which sheltered Charles II 
(Boitobel Tracts, ed. J. Hughes, p. 891) ; but, 
according to other accounts, Miss Lane was 
Thomas Robinson's second wife and Ana- 
stasia Robinson's stepmother. 

Thomas Robinson went to Italj to study 
soon after his marriage, and he became pron- 
dent in both the language and music of the 
eoontry. Uis eldest daughter, Anastasia, who 
was born in Italy, developed an excellent voice 
and showed a love for music. Her father taught 
her Italian, and on his return to England sent 
her to Dr. Croft for lessons in singing. When 
an affectionof the eye resulted in bIindness,Ro- 
bmson was compelled to utilise his daughter's 
talents, and she forthwith adopted Binding as 
a profession. Pursuing her studies under the 
Italian singinff-master Sandoni and an opera- 
singer called Sie Baroness, Anastasia Robin- 
son first appeared at concerts in York fiuild- 
inga and elsewhere in London, accompanying 
hmelf on the harpsichord. Her voice, origi- 
nally a soprano, sank to a contralto after an Ul- 
neaa,and its charm, together with the singer's 
good character and sweetness of disposition, 
made her a favourite. Her father took a house 
in Golden Square, where weekly concerts and 
assemblies attracted fashionable society. i 
Miss Robinson soon transferred her atten- 
tions to the stage, where she first appeared, 
27 Jan, 1714, m the opera of *Creso' (cf. 
Steklb's ' Lover/ no. 7 ; Johkboh's Idvesy ed, 
Cnomngham, ii. 185). In her second per- 
fbnnaace she took the partof Ismina in' Ar- ' 

minio/and thenceforth, for nearly ten years, 
she reigned as prima donna, with a salary of 
1,000/., besides benefits and presents worth 
nearly as much. Bumey thinks that Handel 
did not place much trust in her voice, fiut in 
1717, at Miss Robinson's benefit, Handel in- 
troduced an additional scene into*Amadigi' 
{Hist, of Music, iv. 257, 376, 288). Among her 
admirers was General Hamilton, who was re- 
jected in spate ofher father's advice. But, after 
a long period of uncertain attentions, Miss 
Robinson accepted the advances of LordPeter- 
borough[8eeMoBDAi7irr, CHABi.EB],then about 
sixty years of age. Peterborough was finally 
conquered by seeing the lady as Griselda in 
Buononcini's opera in the spring of 1722* 
Soon afterwards they were secretly married, 
though, as the marriage was not acknowledged 
for thirteen years, many doubted whether it 
had been celebrated. We are told, however, 
that Lady Oxford was present at the ceremony, 
and that that lady and her daughter, the 
Duchess of Portland, besides many others, 
visited Anastasia. In July 1722 Mrs. Delany 
wrote regretting the absence of* Mrs. Robin- 
son ' from a water-party, which ' otherwise had 
been perfect.' In September 1728 Arbuthnot 
dined and supped with Peterborough and 
'the Mrs. Robinsons' (Anastasia and her 
sisters). After Thomas 'Robinson's death 
about 1722, Peterborough took a house for 
the ladies near his own villa at Parson's 
Green. Hawkins and Bumey differ as to 
whether Peterborough and Miss Robinson 
lived under the same roof before 1784 ; Bur- 
ney, who is the more trustworthy, says she 
did not. At Parson's Green Miss Robinson 
held a sort of musical academy, where Buo- 
noncini and others otten performed. She was 
grateful to Buononcini, who had written 
songs suited to her voice, and she obtained 



for him a peuBion of 600/. from the Dnchess 
of Marlborough, besides places for his friend 
Maurice Ghreene [q. v.] 

Lady Peterborough, to call her by the 
name she ultimately bore, continued on the 
stage until June 1724, not before she had 
been supplanted as * diva ' by Guzzoni and 
others. Earl^in this year hem? insulted by 
Senesino, a singer with whom sue acted| she 
appealed to Lord Peterborough, who at once 
caned the Italian, and compelled him, as 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu says, 'to 
confess upon his knees that Anastasia was a 
nonpareiiof virtue and beauty.' Lord Stan- 
hope, affcerwards Earl of Chesterfield, having 
joked on Senesino's side, was challenged by 
Peterborough, and the town was in great 
excitement over the matter ; but the duel 
was prevented by the authorities. The lady's 
reputation was thus cleared, and at the 
same time it was reported that Peterborough 
allowed her lOOZ. a month. ' Oould it have 
been believed,' comments Lady M. W. Mon- 
tagu, * that Mrs. Robinson is at the same time 
a prude and a kept mistress ' (Letters, ed. 

Thomas, i. 476-6). An * Epistle from S o 

to A ^aR ^n ' was advertised on 27 Feb. 

1724, and Aaron Hill wrote an * Answer to 
a scurrilous, obscene Poem, entitled ** An 
Epistle from Mrs. Robinson to Senesino." ' 

in 1781 Peterborough alluded, in a letter 
to Pope, to the reliffious observances of * the 
farmeress at Bevis, Peterborough's pleasant 
cottage near Southampton; and next year 
he was nursed through a serious illness by 
his wife, whom he at last permitted to wear 
a weddin^ring. In 1784 Pope was visiting 
at Bevis Mount, and sent * my lord's and 
Mrs. Robinson's ' service to Gary 11. As early 
as 1731 Pope, writing to Peterborough, called 

Anastasia ' Lady P .' At length, in 1786, 

Peterborough acknowledged his wife, a duty 
whichhad Men lu^edupon him by Dr. Alured 
Clarke ^q. v.] His friends were called to- 
ffether m rooms occupied by his niece's hus- 
band, Stephen Poyntz [q. v.], in St. James's 
Palace, and there, without forewarning his 
wife, he described the virtues of a lady who 
had been his companion and comforter in sick- 
ness and health for many vears, and to whom 
he was indebted for all the happiness of his life. 
But he owned with grief that through vanity 
he had never acknowledffed her as his wife. 
Lady Peterborough was then presented to her 
husband's relatives, and was carried away in 
a fiunting condition. The clergyman who had 
nerformea the original ceremony being dead, 
l^eterborough was again married to .^lasta- 
sia at Bristol, in oraer to secure her rights 
beyond question (Pope to Martha Blount, 
26 Aug. 1736). At Bath Peterborough 

made known that Anastasia was his wife by 
calling at an assembly for Lady Peter- 
borough's carriage. 

Peterborough was now suffering from the 
stone, and, though he realised thkt he was 
dying, he set out with his wife to Portugal. 
After hb death at Lisbon in October 1736, 
his body was brought back by his widow, 
who afterwards burned the manuscript me- 
moirs which he had left behind him. Lady 
Peterborough survived her husband nearly 
twenty yearSj living generally at Bevis 
Mount, which she held in jointure (HarL 
MS, 7664, f. 44). She visited few persons, 
except the Duchess of Portland at Bul- 
strode. She died in April 1766, and was 
buried at Bath Abbey on 1 lAhj^Geneedogist^ 
new ser. vi. 98). Bj her will, made 4 Jan. 
1766, she left legacies to her sister, Eliza* 
beth Bowles, her niece, Elizabeth Leslie, 
her nephew. Dr. Arbuthnot, and others 
(P. C. 0. 174 Glazier). 

The high esteem m which Lady Peter- 
borough was held is shown by the lact that 
Peterborough's grandson and successor in 
the peerage named his daughter after her ; 
and the Duchess of Portland wrote of her as 
' a very dear friend,' and said that she was 
' one 01 the most virtuous and best of women, 
but never very handsome.' Though naturally 
cheerful, she was of a shy disposition ; yet, 
owing to her good address, she always ap- 
peared to be the equal of persons of the 
nighest rank. Mrs. Delany said she was of 
middling height, not handsome, but of a 
pleasing, modest countenance, with large 
blue eyes. 

Faber issued a mezzotint engraving, after 
a painting by Bank, in 1727, in which Lad^* 
Peterborough is shown playing on a harpsi* 
chord. This engravingis reproduced in Colo- 
nel Russell's 'Earl of Peterl>orough.' An en- 
flnuvin^ of the head, by C. Grignion, after 
Bank, is in Sir John Ilawkins's ' History of 

LadyPeterborough had two younger sis- 
ters. The one, Elizabeth, was designed for 
a miniature-painter, but turned to singing. 
Owing to her Dashfiilness, however, she never 
performed in public, and she ultimately mar- 
ried a Colonel Bowles. The other, Mar- 
garet, ' a very pretty, accomplished woman,' 
according to Mrs. Delany, was only a half- 
sister. She married, in February 1728 (Gay 
to Swift, 16 Feb.), Dr. Arbuthnot's brother, 
Qeor^, of whom Pope spoke highly. She 
died m September 1729, leaving one son, 
John, who was the father of Bishop Alex- 
ander Arbuthnot, Sir Charles Arbuthnot, 
hart., General Sir Robert Arbuthnot, and 
General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, hart. 



[The personal aeeonnt of Ladj Peterboroiigli 

in Barney's History of Mosie (It. 246-97) is 

based on reoolleetiont of Mrs. Delany ; that in 

Sir John Hawkiiu's History of Mnsie (1853, iL 

&7(M) on information from the Dowager 

Dochees of Portland. Other aonrces of informa- 

tioe are the Lives of Lord Peterborough by 

Colaiiel BosBell, 1887, ii. 238-48, 811, 327-9, 

udMr.W. Stabbing, 1890; Pope's Works, ed. 

QwiA nd Coorthope, yi. 361, yii. 115, 475, 

486. fin. 312-13, iz. 41, 296, 318, 461, x. 186- 

194; Aitkan's Life of Arbnthnot, 1892, pp. 104, 

m lis, 162-3.] e. A. A. 

BOBEETSON, ANTHONY (1762-1827), 
uiitaiiaii, was bom in January 176!ll at Kirk- 
Iind, near Wig:ton in Comberland, wheie bis 
fither posaeased some property. He was 
educated at an academy belonging to the 

r'cDJar baptiflta at Bristol— Ko^rt Hall 
fj^, r.l was *a fellow student — and subse- 
qiientfy became pastor of a baptist cburcb at 
F aizford in Gloaoestershire. Thence be re- 
n»fei to the general baptists' church in 
Worship Street, London, but gave up the 
cfaaige about 1790 on succeeding to his 
fMXhe^i estate, and retired to the country. 
In 1796 he returned to London, and entered 
into business as a sugar-refiner, acquiring a 
eonaiderable fortune. He made the acquaint 
taaee of Priestlej, and, through Priestley's 
friend Butt, of Hjenry (>abb I&binson fq-v*! 
The latter, who was no relative, declarea 
Anthony's powers of conversation to be 
greater than those of any others of his ao- 
quaintanoe. Crabb Robinson introduced him 
to the Lambs and William Hazlitt. He 
died in Hatton G^arden on 20 Jan. 1827, aged 
86, and was buried in the Worship Street 
baptist churchyard. His widow then re- 
moved to Enfield, where she lived opposite 
the I'^gftlMi His son Anthony, who disap- 
veared in 1827, was a reputed victim of 
Burke and Hare. 

Bofainaon wrote: 1. ^A Short History 
of the Psreecution of Christians by Jews, 
Heathens, and Christians,' Carlisle, 1798, 
8?o. 3. ' A View of the Causes and Conse- 
quenoes of English Wars,' London, 1708, 
8to, dedicated to William Morgan (1760* 
1833) [q. T.]; in this work Robinson en- 
deavoured to show that all English wars 
had proved injurious to the people ; he vehe- 
mently attacked Pitt for declarmg war with 
France, for ivhich the * British Critic ' de- 
aouieed him as a Jacobin. S. ' An Ezamina^ 
tion of a Sennon preached at Cambridge by 
Bobert Hall on Modem Infidelity,' London, 
1800, 8vo ; a vifforons attack on Hall^ which 
the * British Gntic ' termed a ' senseless and 
Aawif iififi^ pamnhlet.' Bobinson was also a 
fnqoent contributor to the ' Analytical Be^ 

view,' 'Monthly Magazine/ and 'Monthly 
Bepositorv,' to the last of which he sent an 
account of Priestley (zvii. 169 et seq.), which 
was used by Rutt m his ' Life of R'iestley.' 
A contemporary, Anthony Robin8on,a sur- 
geon of Sunderland, went to Jamaica and 
made manuscript collections on the flora of 
the island, which were used by John Lunan 
in his 'Hortus Jamaicensis,' 1814, 8vo, 2 vols. 

[Works in Brit. Mns. Libr. ; Gent. Mag. 1827, 
i. 187; Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; 
Batt's Life of Priestley, i. 33, li. 633 ; Monthly 
BeTiew,xi. 146, xzviii. 231, xzxii. 446 ; British 
Critic, xiii. 693, xvi. 213 ; Orabb Bobinson's 
Diary, passim; Monthly Repository, 1827, p. 
293J A. F. P. 

ROBINSON, BENJAMIN (1666-1724), 
presbyterian minister, bom at Derby in 1666, 
was a pupil of Samuel Ogden (1626P-1697) 

El, v.], and was educat^ for the ministry 
y Jonn Woodhouse [q. v.] at Sheriffhales, 
Shropshire. He began life as chaplain and 
tutor in the family of Sir John GeU at Hop- 
ton, Derbyshire, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Richard Baxter. He was sub- 
sequently chaplain at Normanton to Samuel 
Saunders, upon whose death he married and 
settled as presbyterian minister of Findem, 
Derlnrshire, being ordained on 10 Oct. 1688. 
In 1693 he opened a school at Findem, and 
for so doixig was cited into the bishop'? court. 
BJiowingWUUam Lloyd (1627-1717} [q.v.], 
then bishop of Coventry and Lichnela, he 
went to remonstrate with him. Lloyd stayed 
the prosecution, and discussed nonconformity 
with Robinson till two o'clock in the morn- 
ing; they afterwards corresponded. John 
Howe [q;yO recommended him to a congrega- 
tion at HuDgerford, Berkshire, to which he 
removed from Findem in 1693. Here also, in 
1696y he set up a school which developed into 
an academy for training ministers ; students 
were sent to him by the presbyterian fimd. 
Gilbert Burnet [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, 
bein^ at Hungeriord on a visitation, sent for 
Robinson, who defended his course and gained 
Burnet's friendship. Subsequently he and 
Edmund Calamy[q. v.] had several interviews 
with Burnet in 170^, when nonconformist 
matters were before parliament. 

In 1700 he succeeded Woodhouse^ his 
former tutor, as presbyterian minister at 
Little St. Helen's, Bishops^ate Street. Here 
he enjoyed great popularity as a preacher, 
having much natural eloquence, and a gift 
of rapid composition with a strong pen. In 
1706 he succeeded George Hammond as one 
of the Salters' Hall lecturers, and made this 
his first business when declining heslth com- 
pelled him to limit his work. H& was assisted 




at Little St. Helen's by Harman Hood, and, 
from 1721, by Edward Godwin, grandfather 
of William Godwin the elder [q. v.] He 
was an original trustee (1716) of the foun- 
dations of Daniel Williams [q. vj At the 
Salters' Hall conferences of 1719 [see Beas- 
BUBT, Thomas], Robinson was a prominent 
advocate of subscription, and in the pamphlet 
war which succeeded he was an able exponent 
of the scriptural argument for the doctrine 
of the Trinity. He died on 80 April 1724, 
and was buried in Bunhill Fields. He lefb a 
widow, Anne, and several children. His por- 
trait is at Dr. Williams's Library, Gonion 
Square, London; an engraving by Hopwood 
Is given in Wilson. 

He published, besides single sermons : 1. 'A 
Plea for . . . Mr. BuLter ... in answer to 
Mr. Lobb,' &c., 1697, 8vo (defends Baxter's 
view of the Atonement). 2. 'A Review of the 
Case of Liturgies,' &c., 1710, 8vo. 3. 'A 
Letter ... in defence of the Review,' Sec, 
1710, 8vo (both in reply to Thomas Bennet, 
D.D. [q. V.J) 4. * The <^uestion stated, and 
the Scripture Evidence of the Trinity pro- 
posed,' l7l0, 4to, being the second part of 
' The Doctrine of the Ever Blessed Trinity 
stated and defended ... by fonr subscribing 

[Funeral dermon by John Cumming of the 
Scots Church, London Wall, 1724; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, i. 373 sq. 
(chiefly ^m Camming); Tonlmin's Historical 
View, 1814, pp. 261 sq. ; Oalainy's Own Life, 
1830, i. 466 sq. ii. 413 sq. 483 ; Jones's Bunhill 
Memorials, 1849, pp. 236 sq.; Jeremy's Presby- 
terian Fund, 1885, pp. 13, 84, 109.] A. G. 

BOBINSON, BRYAN (ie80-.1764\phy. 
fiician and writer, born in 1680, graduated 
M.B. in 1700, and M.D. in 1711, at Trmity 
College,Dublin. He was anatomical lecturer 
there in 1716-17, and in 1745 was appointed 
professor of physic. On 6 May 1712 he was 
elected fellow of the King and Queen's Col- 
lege of Physicians in Ireland, having been 
* candidate ' on 24 Aug. 1711. He was three 
times president of the college — ^in 1718, 1727, 
and 1739. He was also a member of the 
Irish Royal College of Surgeons. He prac- 
tised in Dublin, and probablv attended 
Esther Yanhomrigh ('Vanessa'^, who be- 
lueathed to him 161, sterling ^ to ouy a rii^ * 
Bwirr, Works, ed. Scott, 2nd edit. xix. 
^80). He died at Dublin on 26 Jan. 1764. 

Robinson had a reputation in his day, both 
as a medical and mathematica] writer. His 
earliest work was a translation of P. de la. 
Hire's ' New Elements of Conick Sections,' 
1704. In 1726 he published an accoimt of 
the inoculation of five children at Dublin. 

'The Case of Miss Rolt communicated by an 
Eye-witness' was added in an edition printed 
in London in the same year. This was fol- 
lowed in 1782-8 by Robinson's chief work, the 
'Treatise on the Animal Economv.' It was 
attacked by Dr. T. Morgan in his * Mechanical 
Practice,' and defended by the author in a 
'Letter to Dr. Cheyne.' The latter is an- 
nexed to the third edition, which appeared In 
two volumes in 1788, and contained much 
additional matter. Robinson was an ardent 
admirer of Newton, and tried to account for 
animal motions by his principles, and to apply 
them to the rational treatment of diseases. 
He attributed the production of muscular 
power to the vibration of an ethereal fluid 
pervading the animal body, a doctrine essen- 
tially in accord with modem views. His 
chapter on respiration shows him also to have 
had a glimmering of the nature of oxv^en, in 
anticipation of the discoveries of Iriestley 
and Ijavoisier in 1775. Sir Charles Chuneron 
characterises the whole 'Treatise on Animal 
Economy' as a remarkable work for its day 
(cf. Halleb, BidL Chirurgica, ii. 148). Robin- 
son's next work was a ' Dissertation on the 
Food and Discharges of Human Bodies/ 
1747. It was translated into fVench, and 
inserted in 'Le Pharmaclen Modeme,' 1750. 
It was followed by 'Observations on the 
Virtues and Operations of Medicines '(1752), 
which attracted much attention (cf. BiTBr- 
K0W8, CommenUtries on the Treatment of 
InmnitUf p. 640). Robinson also edited Dr. 
R. Helsham's 'Course of Lectures in Natural 
Philosophy,' 1789 (2nd edit. 1743; reissued 
in 1767 and 1777). 

Robinson also wrote a 'Dissertation on the 
^ther of Sir Isaac Newton ' (Dublin, 1743 ; 
London, 1747) ; and an ' Essay upon Money 
and Coins' (1758), posthumously published 
by his sons, Christopher and Robert. Part Li. 
is dedicated to Henry Bilson Legge, chancellor 
of Uie exchequer, with whom the author was 
acquainted. The work displays knowled^ 
of the history of currency ; its main object is 
to advocate the maintenance of the existing 
standard of money. Besides numerous tables, 
it contains Newton's representation to the 
treasury on 21 Sept. 1717 regarding the state 
of the gold and suver coina^. 

Portraits of Robinson are m the possession 
of the Irish College of Physicians, and at the 
house of the provost of Trinity Collefie, Dub- 
lin. Bromley mentions an etching oi him, at 
the age of seventy, by B. Wilson. 

[Todd's Cat. of Dablin Graduates ; Register 
of the King and Qaeen's Coll. of Physicians in 
Ireland ; Cameron's Hist, of the Royal Coll. of 
Surgeons in Ireland, pp. 16-18, 98, 686 ; Noble's 
Goatin. of Granger** Siogr. Hist of England, iii. 



U%a; London Mag. 1764, p. 92; Catof Bojal 
Med. and Chimrg. Soe. lAhtsrj, vol. ii.; Brit. 
Miia.Cat.; antliontieB cited.] G. Lb G. N. 

BOBINSOIQ', Sir BRYAN (1808-1887), 
colonial iadge, was born on 14 Jan. 1808 at 
BnUin, being' youngest aon of Christopher 
Kobinaon, rector of Ghranard, co. Longibrd; 
bis mother -wns Elizabeth, second daughter 
of Sir Hercules Langrishe [q. v.] Hercules 
BoluKm [q. ▼.] -wkb an elder brother. From 
Outlenock school he went in 1824 to Trinity 
Ooliege, Dublin, bat before graduating, in 
1638, he went out to Newfoundland in the 
staff of Admiral Cochrane. In 1881 Robin- 
ion was called to the bar in Nora Scotia, 
and began to practise in Newfoundland. His 
fint appearance in a case of more than local 
importance wa^ before the judicial committee 
in Keilley v. Carson, whicn raised the ques- 
tion of tfis power of a house of assembly to 
imprison a person of its own motion. Robin- 
vm oppoeed the claim of the Newfoundland 
hoose of assembly, and the judgment in his 
fsToor fnaUr settled the law on this point. 
In 1884 Robinson was made a master of 
cliancieiy with the obligation of adyisinff the 
members of the council. In December 1842 
he entered the colonial parliament as member 
for Foftone Bay. In 1843 he became a 
queen's oounsel of the local bar, and later a 
member of the executiye cotmcil. In 1868 he 
was made a puisne judge. He was a warm 
support er of every project for the good of the 
colony, especially mterestin^ himself in the 
opening np of the interior, direct steam com- 
mnnication with England, and relief works 
in bad seasons; he was president of the 
Agricultural Society. He was also an actiye 
fupporter of the church of England. He was 
knighted in December 1877 for his distin- 
pished eerrices, and retired irom his office 
m Newfoundland in 1878 owing to failing 
health. He settled at Ealing, liiiddlesex, 
where he died on 6 Dec. 1887. 

He married, in 1834, Selina, daughter of 
Arthmr Houldsworth Brooking of Brixham, 
Deronahire, who died before him, leaving 
aereral children. 

There is a vignette of Robinson in Fjrowse*s 
'History of ^lewfoundland.' 

[BiogTSph and Beriew, Janoaiy 1892; pri- 
Taie informatioo.] 0. A H. 

( 1766-1 833), admiralty lawyer, bom in 1 766, 
vas son of Dr. Christopher Robinson, rector 
of Albory, Oxfbrdshire, and Wytham, Berk- 
shire, who died at Albury on 24 Jan. 1802. 
The son matriculated from Uniyersity Col- 
hfe, Oxford, on 16 Dee. 1782, but migrated 
ia 1788 to Magdalen College, where he was a 

demy from 1783 to 1799. He graduated B. A. 
14 June 1786, M. A. 6 May 1789, and D.C.L. 
4 July 1796. Intended for the church, Ro- 
binson preferred the profession of the law. 
He was one of nine children, and all that his 
father could spare for his start in life was 20/. 
in cash and a ^od supply of books. Fortu- 
nately he obtamed a favourable recommenda- 
tion to Sir William Scott, afberwards Lord 
Stowell. He determined upon studying ma- 
ritime law, and was admitted into the cdlege 
of advocates on 3 Noy. 1796. He gained con- 
^icuous success in this branch of the profes- 
sion, was knighted on 6 Feb. 1809, and was 
appointed, on 1 March 1809, to sucoeed Sir 
Jonn Nicholl [q. v.] as kind's adyocate. 
As the holder of this office and the leading 
counsel in the admiralty court, Robinson 
was engaged in nearly all the cases relating 
to prizes captured on the seas. In 1818 he 
was returned in the interest of the tory 
ministry, exerted through the &mily of 
£insman, for the Cornish borough of Cal- 
linffton, and on the dissolution in 1820 he 
and his colleague secured at the poll a ma- 
jority of the votes recorded bv the returning 
officer, but a petition against tlleir return was 
presented, and ultimately the candidates sup- 
ported by the family of Baring were declared 
elected. These proceedings resulted in hie 
beingsaddled with costs amountingto 6,000/., 
and though the premier had promised to re- 
imburse him the outlay, the money was not 
paid. He was no orator, and did not shine in 
the House of Commons. 

In 1821 Robinson followed Lord Stowell 
in the positions of chancellor of the diocese of 
London and judge of the consistory court, 
and on 22 Feb. 1828 he succeeded Lord 
Stowell as judge of the hiffh court of admi- 
ralty, haying for seyeraf years preyiously 
transcribed and read in court the decisions 
of that judge. He was created a priyy coun- 
cillor on 6 March 1828, and presided in the 
admiralty court until a few days before his 
death. He died at Wimpole Street, Cayen- 
dish Square, London, on 21 April 1833, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Benet's 
Doctors' Commons. He married, at Liyer- 
W)ol, on 11 April 1799, Catharine, eldest 
aaughter of the Rey. Ralph Nicholson, a man 
of considerable property. They had five chil- 
dren — three sons and two daughters. Lady 
Robinson died at Wimpole street on 27 Aucr. 
1830, aged 53. 

Robinson was the author of: 1. 'Report 
of the Judgment of the High Court of Ad- 
miralty on the Swedish Conyoy,' 1799. 
2. 'Translation of Chapters 273 and 287 of 
the Consolato del Mare, relating to Prixe 
Law ' [anon.], 1800. 8. ' Collectanea Man- 



tima, a Collection of Public IiiBtruinents on 
Prize Law/ 1801. 4. < Reports of Caaes 
argued and detennined in the Higb Court of 
Admiralty, 1790 to 1808/ 6 vols. 1799-1808; 
2nd edit. 6 yoIb. 1801-8 ; they were aleo re- 
printed at New York in 1800-10, and by 
George Minot at Boston in 1858 in his series 
of English admiralty reports. Robinson's re- 
ports were not remunerative, and in some 
years caused him actual loss. 

Robinson's own judgments were contained 
in volumes ii. and iiL of John Hsggard's 'Ad- 
miralty Reports ' (1888 and 184(§, and were 
also published at Boston by Oeoige Minot 
in l8o8. A digested index of the judgments 
of Lord Stowell, as given in tne reports 
of Robinson, Edwarcb, and Dodson, was 
issued by Joshua Greene, barrister-at-law, of 
Antigua, in 1818. 

Robinson's second son, Wiluax Robik- 
80K (d. 1870), matriculated from Balliol 
CoUege, Oxfora, on 26 Jan. 1819, and gra- 
duated BA.. on 22 March 1828, M.A. on 
2 July 1829, and D.O.L. on 11 July 1829. 
He was admitted into the college of advo- 
cates on 3 Nov. 1830, and reported in the 
admiralty court. His published volumes of 
reports commenced * with the judgments of 
the Right Hon. Stephen Lusnin^n,' and 
covered the years from 1838 to 1860. The 
first volume appeared in 1844, and the second 
in 1848. The third, without a title-page, and 
consisting of two parts only, was issued in 
1862. "fy were also edited by George 
Minot at Boston in 1863. Robinson died 
at Stanhope Villa, Charl wood Road, Putney, 
on 11 July 1870, aged 68. 

[Gent. Hag. 1799 i. 346, 1802 i. 184, 1809 i. 
278, 1880 i. 283, 1833 i. 465; Foster's Alumni 
Ozon. ; Courtney's Pari. Rep. Oomwall.p. 278 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iz. 633; Law Mag. z. 
485-8, reprinted in Annual Biogr. zviii. 325-31; 

Civilians, p. 137; Times, 12 July 1870, p. 1.] 

W. P. C. 

1684), song-writer and editor, prepared in 
1566 'A boke of very pleasaunte sonettes 
and storyes in myter,' for the publication 
of which liichard Jones obtained a license 
in the same year. No copy of this work is 
extant, although a single leaf in the collection 
of * Bagford Ballads' m the British Museum 
may possibly have belonged to one. The book 
was reprinted in 1584 by the same publisher, 
Richard Jones, under the new title'Afiande- 
full of pleasant delites, containing sundrie 
new Sonets aud delectable Histories in diueis 

kinds of Meeter. Newly diuised to the newest 
tunes that are now in use to be sung; euerie 
Sonet orderly pointed to his proper tune. 
With new additions of certain Songs to yerie 
late deuised Notes, not commonly knowen, 
nor vsed heretofore. By Clement Robinson 
and diners others.' A unique imperfect copy 
of this edition, formerly in the Corser colleo- 
tion, is now in the British Museum lilnary. 
All the pieces were written for music ; several 
of them had been entered in the StAtioners' 
Beffister for separate publication between 
156(3 and 1682. In the case of eight the 
authors' names are appended. The remaining 
twenty-five, which are anonymous, doubtless 
came tor the most part from Robinson's own 
pnan. Among these is the opening song, en- 
titled 'A Nosegay,' from which Ophelia seems 
to borrow some of her farewell remarks to 
Laertes in Shakespeare's 'Hamlet,' iv. 6.. 
Another song in the collection, * A Sorrow- 
full Sonet,' ascribed to George Mannington. 
is parodied at length in 'Eastward Ho 
ri003], by Chapman, Jonson, and Marston. 
The volume also contains ' A new Courtly 
Sonet, of the Lady Greensleeues, to the new 
tune of Greensleeues.' 

Robinson's 'HandefuU' has been thrice 
reprinted, viz. in Park's 'Heliconia,' 1816, 
vol. ii. (carelessly edit^); by the Spenser 
Society, edited by James Crossley in 1871 
(Manchester, 8vo),and by Mr. Edward Arber 
m 1878, in his ' English Scholar's Library.' 

A unique tract in the Huth Library is also 
assigned to Robinson. The title runs: * The 
true descripcion of the marueilous straunge 
Fishe whiche was taken on Thursday was 
sennight the xvj day of June this present 
month in theyeareof our Lord God MDLXIX. 
Finis quod C. R. London, bv Thomas Col- 
well.' This was entered on the ' Stationers* 
Registers' early in 1569 as 'a mounsterus 
fysshe which was taken at Ip[s]wyche ' 
(Abbeb, Transcripts, i. 381). 

[Introdnctions to the reprints noticed above 
of Kobinson's Handefull; Haslitt's Bibliographi- 
cal Handbook.] £5. L. 

1877), colonel royal engineers, director- 

rneral of telegraphs in India, was bom 
March 1826, and entered the military 
college of the East India Company at Ad- 
discombe in 1841. He was appointed a 
second lieutenant in the Bengal engineerB 
on 9 June 1848, and, after going through, 
the usual course of instruction at Chatham, 
embarked for India in 1845. He anived in 
time to join Sir Hugh Gough's army and 
take part in the Sutlaj campaign. He was 
engaged in the battle of Sobraon, and re- 



eeired the war medal. He was promoted 
fint lientenaiLt on 16 June 1847. In 1848 
and 1848 Kobinaon served in the Panjab 
campaign, and took part in the battles of 
GfaiUiaawallah, IS Jan. 1849, and Giijeraty 
SI Feb. 1849, again receiving the war medal. 
In 1860 he was appointed to the Indian 
saxvcf, upon widen he achieved a ^reat 
icpiaatioii for the beautv and exactitude of 
hii ■ana. Hia mapa of the Bawal Pindi 
aadof Uie Gwalior country mav be apecially 
He xeodved the thanks of the 

gDvecDment for hia book, and the aurve^or- 
general of India obaerved : ' I have no heaita- 
tion in saying that theae mapa will stand in 
the first rank ai topogra]^hi(al achievements 
in India, and I can conceive nothing superior 
to them executed in any coun^.' On 
21 Not. 1866 Robinson was promoted cap- 
tain, and on 81 Dec 18^ lieutenant- 

In 1865 Robinson was appointed director^ 
genenl of Indian telegraphs. He entered 

00 his duties at a critical time in the de- 
velopmeat of telegrapha. During the 
twelve years he waa at the head of the de- 
partment^ the telegrapha, from a amall be- 
gimiing, spread over India, and were con- 
nected by overland and aubmarine linea 
^ith Ei4^aad. His zeal and activity, 
)onied to {preat capacity for adminiatration 
and o^ganiaation, enabled him to place the 
liidiaB telegraph department on a thoroughly 
dBdent footing, and the linea erected were 
exeeeted in the moat aoUd manner. He 
took a leading part in the deliberationa of 
the oomraisaion at Berne in 1871, and of the 
international conferences at Rome and St. 
Petenlraig, on telegraphic communication. 
He waa promoted to oe brevet-colonel on 
31 Bee. 1867, and regimental colonel on 

1 April 1874. He died on his wav home 
from India on board the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company's steamer Travancore, at 

OQ 27 Jufy 1877. 

[Koyal Engioeers' Records; India OfQceBe- 
Qa^ii; Boyal Ei^nMrs' Jonmal, vol. vii.; 
Janraal TM^graphique, 25 Aug. 1877 (biogra- 
phieal noUoe).] B. H. V. 

Vmxnuwt GoDBBiCH, afterwarda first E^bl 
at RnoN (1782-1869), aecond son of Thomas 
Bflhinaon, aecond baron Grantham [q. v.! by 
Lady Mary Jemima, younger daughter and co- 
h eir u e a of Philip Yorhe, aecond earl of Hard- 
wicke [a. T.], was bom in London on 80 Oct. 
1782. He was educated at Harrow, where 
be waa the schoolfellow of Lords Althorp, 
Aberdeen, Cottenham, and Palmerston. From 
Harrow he proceeded to St. John's College^ 

Cambridge, where he obtained Sir William 
Browne's medal for the best Latin ode in 

1801, and graduated M.A. in 1802. He was 
admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn on 7 May 

1802, but left the society on 6 Nov. 1800. 
and was never called to the bar. From 180a 
to 1806 he acted as private secretary to his 
kinsman, Philip, third earl of Hard wicke, then 
lord lieutenant of Ireland. At the general 
election in November 1806 he was returned 
to the House of Commons for the borough 
of Carlow as a moderate tory. He was 
elected for Ripon at the general election in 
May 1807, and continued to represent that 
borough for nearly twenty years. In the 
summer of this year he.aocompanied the Earl 
of Pembroke on a speciid mission to Vienna 
as secretary to the embassy. 

Robinson moved the address at the open- 
ing of thesession on 19 Jan. 1809, and strongly 
advocated the vigorous prosecution of the 
war in Spain (Petri. Debates, l8t.-ser. zii. 
80-6). fie was shortly afterwards appointed 
undep-secretary for the colonies in tne Duke 
of Portland's administration, but retired from 
office with Lord Oastlereagh in September 
1809. Though he refdsed Perce val's offer of 
a seat at the treasury board in the following 
month, he was apnomted a lord of the admi* 
ralty on 38 June 1810 (London Gassette, 1810, 
i. 898). He was aomitted to the privy 
council on 18 Aug. 1812, and became viee- 
president of the board of trade and foreign 
plantations in Lord Liverpool's administra- 
tion on 29 Sept. following. On 8 Got. he 
exchanged his seat at the admiralty board 
for one at the treasury (tb, 1812, ii. 1679. 
1988, 1987). In spite of the fact that all 
his early imjpressions had been against ca» 
tholic emancipation, he supported Qrattan's 
motion for a committee on the catholic claims 
in March 1818 (JParl, Debates, Ist ser. zxiv. 
962-6, see ti^. 2nd ser. xiL 417). Having 
resigned his seat at the treasury board, he 
was appointed joint paymaster-general of 
the forces on 9 Nov. 1818 {London Oazette, 
ii. 2206^. In the winter of this vear he ao- 
comnanied Lord Castlereagh on his mission 
to tne continent, and remained with him 
until almost the close of the negotiations 
which ended in the peace of Paris {Memoirs 
and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, 
1848, i. 126-80). On 17 Feb. 1816 Robm- 
son drew the attention of the house to the 
state of the com laws {ParL Debates, 1st ser. 
xzix. 796, 798-808, 882, 888, 840), and on 
1 March following he introduced ' with the 
greatest reluctance' a bill prohibiting im- 
portation until the average price in England 
should be eighty shillings per quarter icxt 
wheat, and proportionatdy lor other grain 




(4b zxix. 1119, see 8rd ser. Ixxzvi. 1086) ; 
this was passed quickly through both houses, 
and received the royal assent on 23 March 
1816 (66 Geo. Ill, c. 26). During the riots 
in London consequent upon the introduction 
of the bill, themob attacKed his house in Old 
Burlington Street, and destroyed the grreater 
part of his furniture, as well as a number of 
valuable pictures (Annual Begister^ 1816, 
Ohron. pp. 10-26; see also William Hone's 
Report at large en the Conmei^e Inquest on 
Jane Watson^ &c., 1816). He opposed Lord 
Althorp's motion for the appointment of a 
select committee on the public offices on 7 May 
1816 (Pari Debates, Ist ser. xxxiv. 834r-8), 
and supported the introduction of the Habeas 
Corpus Suspension Bill on 26 Feb. 1817 (ib. 
xxxy. 722-^). He resided the post of 
joint paymaster-general m the summer of 
this year, and was appointed president of the 
board of trade on 24 Jan. 1818, and treasurer 
of the navy on 6 Feb. following (London Oor 
zetU, 1818, i. 188, 261), being at the same 
time admitted to the cabinet. In 1819 he 

3K)ke in favour of the Foreign Enlistment 
ill, which he held to be ' of the last im- 
fortance to our character' (Pari. Debates, 
St ser. xl. 1088-91), and supported the third 
reading of the Seditious Meetings Prevention 
bUl (£. xli. 1061-4). On 8 May 1820 he 
asserted in the house that he ' had always 
given it as his opinion that the restrictive 
system of commerce in this country was 
founded in error, and calculated to defeat 
the object for which it was adopted' (ib, 2nd 
ser. i. 182-6, see Ist ser. xxxiii. 696). On 
the SOth of the same month he unsuccess- 
fully opposed the appointment of a select 
committee on the agricultural distress (f(. 
2nd ser. i. 641-61), but on the following day 
succeeded in limiting the investigation of 
the committee to * the mode of ascertaining, 
letuming, and calculating the average prices 
of com,' &c. (ib. i. 714-16. 740). On 1 April 
1822 he brought in two bills for regulating 
the intercourse between the West Indies 
and other parts of the world (ib. vi. 1414-26), 
and in the same month he spoke against 
Lord John Russell's motion for parliamentary 
reform (ib. vii. 104-6). 

Robinson succeeded Vansittart as chan- 
cellor of the exchequer on 81 Jan. 1823 (Lonf 
dan Gazette, 1823, 1. 193). The substitution 
at the same time of Peel for Sidmouth and of 
Canning for Oastlereagh caused a complete 
chan^ m the domestic policy of the admini- 
stration, while the appointment of Robinson to 
theexchequer and of Muskisson to the board of 
trade led the way to a revolution in finance. 
The prime mover of these fiscal reforms was 
Hustisson, but Robinson assisted him to 

the best of his ability. He brought in his 
first budget on 21 Feb. 1823. He devoted 
6,000,000/. of his estimated surplus of 
7,000,000/. to the reduction of the debt, and 
the rest of it to the remission of taxation. 
Among his proposals which were duly carried 
was the reduction of the window tax by 
one half (Pari. Debates. 2nd ser. viii. 194- 
213). His speech on tnis occasion is said 
to have been received with ' demonstrations 
of applause more loud and more general than 
perhaps ever before greeted the opening of 
a ministerial statement of finance' (Annual 
Begister, 1823, p. 180). On 20 June 1823 
he obtained a grant oi 40,000/. towards the 
erection of 'tne buildings at the British 
Museum for the reception of the Royal 
Library ' (Par/. Debates, 2nd ser. ix. 1112' 
1113). He introduced his second budget 
on 23 Feb. 1824. The revenue had been 
unexpectedly augmented by the pavment of 
a portion of the Austrian loan. Owing to 
this windfSall he was enabled to propose a 
grant of 600,000/. for the building of new 
churches, of 300,000/. for the restoration of 
Windsor Castle, and of 67,000/. for the pur- 
chase of the An^erstein coUection of pictures 
bj way ' of laymg the foundation of a na- 
tional gallery of works of art.' He also 
proposed and carried the redemption of the 
old four per cent, annuities, then amounting 
to 76,000,000/., the abolition of the bounties 
on the whale and herring fisheries, and on 
the exportation of linen, together with an 
abatement of the duties on rum, coals, foreign 
wool, and raw silk (Pari. Debates, 2nd ser. 
X. 804-37, 341-2, 346-6, 363^). On 14 Feb. 
1826 he supported the introduction of Goul* 
bum's bill to amend the acts relating to 
unlawful societies in Ireland, and denounced 
the Catholic Association as * the bane and 
curse of the country' (ib. xii. 412-21). A 
fortnight later he brought in his third budget. 
Having congratulated the house on the pro- 
sperity of the country, and invited the mem- 
bers * to contemplate with instructive admira- 
tion the harmony of its proportions and the 
solidity of its basis,' he proposed and carried 
reductions of the duties on iron, hemp, coffee, 
sugar, wine, spirits, and cider (ib. xii. 719- 
744, 761 \ Towards the close of the year a 
grreat commercial crisis occurred. In order 
to check the excessive circulation of paper 
money in the future, the ministry determined 
to prevent the issue of notes of a smaller 
value than 6/. The debate on this proposal 
was opened, on 10 Feb. 1826, by Robinson, 
whose motion was carried, after two nights' 
debate, by 222 votes to 39 (ib. xiv. 168-93, 
194, 364). In consequenceof Hudson Gurney'a 
persistent opposition, Robinson compromised 



die matter fay allowing the Bank of England 
toeontaniie the iflane of fimall notes for some 
montliB longer. This concession oonsider- 
■blj dunaiged Robinson's reputation, and 
GreriUe ranarks : * Eyerybooy knows that 
Haektsaon is the real author of the finance 
measare of goremment, and there can be no 
gmia anomaly than that of a chancellor of 
the ocheqner irho is obliged to propose and 
Msai meaaures of which another minister 
is tic real, tliough not the apparent, author' 
(Gftfiile Memoirs, \st ser. i. 81). In 
braiding in his fourth and last buc^t, on 
13 luidi 1826, Robinson passed under reTiew 
the principal alterations in taxation which 
bad been effected since the war. He con- 
tinned to indulge in sanguine views, and 
idiued to credit the evidence of the distress 
which waa everywhere perceptible (ParL 
DAUes, 2nd aer. xiv. 1805-34, 1840). On 
4 May 1826 he opposed Hume's motion for 
an ad d r ea a to the crown asking for an inquiry 
into thecaoflea ef the distress throughout the 
country (A, xt. 878-89). The motion was 
defeated by a majority of 101 votes, and ' a 
more caiioua instance can scarcely be found 
than in the addresses of Prosperity Robinson 
■nd Adversity Hnme of the opposite con- 
dusioBS whiim may be drawn Irom a view 
of a statistical aubject where the figures were 
icdissatable on botii sides, as far as they 
weot* (MasmrBAir, History of the Thirty 
Ymr^ F^aee, 1877, ii. 79). 

Li December Robinson expressed a wish 
to be promoted to the House of Lords, and 
to exchange his post at the exchequer for 
soBie eaner ofiice. At Liverpool's request, 
however,he consented to remam in the House 
of Oommons, though he desired that Hhe 
xeteBtio& of his present office should be eon* 
Sidefed aa only temporary' (Yokob, J^fe of 
Lard Lkfo^ool, 1868, iu. 4S8-43). When 
Liverpool fell ill in Pebruary 1827, a plan 
was disciiBsed between Canning and the 
Dolce of WeUington, but subsequently aban- 
doned, of raiaing Bobinson to the peerage, 
aadof placing him at the head of the treasury. 
On Canning becoming prime minister, Bo- 
bioaon was created Viscount Groderioh of 
Noeton in the county of Lincoln on 28 AprH. 
He was appointed secretary of state for war 
lad tiie colonies on 30 April^ and a com- 
mufiaoner for the afiairs of India on 17 May. 
At ihe same time he undertook the duties 
of leader of the House of Lords, where he 
took hia seat for the first time on 2 May 
(JvumaU of the House of Lords, lix. 266). 
He waa, however, quite unable to withstand 
the fieroe attacks which were made on the 
iL^w government in the House of Lords by 
aa opposition powerful both in ability and 

numbers. On 1 June the Duke of Welling- 
ton's amendment to the com bill was carried 
against the government by a majority of four 
votes (Pari. Debates, 2nd ser. xvii. 1098). 
Goderich vainly endeavoured to procure its 
rejection on the report, but the government 
were again beaten (ib, xvii. 1221-9, 1288), 
and the bill had to be abandoned. 

On Canning's death, in August 1827, Go- 
derich was chosen by the king to form a 
cabinet. The changes in the administration 
were few. Goderich, who became first lord 
of the treasury, was succeeded at the colonial 
office by Huskisson; Lansdowne took the 
home department, and Grant the board of 
trade. The Duke of Portland succeeded 
Lord Harrowby as president of the council, 
Lord Anglesey became master^general of 
the ordnance, the Duke of Wellington com- 
mander-in-chief, while Herries, after pro- 
tracted negotiations, received the seals of 
chancellor of the exchequer on 8 Sept. Gode* 
rich's unfitness for the post of ^nme mini- 
ster was at once apparent, and his weakness 
in yielding to the Jdng with regard to the 
appointment of Herries disgusted his whig 
colleagues. In December wderich pressed 
on the king the admission of Lords Holland 
and Wellesley to the cabinet, and declared 
that without such an addition of strength 
he felt unable to carry on the government. 
He also expressed a wish to retire for private 
reasons, but afterwards offered to remain, 
provided a satisfactory arrangement coula 
be made with regard to Lords Holland and 
Wellesley (AsHLBT, Life and CorrespOTidenoe 
qf Lord Palmerston, 1879, i. 119 ; see also 
Lord Melbourne's Papers, 1890, p. 116). Em- 
barrassed alike by his inabilityto keep the 
peace between Herries and Huskisson in 
their quarrel over the chairmanship of the 
finance committee, by the disunion between 
his whiff and conservative colleagues, and hj 
the battle of Navarino, Goderich tendered his 
final resignation on 8 Jan. 1828. Neverthe- 
less, he appears to have expected an offer of 
office from the Duke of Wellington, who sue* 
ceeded him a^ prime minister (BucKiKeHAM, 
Memoirs of the Court of Chorge IV, 1869, ii. 
869). On 17 April 1828 Goderich spoke in 
favour of the second reading of the Corpora- 
tion and Test Acts Repeal Bui {Pari, Debates, 
2iid ser. xviii. 1606-^, and on 3 April 1829 
he supported the second reading of the Roman 
CathoUc Relief BiU (t». xxi. 226-48; Ellex- 
BOBoyen, Political ZNary, 1881, ii. 4). At the 
opening of the session on 4 Feb. 1880 he spoke 
in favour of the address, and announced that 
if ever he had any political hostility to the 
Wellington administration he had 'buried it 
in the grave of the catholic question ' (ParL 




DihaieSf 2nd ser. zzii. 18-26). On 6 May he 
brought before the house the subject of the 
national debt ' in a good and useml speech ' 
(ib, xziv. 428-41 ; Ellenbobough, Political 
Diary, ii. 240-1). Later in the session he 
reviewed the state of the finances, and urged 
both a reduction of expenditure and a re- 
vision of the system of taxation {FarL De^ 
bates, 2nd ser. xxv. 1081-8). 

On the formation of Lord Grey's admini- 
stration, Goderich was api>ointed secretarv of 
state for war and the colonies (22 Nov. 1880). 
En supporting the second reading of the se- 
cond Keform Bill, in October 1831, Goderich 
assured the house that he ' had not adopted 
his present course without having deeply 
considered the grounds on which he acted,' 
and that he ' had made a sacrifice of many 
preconceived opinions, of many predilections, 
and of manv long-cherished notions' (Pari. 
Debates, 8ra. ser. vii. 1868-77). His scheme 
for the abolition of negro slavery did not 
meet with the approval of the cabinet, and, 
after considerable pressure from Lord Grey, 
he resigned the c^onial office in favour of 
Stanley, and accepted the post of lord privy 
seal {Gremlle Memoirs^ ist ser. ii. 865- 
866, 867 ; Jotamal of Thomas Raikes, 1866, 
i. 176 ; Oroher Papers, 1884, i. 208 ; Memoirs 
of Lord Bromham, 1871, iii. 879 ; Times, 
31 Jan. and 2 Feb. 1866). He was sworn into 
his new office on 8 April 1838, and ten days 
later was created earl of Ripon. On 25 June 
he explained Stanlev's scheme for the aboli- 
tion of slavery in the colonies. Though he 
broke down several times, he managed to get 
through his speech, and to carry a series of 
resolutions which had been previously ap- 
proved by the commons {ParL Debates, 3ra 
ser. xviii. 1163-80, 1228). 

On 27 May 1834 Bipon (tosBther with 
Stanley, Ghraham, and the JDuke of Richmond) 
resigned office in consequence of the pro- 
posed appointment of the Lrish church com- 
mission, believing that 'the effect of the 
commission must be to alter the footing on 
which the established church stood ' (ib, 3rd 
ser. xxiv. 10 n., 260-6, 808). The Grey 
ministry broke up, and after Melbourne had 
fiUed Grey's place (July-November), Sir Ro- 
bert Peel became prime minister. When 
the new parliament met on 24 Feb. 1885, 
Ripon, although he supported the address, dis- 
claimed 'an unqualified confidence 'in Sir Ro- 
bert PeeFs admmiBtration. When Melbourne 
formed his second administration in April 
1886, Ripon was not included. Though he 
opposed Lord Fitzwilliam's resolution con- 
demning the com law of 1828, he declared 
that * there were very few persons who were 
leas bigoted to the present system of com laws 

than he was ' (ib, xlvi. 582-92). He viewed 
the penny-postage scheme as a rash and heed- 
less experiment, and considered * the bill ob- 
jectionable in the highest degree ' (ib, xlix. 
1222-7). In January, and again in May, 1840 
he called the attention of the house to * the 
alarming condition in which the finances of 
the countTT stood ' (ib, H. 497-505, liv. 469- 
479). On 24 Aug. 1841 he carried an amend- 
ment to the address, expressing the alarm of 
parliament at the continued excess of expen- 
diture over income, and declaring a want of 
confidence in the Melbourne administration 
(ib. lix. 85-54, 106). On 3 Sept. following he 
was appointed president of the board of trade 
in Sir Kobert Peel's second administration 
(London QazetU, 1841, ii. 2221). On 18 April 
1842 he moved the second rea^ng of the Com 
Importation Bill, by which a new scale of 
duties was fixed (Pari. Debates, 3rd ser. IxiL 
572-89, 627, 635), and on 5 July following he 
explained the provisions of the Oustoms Bill, 
the first principle of which was the abolition 
of prohibito^ duties (ib. Ixiv. 939-^, 976-7). 
On 17 May 1843 he was appointed president 
of the board of control for the affairs of India 
in the place of Lord Fitzgerald and Vesey 
(London Oatette, 1843, i. 1to4), and was suc- 
ceeded at the board of trade by Mr. Gladstone. 
He moved theseoondreadingofthebill forthe 
abolition of the com. laws on 25 May 1846, 
when he once more assured the house that he 
always had ' a great objection to the princi- 
ple of any com law whatever,' and that for 
many years he had endeavourod. ' to get rid 
as speedily as circumstances would permit 
first of prohibition and then of protection' 

g*arL Debates, 3rd ser. Ixxxvi. 1084-1100). 
pon resigned office with the rest of his 
colleagues on the overthrow of Sir Robert 
Peel's administration in June 1846. He spoke 
for the last time in the House of Lords on 
14 Maj 1847 (ib. xcii. 804-6). He died at 
his residence on Putney Heath on 28 Jan. 
1869, aged 76, and was buried at Nocton in 
Lincolnshire. He was a trustee of the Na- 
tional Gallery on 2 July 1824, and a governor 
of the Charterhouse on 10 Sept. 1827. He 
was elected president of the Koyal Society 
of Literature m 1884, and was created D.C.L. 
of Oxford University on 12 June 1889. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
17 April 1828, and held the post of recorder 
of Lincoln. 

Ripon married, on 1 Sept. 1814,LadySarah 
Albinia Louisa, only daughter of Robert 
Hobart, fourth earl of Buckinghamshire; 
she rebuilt Nocton church, and died on 
9 AprU 1867, aged 74. By her Ripon had 
two sons and a daughter. The elder son and 
the daughter died young. The only 8ur« 




yfiyiag child, George Frederick Samuel^ bom 

on 24 Octk 1627, succeeded his father as 

second Earl of Ripon ; became third Earl de 

Grer (cr. 1816) and fourth Baron Grantham 

on the death of his unde in November 1859 ; 

was created marquis of Ripon on 28 Jan. 

1871 ; and held many high political offices, 

inrittding the gOTemor-generalship of India. 

BipoQ was an amiable, upright, irresolute 

Bu of respectable abilities and businesslike 

hihilM, Tne sanguine views in which he 

iadalged while chancellor of the exchequer 

led (^bbeit to nickname him 'Prosperity 

Eobinson,' while for his want of vigour as 

secretary for the colonies he received from 

the same writer the name of ' Goody Gode- 

nch.' Thou^ a dijQfiise speaker and shallow 

leMoner, ' the art which he certainly possessed 

of enliveninfr even dry subjects of finance 

with clasaiciil allusions and pleasant humour 

made his speeches always acceptable to a 

large majority of his hearers '(Lb Mabohaitt, 

Utmoir of Lord AHhorp, 1876, p. 44). In the 

Boose of Commons he attained a certain popu- 

Uzity, bat on his accession to the House of 

Lords his courage and his powers alike deserted 

him. His w^ant of firmness and decision of 

character rendered him quite unfit to be the 

leader of a party in either house. He was 

^bsbly the weakest prime minister who 

ever huid office in this country, and was the 

only one w^ho never faced parliament in that 


Ripon is said to have written the greater 
part of 'A Sketch of the Campaign in Portu- 
gal' (London, 1810, 8vo). Several of his 
parliunentary speeches were separately pub- 
lished, as well as an 'Address' which he de- 
hvered at the anniversary meeting of the 
Rc^al Societv of Literature on 80 April 1886. 
His portrait, oy Sir Thomas Lawrence, passed 
to his son, the first marquis. It was en- 
gnved by C. Turner in 1824. 

[Beades the authorities quoted in the text, 

the following works, among others, have been 

eonsolted : Walpole's Hist, of EngL ; Torren8*8 

Meaioiis of Tiecount Melbourne, 1878, vol. i. ; 

Hemoir of J. C. Herries by £. Herries, 1880 ; 

I>;<ry and Oorresp. of Lord Colchester, 1861, 

vole. xi. and iii. ; Walpole's Life of Lord John 

Knoell, 1889, i. 134^, 137, 200, 204 ; Sir H. L. 

Bohrar'sLife of Lord Palmerston, 1871i i. 193- 

214 ; Sir O. C. Lewis's Essays od the Admini- 

stntioBS of Oreat Britain, 1864, pp. 417-76; 

JBarie's English Fremien, 1871, ii. 206^ ; 8. 

Buton's Finanee and PoUtice, 1888, 1. 15, 17, 

27, 126 ; Boweirs History of Taxes and Taza- 

tioo hi England, 1884, ii. 260-272, 279-80, 290, 

tot; Oeo^ian Era, 1832 i. 417-18; Byall's 

Portnits of Eminent Conservative Statesmen, 

2Dd ser.; Jordan's National Portrait Gallery, 

roL iL ; Times, 29 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1859 ; S(an- 

dard, 29 Jsn. 1859; Allen's Lincohishire, 1834 
ii. 262 ; Brayley and Britton's Surrey, 1850, ill 
481 ; O. £. 0.'8 Complete Peerage, vi. 368-9; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, lit. 137-8; 
ButWs Harrow School LisU, 1849, p. 54; Gmd. 
Cantabr. 1856, p. 235 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886, iii. 1212; Lincohi's Inn Begisters; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. viii. 187, 294 ; Offi- 
cial Bet. Memb. Pari. ii. 239, 251, 267, 279, 294, 
309; Haydn's Book of Dignities (1890); Brit. 
Hus. Cat.] a. F. B. B. 

PHILIFSE (1763-1862), general, fourth son 
of Colonel Bererley Robinson, by Susannah, 
daughter of Frederick Philipee of New York, 
was Dom near New York in September 1763. 
His grand&ther, John Robinson, nephew of 
Bishop John Robinson (1660-1723) [q. y.;^ 
went to America as secretary to the goyem- 
ment of Virginia, and became president of 
the council in that colony. 

AVhen the war of independence broke out, 
Frederick's &ther raised the loyal American 
regiment on behalf of the crown, and Fre- 
derick was appointed ensign in it in Fe- 
bruaiT 1777. In September 1778 he was 
transferred to the 17th foot. He commanded a 
company at the battle of Horseneck in Much 
1779, took part in the capture of Stony-point 
in the following June, and, being left in far- 
risen there, was himself wounded and ttucen 
prisoner when the Americans recoyered it 
on 16 July. He was promoted lieutenant 
in the 60th foot on 1 Sept., and transferred 
to the 38th foot on 4 Noy. 1780. He was 
released from his imprisonment and joined 
the latter regiment at Brooklyn at the end 
of that month, and took part m the capture 
of New London in September 1781. When 
the war came to an end the Robinsons were 
amonff the loyalists who suffered confisca- 
tion, but they receiyed 17,(XX)/. in compen- 
sation from the British goyemment. The 
88th returned to England in 1784. On 
24 Noy. 17d3 it embarked for the West 
Indies, as part of Sir Charles Qrey^s expe- 
dition. Robinson was present at the cap- 
ture of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guade- 
loupe, but was then inyalided home. On 
3 July 1794 he became captain, and on 
1 Sept. he obtained a majority in the 127th 
foot, a reffiment which was reduced not long 
afterwards. In September 1796 he passed 
to the d2nd foot, iji May 1796 he was sent 
to Bedford as insjpecting field officer for re- 
cruiting, and in february 1802 he was trans- 
ferred to London in the same capacity. The 
recruiting problem was an urgent and diffi- 
cult one at that time. Seyeral of his pro- 
posals to increase the su^ly of recruits and 
to lessen desertion are giyen in the ' lloyal 




Mflitaiy Calendar' (iii. 212). He took an 
active part in organising the volunteers, and 
received a valuable piece of plate from the 
Bank of England corps in acKnowledgment 
of his services. 

He was made brevet lieutenant-colonel on 
I Jan. 1800, and colonel on 26 July 1810. 
In September 1812, after being more than 
five years on half-pay, he waa allowed to go 
to Spain as one of the officers selected to 
command brigades, mudi to Wellington's 
discontent (see his Letter of 22 Jan. 1813 
to Colonel Torrens). He was given a bri* 
gade of the fifth division, which formed nart 
of GMbam's corps in the campaign of lolS. 
Napier speaks of him as ' an inexperienced 
man but of a daring spirit,' and the manner 
in which he carried the village of (Samara 
Mayor in the battle of Vittona, and held it 
agamst repeated attacks, obtained high praise 
both from Graham and from Wellington. 
Under a very heavy fire of artillery and 
musketry, the brigade advanced upon the 
village in columns of battalions without 
firing a shot. 

He took part in the siege of San Sebastian, 
and was present at the first assault on 
21 July. At the final assault on 81 Aug. 
the storming party consisted of his brigade, 
supplemented by volunteers, sent by Wel- 
lington as 'men who could show other 
troops how to mount a breach.' Robinson 
was severely wounded in the face ; but he 
was nevertheless actively engaged at the 
passage of the Bidassoa on 7 Oct. He served 
under Sir John Hope in the action of 9 Nov. 
on the lower Nivelfe, and in the battle of the 
Nive (10 Dec.), where he was again severely 
wounded. In the latter the prompt arrival 
of his brigade to support the troops on 
whom the French attack first fell saved the 
British left from defeat. He took part in 
the blockade of Bayonne and in the repulse 
of the sortie of 14 April 1814, being in com- 
mand of the fifth division after the death of 
General Hay in that engagement. He was 
promoted major-general on 4 June 1814, 
and he received the medal with two clasps 
for Vittoria, San Sebastian, and Nive. 

At the close of the French war, he was 
selected to command one of the brigades 
which were sent from Wellington's army to 
America to serve in the war with the 
United States. His brigade (consisting of 
four infantry regiments, with a strengtli of 
8,782 men) embarked in June and arrived 
in Canada in August 1814. It formed part 
of the force with which Sir George Pre- 
vo8t [q. v.l in the following month made his 
unsuccessful attempt on Pfattsburg. Kobin- 
Bon's part in this engagement was to force 

the passage of the Saranac and escalade the 
enemy's works upon the heights, and two 
brigades were placed under him. He had 
already done the first part of his task when 
his advance was stopped by Prevost, who, 
seeing that the naval attack had failed, 
thought it necessary to abandon the enter- 
prise altogether, to the dissatisfiiction of 
soldiers and sailors alike. 

In March 1816 Robinson left Canada for the 
West Indies, where he commanded the troops 
in the Windward and Leeward Islands till 
24 July 1821, and was for a time governor 
of Tobago. He became lieutenant-general 
on 27 May 1826, and colonel of the 69th 
regiment on 1 Bee. 1827. He had been made 
K.C.B. in January 1816, and in 1838 he re- 
ceived the G.C.B. He was transferred from 
the 69th to the 39th regiment on 16 June 
1840, and became general on 23 Nov. 1841. 
He died at Brighton on 1 Jan. 1862, being at 
that time the soldier of longest service in 
the British army. He was twice married : 
first, to Grace a77O-1806), daughter of 
Thomas Boles oi Charleville; secondly, in 
1811, to Ann Femyhough of Stafford. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 188; Royal Militory 
Calendar; Wellington Despatches; Annual 
Register, 1814; Appleton's American Bio- 
graphy; Ryeraon's American Loyalists, ii. 
199.] £. M. L. 

BOBINSON. GEORGE (1787-1801), 
bookseller, was bom at Dalston in Cumber- 
land in 1737, and came up to London about 
1766. He was for some time in the house 
of John Eivington a720-1792), publisher 
fq. v.] of St. Paul's Cnurchyard, from whom 
he went to Mr. Johnstone on Ludgate HilL 
In 1763-4 he commenced business at Pater- 
noster Row, in partnership with John Ro- 
berts, who died about 1776. Robinson pur- 
chased many copyrights, and before 1780 
carried on a very large wholesale trade. In 
1784 he took into partnership his son George 
{d. 1811) and his brother John (1763-1813), 
who were his successors. They were fined, 
on 26 Nov. 1793, for selling copies of Paine's 
* Rights of Man.' In the opinion of Alder- 
man Cadell, * of George Robinson's integrity 
too much cannot be said.' William West 
q. v.], in his 'Recollections,' gives some anec- 
otes of Robinson — ' the king of booksellers ' 
— ^and of his hospitality at his villa at 
Streatham. He died in Paternoster Row on 
6 June 1801. 

[Gent. Mag. 1801, i. 678; West's Recollections 
of an Old Bookseller, p. 92; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 445-9, vi. 282. ix. 542; Nichols's 
lUustr. viii. 469-70 ; Timperley's Encyclopssdia, 
1842, pp. 781, 80», 848.] H. B. T. 





BOBINSON, HASTINGS (1792-1866), 
divine, eldest son of R. G. Robinaon of Lich- 
field, by his wife Mary, daughter of Robert 
Thorp of Buxton, Derbyshire, was bom at 
Lidifield in 1792. He' went to Rugby in 
l^and proceeded to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. in 1815, 
M.A in 1818, and DJ), in 1836. He was a 
feUow and assistant-tutor from 1816 to 1827, 
when he was appointed curate to Charles 
Sifliaon [q. t.] He stood unsuccessfully for 
the legins profeasoiBhip of Greek at 0am- 
Im'dge, and was Cambridge examiner at 
Bo^br, where he foanded a theological prize. 

Oa'26 Oct. 1827 he was appointed hy his 
eoUege to the living of Great Warley, near 
Brentwood, Essex. He was collated to an 
hoaararT canonry in Rochester Cathedral 
11 March 1862. 

RobiBaon was an earnest evangelical 
diarehman (cf. his Church Reform on Chris- 
turn Fmciples, Jjondon, 1838). In 1837 he 
draw up and presented two memoriaLs to the 
Socistj for nomoting Christian Knowledge 
(London, 1837, Sro), protesting against cer- 
tain pablications as contrary to the work of 
the Reformation. He died at Great Warley 
on 18 May 1866, and was boned there. He 
married, in 1828, Margaret Ann, daughter 
of Jossph Clay of Burton-on-Trent, who pre- 
deceased him. 

RobtniOB, who was elected F.S.A. on 
70 Jdxy 1824, achieved some excellent lite- 
rary w<nk. He edited, with notes, the ' Eleo- 
tra of Eorxpides, Cambridge, 1822, 8yo; 
'Acta Apostolomm variorum notis tttm dic- 
timiem tnm materiam illustrantibiis,' Cam- 
bridge, 1824, 8vo<^d edit. 1839) ; and Arch- 
bishop Usshar's 'Body of Divinity,' London, 
1841, 8vo. For the Parker Society he pre- 
pared 'The Zurich Letters, being the Cor- 
Tespondence of English Bishops and others 
wiui the Swiss Rerormers durmg the Reign 
of Elisabeth,' translated and edited, 2 vols., 
Oambridge, 1842 and 1845, 8vo, as well as 
' Origin^ Letters relative to the English Re- 
formstioo, also £n>m the Archives 01 Zurich,' 
2 vols., Cambridge, 1846 and 1847. 

[Lnaid's Gradnati Cantabr. ; Foster's Index 
Eeelasiastieos, p. 152 ; Note from A. A Arnold, 
eaq., diaptar dark, Roehester; Darling's Cyclo- 
pedia, iL 2670; Martin's Hisadbook to Gontemp. 
Kogr. PL 221 : Rngby School Register, i. 94 ; 
Chtlmaftnd Chronicle, 25 May 1866; Ipswich 
JToBmal, 26 May 1866; Gent. Mag. July 1866, 
p. 114 ; lists of the Society of Antiquaries ; Alli- 
oooe's DieC ot English Literature; Simms's Bibl. 
SuffordiensLB.] 0. F. S. 

BOBINSON, HENRY (1568 P-1616), 
bishop of Carlisle, a native of Carlisle, was 
bora there probably in 1563 (mou. inscript. in 

The Hist, and Antiqtdtiea qf Carlislejja, 180). 
He became a tabarder of Queen's Coll^;e, 
Oxford, 17 June 1572, and graduated B.A. 
12 July 1672, M.A. 20 June 1675, B.D. 
10 July 1682, and D.D. 6 Julv 1690. In 
1676 he became fellow of Queen s, and prin- 
cipal of St. Edmund Hall on 9 May 1676 
(GxTTOH ; 'WooBfHist and Antiq, of Oafordf 
p. 664 ; FosTBB, Alumni Oxen, ; Clabe, Ox- 
ford Register), In 1680 he was rector of 
Fairstead in £^ex (Fostbb, Alumni Oxon,) 
On 6 May 1681 he was elected provost of 
Queen's, when he resinied the prmcipalship 
of St. Edmund Hall. He was a self-denying 
and constitutional provost, restoring to the 
college certain sources of revenue which pre- 
vious provosts had converted to their own 
uses, and the appointment of the chaplains, 
which previous provosts had usurped. With 
the assistance of Sir Francis Walsmgham, he 
in 1682 obtained a license in mortmain and 
indemnity for the college. He also gave to 
it 800/. for the use of poor young men, besides 
plate and books. In 1686 he, fuong with the 
fellows, preferred a bill in parliament for con- 
firmation of the college charter (State Papers, 
Dom., Eliz. clxzvi. 17, 28 Jan. 1686^. Seven 
years later, in 1692, on the occasion of the 
queen's visit to Oxford, he was one of those 
appointed to see the streets well ordered 
(Clabk, Oxford Registery i. 280). He also 
served as chaplain to Grindal, who left him 
the advowson of a prebend in Lichfield or 
St. Davids (Strtpb, Grindal, p. 426 ; Hist, 
and Antiq, of Carlisle, ubi supra). 

Robinson was elected bishop 01 Carlisle on 
27 May 1698, confirmed 22 July, and conse- 
crated the next day. In 1699 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical 
causes, and subseouently numerous references 
to him occur in tne state papers, as arresting 
or conferring with cathoLcs in the north <» 
England (see State Papers, Eliz. cclxziii. 66, 
26 Dec. 1699). On 1 Nov. 1601 he was 
entered a member of Gray's Inn, and two 
years later took part in the Hampton Court 
conference (Fostbe, Registers of Gray's Inn; 
Bablow, SiAmme and Substance of the Con-' 
ferenee). In 1607 he appears as one of the 
border commissioners (State Papers, James I, 
xxvi. 18, 20 Jan. 1607). He preached a ser- 
mon on 1 Cor. X. 8 at Greystoke church 
18 Aug. 1609, and from that year till his 
death held the rectoi^ of that parish * in com- 
mendam ' (Transactions of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland Anti^, Soe, i. 838, 339). In 
1613 he filed a bill m the exchequer court 
against George Denton of Cardew Hall for 
refusing all suit to his lordship's courts and 
mills. By obtaining a decree in his own 
fSavour he secured the rights of the see against 




that mesne manor (HisL and Antiq, of Car^ 
Uale, p. 216). Robinson died of the plcmie at 
Bose Castle, 19 June 1616, and was buried 
the same day in the cathedral. He bequeathed 
plate and linen to Queen's Colle^, and the 
college held a special funeral service for him. 
A brass and inscription were erected by his 
brother in Carlisle Cathedral. A portrait is 
in Queen's College common room. 

[Inforination kindly giren by the Rev. the 
Provost of Queen's College, Oxford; Wood's 
Athene Ozon. ii. 867 ; Hist, and Antiq. of Ox- 
ford, p. 16; Granger's Biogr. Diet; Strype's 
Whitgifb,ii. 116, 406; Grindal, p. 608; Faller^s 
Church Hist ii. 294, v. 266, 444; Challoner's 
Memoirs of Missionary Priests.] W. A 8. 

BOBmSON, HENRY (1606P-1664?), 
merchant and economic and controversial 
writer, bom about 1605, was the eldest son 
of William Robinson of London, mercer, 
and of Eatherine, daughter of Giffard Wat- 
kins of Watford, Northampton. He entered 
St. John's Colle^, Oxford, matriculating on 
9 Not. 1621, bemg then sixteen years 01 age 
(Vmtation </ Limdcm, Harl. Soc. ii. 204; 
Clabx, Oaf. Begisten^ ii. 399; Fosteb, 
Alumni Oxen,) He does not seem to have 
taken a degree, and was probably taken from 
Oxford and put to business or sent abroad. 
In 1626 he was admitted to the freedom of 
the Mercers' Company by patrimony. In 
his twentv-eiffhth year he was residing at 
Leffhom, m the duchy of Tuscany (Robin- 
soi?s tract labertaa, infra, p. 11). In various 
of his publications he styles himself 'gentle- 
man,' but it is certain that he. continued in 
business as a merchant in London. In 
1650 he submitted to the council of state 
certain propositions on the subject of the 
exchange which argued business ability and 
knowledge {St^ite Papers, Interregnum, ix. 
64, May 1650, reproduced almost verbatim 
in No. 11 infra). In the following Decem- 
ber, Charles, lord Stanhope, issued to Robin- 
son a letter of attorney, constituting him 
his agent for drawing up a petition to the 
council of state concerning his right to the 
foreign letter office, and promising to Robin- 
son and his heirs the sole use thereof, with 
half the clear profits (ib, xi. 117, 22 Dec. 
1650). Stanhope's title to the post devolved 
from a patent of 15 James I. On this instru- 
ment Kobinson himself subsequently laid 
claim to the post office, and there are nume- 
rous references to the claim in the state papers 
of 1652-4. In the end Robinson consented 
to relinquish his claim, and on 29 June 
1653 he tendered 8,041/. per annum to the 
'Posts Committee' for the farm of the post 
office inland and foreign (ib. xxxvii. 162). 

Whether he obtained thafarm or not does not 
appear, but subsequently, at the Restoration, 
he claimed to have increased the value of the 
revenue to the crown from the post office from 
3,000/. to 30,000/. per annum (State Papers^ 
Dom. cxlii. 191). In 1653 he is noticed as 
of the excise office as comptroller for the 
sale of the king's lands, and as haTing at- 
tended for three vears as a member of the 
committee for taking the accounts of the 
Commonwealth (xxxii. 50, 18 Jan. 1655, and 
xxxiiL 61, 10 Feb. 1653)^ for which he claimed 
200/. a vear. He survived the Restoration, 
and in 1664-5 he petitioned for a patent for 
quenching fire and preserving ships in war, 
but was apparently dead betore 1665, when 
his son petitioned Charles for admission to 
the public service (ib, February 1664-5 and 
cxlii. 191). 

Robinson's literary activity wns remark- 
able, both in quality and extent. He waa 
perhaps the first Englishman to enunciate 
with clearness the principle of libertv of con- 
science; he propounded elaborate schemes of 
legal reform, and his writings on trade are even 
now deserving of caraful attention. Pr^nne, 
whose religious and political views Robmson 
attacked, described him in his ' Discovery of 
New Lights ' as a merohant by profession who 
' hath maintained a private printing press, and 
sent for printers from Amsterdam, wherewith 
he hath printed most of the late scandalous 
libellous books against the parliament, and 
though he hath been formerlv sent for by 
the committeeof examinations n)r this offence, 
which was passed bv in silence, yet he hath 
since presumed and proceeded herein in a 
far higher strain than beforo ' (New lAghtag 
pp. 9, 40). 

Robinson is doubtless author of many works 
besides the following, of which the authen- 
ticity is certain: 1. 'England's Safety in 
Trade's Encrease most humbly presented to 
the High Court of Parliament,' London, 1641 ; 
reprinted in W. A. Shaw's ' Select Tracts and 
Documents,' 1896. 2. 'Libertas, or Rdiefe 
to the English Captiyes in Alffier, briefly 
discoursing how such as are in Slavery may 
be soonest set at Liberty, others preserved 
therein, and the Great Turke reduc'd to serve 
and keepe the Peace Inviolate to a greater 
Enlargement of Trade and Priviledge than 
ever the En^ish Nation hitherto enjoyed 
in Turkey. Presented ... to Parliament 
by Henry Robinson, gent.,' London, 1642. 
3. 'liiberty of Conscience, or the Sole Means 
to obtains Peace and Truth, not onely recon- 
ciling his Majesty with his Subjects, but all 
Christian States and Princes to one another, 
with the freeest passage for the Qospel,' Lon- 
don, 1643 (Thomasson's date is 24 March 




1643-4; c£ GABBnrEB, Civil War, i. 290; 
and art. by Mr. O. H. Firth in the English 
JSiwtorMai/iZffvtett?, ix. 716). 4. 'An Answer 
to Ifr. William Piynne's Twelve Questions 
eoneeming Chureh Gk>Temment ; at the end 
whereof are mentioned sevenll groese Ab- 
surditieB and dangerous Conseqaenoes of 
higbeei nature which do necessarily follow 
the Tenets of Presbyteriall or any other be- 
nda» i perfect Independent GoTemment, to- 
grthcr with certain Queries,' [16441 no place, 
no date. 5. 'John the Baptist, forerunner 
of Christ Jeans, or a necessity for Liberty of 
Conscienee as the only means under Heaven 
to strengthen Children weak in the Faith,' no 
plaee, no date [P September 1644]. 6. < Ceiv 
taine brief Obeenrations and Anti-queries on 
Master I^in hia 12 Questions about Church 
6o?enmient^ vrherein is modestly shewed how 
nnaaefnl and MtoIous they are. . . . By a 
vsU-wisher to the Truth and Master Prm,' 
16i4. 7. 'An Answer to Mr. John Dury his 
LSbber which he writ from The Hague to Mr. 
Thomas Gk>odwin, Mr. Philip Nye, and Mr. 
Sun. Hartliby concerning the manner of the 
fiefannation of the Church and answering 
ot&er Matters of consequence; and King 
James his Judgment concerning the Book of 
Oommoii Prayer, written by a Gentleman of 
tried Integrity,' London, 1644 (Thomasson's 
date 17 Aug.) 8. < The Falsehood of William 
Piynne'sTrath tiiumphingin the Antiquity of 
Popish IVincee and Parliaments : to which he 
attributes a sole sovereign legislative coercive 
Power in matters of Beligion, discovered to 
be fnU of Absurdities, Contradictions, Sacri- 
lege, and to make more in favour of Rome 
and Antidirist than all the Books and Pam- 
phlets which were published, whether by 
papall or episcopall Prelates or Parasites 
since the Reformation . . .,' London, 1645. 
9. ' Some few Considerations propounded as 
so many Scruples by Mr. Henrv Kobinson in 
aLetterto Mr. John Dury upon his Epistolary 
Discourse, witli Mr. Durys answer thereto 
... by a well-wilier to the Truth,' 1646 
(Thomasson's date 18 July; pp. 1-10 Henry 
Kobinson to John Dury, London, 1644, Nov. 6 ; 
vp. 11-31 John Dury to his loving friend in 
Ckxist Henry Robinson). 10. 'A Short Dis- 
course between Monarchical and Aristocrati- 
ral Government, or a sober Persuasive of all 
tme-hearted Englishmen to a willing con- 
janedon with the Parliament of Engund in 
setting np the Gknremment of a Conunon- 
weshL 3y a true Englishman and a well- 
wisher to the good of his Nation,' London, 
1649. 11. 'Bnefe Considerations concern- 
ing the Advancement of Trade and Naviffa- 
tion,' 1649 (Thomasson's date 8 Jan. 1649- 
1^0). 12. 'The Office of Addresses and 

Encounters where all People of each rancke 
and quality may receive Direction and Ad- 
vice tor the most cheap and speedy way of 
attaining whatsoever they can lawfully de- 
sire ; or the only course lor poor People to 
ffet speedy Employment and to keep others 
from approadung Poverty for want of Em- 
ployment ; to the multiplyiiiff of Trade, &c. 
By Henry Robinson,' 1650 (Thomasson's date 
29 Sept.; ; a proposition for establishing in 
Threadneedle Street a registry office or ex- 
change mart for almost every business purpose 
conceivable. 18. 'Certain Considerations in 
order to a more speedy, cheap, and equal dis- 
tribution of Justice throughout the Nation, 
most humbly presented to the high Court of 
Parliament of the most hopeful Conmion- 
wealth of England. By Henry Robinson,' 
London, 1651; in answer to this William 
Walwin wrote 'Juries Justified,' 2 D>ec. 
1651. 14. 'Certaine Proposals in order to 
thePeople'sFreedome and Accommodation in 
some particulars with the Advancement of 
Trade and Navigation of this Conmionwealtii 
in general humbly tendred to the view of 
this Parliament. By Henry Robinson,'Lon- 
don, 1652. 15. ' Certaine Aoposals in order 
to a new modelling of the Lawes and Law 
Proceedings, for a more speedy, cheap, and 
equall distribution of Justice throughout the 
Commonwealth ... as also certain Con- 
siderations for the Advancement of Trade 
and Navigation humbly propounded to . . . 
Parliament by Henry Kobinson,' London, 

[Authorities given above ; information kindly 
supplied by 0. H. Firth, esq.] W. A S. 

1867), diarist, youngest son of a tanner who 
died in 1781, was bom at Bury St. Ed- 
munds on 13 March 1775. After educa- 
tion at small nrivate schools, he was articled 
in 1790 to Mr. Francis, an attorney at Col- 
chester. He heard Erskine conduct a case at 
the assizes, and fifty-four years afterwards 
he had a perfect recollection of the charm in 
the voice and fascination in the eye of the 
gre at orator. At Colchester he heard John 
Wesley preach one of his last sermons. In 
1796 oe entered the office of a solicitor in 
Chancery Lane, London; but in 1798 an 
undo died, leaving Robinson a sum yielding 
a yearly income of 100/. Proud of his inde- 
pendence and eager for travel, he went abroad 
m 1800. He was in Frankfort when it was 
occupied by the French. After acquiring a 
knowledge of German, he set out on a tour 
through Germany and Bohemia, diiefly on 
foot, and in 1801 reached Weimar, where he 
was introduced to Goethe and Schiller. He 




settled at Jena, where lie was matriculated 
as a member of the university on 20 Oct. 
1802. The fees did not exceed half a g^uinea ; 
his lodffings cost him under 7/. a year. He 
made the acauaintance of Madame de Stael, 
and imparted to her the information about 
G^erman philosophy which appears in her 
work on Qermany. He left Jena in the 
autumn of 1805, returning home by way of 
Hamburg, and crossing the sea in the packet 
which carried the news of the battle of 

Haying a thorough knowledge of German, 
he first tried to add to his small income by 
translating German pamphlets. After vainly 
seeking a place in the diplomatic service, and 
offering his services to Fox, who was then 
foreign secretary, he made the acquaintance 
of John Walter, the second of the dynasty, 
from whom he accepted the post of 'Times ' 
correspondent at Altona. His letters '.From 
the Banks of the Elbe,* between March and 
August 1807, gave the English public the 
fullest information then obtainable concern- 
ing affairs on the continent. He was com- 
pelled to return home, when Bonaparte had 
made Denmark his vassal, and then he be- 
came foreign editor of the 'Times,' being 
able, from personal experience, to print in 
that newspaper facts which helped the mi- 
nistry to defend their policy in ordering the 
bombardment of Copenhagen and the cap- 
ture of the Danish fleet. 

When the Spaniards rose against the 
French in 1808, ilobinson was intrusted by 
the conductors of the ' Times ' with the duty 
of special correspondent in the Peninsula, 
being the first English journalist who acted in 
that capacity. He landed at Ooruna, whence 
he forwarded a series of letters headed * Shores 
of the Bay of Biscay' and * Oorufia,' the first 
letter appearing on 9 Aug. 1808, the last on 
26 Jan. 1809. During his stay Lord and Lady 
Holland arrived, accompanied by Lord John 
Russell, a lad of sixteen, whom Robinson 
styled * a Lord Something Russell.' Robin- 
son was in the rear of the army under Sir John 
Moore at Coruna. He heard the cannonad- 
ing, saw the wounded and French prisoners 
brought to Gorufia, and waited till the enemy 
had Deen driven back, when he embarked for 
England, reaching Falmouth on the 26th . He 
reoccupied his post in the * Times ' office till 
29 Sept. 1809. In November he began to 
keep his terms at the Middle Temple. He 
was called to the bar on 8 May 1818, and 
joined the Norfolk circuit, of which he rose 
to be the leader. His first cause — a success- 
ful defence of a prisoner tried in August 1818 
at Norwich for murder — was humorously 
apostrophised by Robinson's friand, CharleiB 

Lamb, as ' Thou great first cause, least un« 
derstood.' Robinson made a resolve, which 
he kept, of leaving the bar as soon as his 
net yearly income should amount to 600/. 
In 1828 he retired, and he said that the two 
wisest acts he had performed were joining 
the bar and leaving it. 

Robinson had acquired the friendship of 
the most notable men in this country, France, 
and Grermany durin£^ the earlier years of this 
century. Lamb, Coleridge, Wordsworth, and 
Southey are a few out of his many intimate 
friends. He accompanied Wordsworth on 
tours in Scotland, Wales, and Switierland, 
and was with the poet in Italy from March to 
August 1837 ; Wordsworth dedicated to him 
the ' Memorials ' of this tour, published in 
1842, in verses be^^inning ' Companion I by 
whose buoyant spirit cheered.' As the valued 
friend of great men his name will survive. 
From the ample store of his personal experi- 
ence he contributed liberally to Mrs. Austin's 
'Characteristics of Gbethe,' to GUchrist's 
' Memoirs of Blake,' and to similar works. 
Apart from his posthumous ' Diary,' he wrote 
little that is noteworthv ; but he was asso- 
ciated with many notable institutions, being* 
a founder of the AtheneBum Club and of Uni* 
versity College, London. The collection of 
Flaxman's drawings and casts at University 
College was enlarged by gifts from him, and 
its maintenance was insured by a legacy. 
He was elected F.S.A. in 1829, and contri- 
buted in 1883 a paper on * The Elrmology of 
the Mass' ^connecting it with the English 
suffix ' mas ' m Christmas,^neA<so/(]^, xxxvi.) 
His bodily health and faculties remained un- 
impaired until his death, at the age of ninety* 
one, at his house, SO Russell Sauare, on 6 Feb. 
1867. He was buried at Higngate, where a 
long inscription marks his grave. He waa 

As a conversationalist he made his mark, 
and his breakfasts were as famous as those 
of Rogers. He lefb behind him a * Diary/ 
'Letters,' and voluminous memoranda, which 
give a truthful and unrivalled picture of social 
and literary life and literary men, both in this 
country and on the continent, during the first 
half of this century. The ariginals, mcludingf 
thirty-five closely written volumes of 'Diary/ 
thirty volumes of * Journals ' of touxs, thirty- 
two volumes of ' Letters ' ^with index), four 
volumes of ' Reminiscences,' and one of ' Aneo- 
dotes,' are preserved at Dr. Williams's Li- 
brary in Gordon Square. Robinson had in- 
tended to sift these himself. A careful but 
too fragmentary selection was made from 
them by Thomas Sadler, and published aa 
the ' Diarv, Reminiscences, ana Correspon- 
dence of H. Crabb Robinson ' (London, 1869, 




3 ToU. 8vo; Sid edit. 2 vols. 1S72); prefixed 
b a portrait, at the age of eighty-siz, engraved 
from a photoj^ph by W. doU^aiid appended 
are aome vivid recollections of Hobinson hj 
Augustus de Morgan. There is a portrait 
panel, bj Edward Armitage, at University 
Hail, Gordon Square, where there is also a 
boat, executed by Ewing in Rome about 1831. 

[Diary, Reminiseencea, and Correapondenca of 
H»?7 Crabb Bobinaon, by Dr. Thomas Sadler; 
lottos of Charles Lamb, ed. Ainger.] F. R. 

ROBINSON, HERCULES (1789-1864), 
admiral, bom on 16 March 1789, was the 
eldest SOD of Christopher Robinson, rector of 
(}nnard, co. Lonffford, by ElizabelJi, second 
daoghteir of Sir Hercules Langrishe, bart., 
of Knocktopher, co. Kilkenny. Sir Bryan 
Robinson {j\, v.] was his brother. He entered 
thenavy in J une 1800, in the Penelope, with 
Capcain (afterwards Sir Henry) Blackwood 
[q. v.l vnth whom he was also in the 
Eoryahta at Trafalgar, and in the Ajax, till 
moved, in Januanr 1807, to the Ocean flag- 
ship of Lord CJolIingwood in the Medite> 
imneaa. Two months later he was appointed 
to the Glory as acting-lieutenant, in which 
rank be was confirm^ on 25 April 1807. 
In December he was moved to the Warspite, 
again with Blackwood, and in 1S09 to the 
Tim6ruxe in the Baltic, from which, on 
SO Amp., he was promoted to the command 
of the Kometheus in the Baltic during 1810, 
and afterwards in the Atlantic, ranging as 
fai as the Canary Islands, and even the 
West Indies. The Prometheus was an ex- 
tremely dull sailer, incapable of improve- 
ment, 80 that any vessel »ie chased left her 
hopelessly astern; and it was owing only 
to the good fortune and judgment of her 
commander that she managed to pick up 
some prises. On 7 June 1814 Robinson was 
advanced to post rank. From September 
1817 to the end of 1820 he commanded the 
Favoorite on the Cape of Good Hope and 
St. Helena station, and afterwards on the 
east coast of South America. In 1820 he 
was at Newfoundland, and was appointed 
by the commander-in-chief to regulate the 
fishesy of the coast of Labrador, which he 
did with tact, temper, and judgment. He 
had BO further service afloat, and in 1846 
accept^ the retirement, becoming in due 
course rearnadmiral on 9 Oct. 1849, vice- 
admiral on 21 Oct. 1866, and admiral on 
15 Jan. 1862. In 1842 he was sheriff of 
^Westmeath. In 1866 he made a yachting 
Toyage to the Salvages, a group of barren 
rocks midway between Madeira and the 
n*fi^jri^^ Oil one of which a vast treasure, 
the ^oil of a Spaniah galleon, was said to be 


buried. When in the Fh)metheus Hobinson 
had been sent to look for this treasure, but 
met with no success. A further search was 
rather the excuse than the reason for revisit- 
ing the islets in the yacht, but the voyage 
gave him an opportunity of writing < Sea- 
drift,' a small volume of reminiscences (8vo, 
I808, with portrait). He died at Southsea on 
15 May 1864. He married, in 1822, Frances 
£lizabeth,only child of Henry Widman Wood 
of Rosmead, Westmeath, and had issue six 
sons, of whom Sir Hercules George Robert 
Robinson (1824-1897), administrator in 
South Africa, was created Lord Rosmead in 
1896 [see Supplement]. 

[G'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 
1864, i. 814 ; Fuster'a Baronetage, 8.0. Langrishe ; 
Navy Lists.] J, £ L. 

ROBINSON, HUGH (1584 P-1666), 
archdeacon of Gloucester, born in Anglesea 
about 1684, was a son of Nicholas Robinson 
{d, 1585) [q. v. J, bishop of Bangor (Wood, 
Atherus Oxen. ii. 798). He was admitted to 
Winchester School in 1596 (Kibbt, Win- 
ehester Scholars, p. 157), and matriculated at 
New College, Oxford, on 16 Deo. 1603 (Olask, 
Oxford RegUters). In 1605 he was elected 
perpetual fellow, and held his fellowship till 
1614. He graciuated B.A. on 21 April 1607, 
M.A. 28 Jan. 1610-11, B.D. and D.D. on 
21 June 1627. He was chief master of Win* 
Chester School from 1618 to 1627 (Kibbt, 
ubi supra, p. 165), and became successively 
rector of Llanbedr, with the vicarage of 
Caerhun in 1618; of TrSvriw (Carnarvon) in 
1618; of Bighton, Hampshiro, in 1622; of 
Shabbington, Buckinghamshire; canon of 
Lincoln on 24 Feb. 1624-5 (Le Neve, Jlutt); 
archdeacon of Gloucester on 5 June 1634 (t&.) 
He was rector of Dursley from 1625 to 1647. 
In his archdeaconry he seems to have been 
moderate in his proceedings ( Cal, State Papers, 
Dom. ccclxxviii. No. 14). 

During the civil war he lost his canonry 
and archdeaconry, was seized at his living at 
Dursley and ill-treated; but he took the cove- 
nant, wrote in defence of it, and accepted the 
living of Hinton, near Winchester, from the 
parliament ( W alkeb. Sufferings of the Clergy, 

1. 33; Addit MS. 16671, f. 6). He died on 
80 March 1655, and was buried on the fol- 
lowing 18 April in the chancel of St. Giles- 
in-the-Fields, London. 

He wrote: 1. An 8vo volume, published in 
Oxford in 1616, containing 'Preces' for the 
use of Winchester School, in Latin and Eng- 
lish, * Grammaticalia Quiedam,' in Latin and 
English ; and ' Anti(jU8B Historios Synopsis,' 

2. 'Scholae Wintoniensis Phrases Latin ss,' 
London, 1654 ; 2nd edit, by his son Nicholas 




London, 1668; 'corrected and much aug- 
mented with Poeticals added^ and these four 
Tracts: (i.) Of Words not to be used by ele- 
gant Latinists; (ii.) The difference of many 
Words like one another in Sound or Signifi- 
cation ; (iii.) Some Words governing a Sub- 
junctive Mood not mentioned in LiUie's 
** Grammar;" (iv.) Concerning Xprta and 
rvu/ii; for entering Children upon making of 
themes; dedicat^ to Sir Robert Wallop, 
Sir Nicholas Love, and Sir Thomas Hussey ;' 
drdedit. London, 1661, Bvo ; 4th edit. London, 
1664, 12mo; 8th edit. 1678, 8vo; 11th edit. 
1686, 1 2mo. 3. * Annalium mundi universa- 
lium, &c., tomus unicus,' London, 1677, fol., 
revised before publication by Dr. Thomas 
Pierce [q. v.], dean of Salisbury. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxen. iii. 396 ; Robinson's 
Works.] W. A. S. 

BOBINSON, JOHN (A 1598), president 
of St. John's College, Oxford, was matricu- 
lated as sizar of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
May 1660, from Richmondshire. He grar 
duated B.A. in January 1668-4, was elected 
fellow of his hall, 1664, and proceeded M.A. 
1667. He was recommended by the master 
of Trinity, Robert Beaumont (rf. 1667) [q. v.], 
to Cecil, with Matthew Hutton, as a fit per- 
son to be made master of Pembroke Hall, 
but Hutton was chosen. On 19 May 1668 
he was incorporated at Oxford. He was no- 
minated by Sir Thomas White, the founder, 
to be president of St. John's College, Oxford, 
on the resignation of William Stocke, and 
was electedl)y the fellows, 4 Sept. 1664. He 
resigned 10 July 1672. He supplicated for 
the dmee of B.D. 22 Maich 1666-7, and was 
made £.D. at Cambridge, 11 June 1688. 

Robinson was a popmar preacher, and held 
tpan y preferments. He was rector of East 
Tresweil, Nottinghamshire, 1666 ; of Fulbeck, 
Lincolnshire, 1660 ; of Thornton, Yorkshire, 
1560 ; of Great Easton, Essex, 1666-76 ; of 
Kingston Bagpuxe, Berkshire, 1668; of Brant 
Broughton, Lmcolnshire, 1576 ; of Fishtoft, 
Lincolnshire, 1676 ; of Caistor, Lincolnshire, 
1676; of Gransden, Cambridgeshire, 1687, 
and of Somersham, Huntingdonshire, 1688. 

On 3 Aug. 1672 he was installed precentor 
of Lincoln Cathedral. On 14 Julv 1673 he 
was collat<ed to the prebend of Welton 
Beckhall, in which he was installed 7 Sept. 
He resigned this prebend on being collated 
to the prebend of Caistor (installed 9 Oct. 
1674); and in 1681 he became prebendary of 
Leicester St. Margaret (collated 29 March, 
installed 9 July). On 31 May 1584 he was 
installed archdeacon of Bedford, and in 
1680 he held the archdeaconry of Lincoln. 
In 1684, during the vacancy of the see of 

Lincoln, he was appointed commissary to 
exercise episcopal jurisdiction in the diocese, 
by Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury. In 
1694 he received a canonry of Gloucester. 
He died in March 1697-8, and was buried at 
Somersham, Huntingdonshire. John Robin* 
son [q. v.], pastor of the pilgrim fathers, has 
been very doubtfully daimed as his eon. 

[St John's College M8S. ; Bawlinson MSS. ; 
Cooper's Alamni Caotabrigiense8,ii. 286 ; Wood's 
Athensa Ozon. and Fasti ; Begistmm Aoadem, 
Oantabrig. ; Foster^s Alamni Ozon. ; Register of 
University of Ozford, ad. Boase (Oxford His- 
torical Society) ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Wilson's His- 
tory of Merchant Taylors' School ; Willis's Oatha- 
drals.] W. H. H. 

BOBINSON, JOHN (1576P-ie26), pastor 
of the pilgrim fiathers, a native of Lincoln- 
shire, according to Bishop Hall {Oommon 
Apologie, 1610, p. 126), was bom about 1576. 

His early career is involved in obscurity. 
Wide acceptance has been given to Hunters 
identification of the pastor with John Robin- 
son who was admitted as a sisar at Corpus 
Ohristi Coll^, Cambridge, on 9 April 1692 
(his tutor being John Jegon [q. v.]), who gra- 
duated B.A. in February 15^, and was ad- 
mitted a fellow in 1698. The college books 
describe him variously as 'Lincolniensis' and 
' Notingamiensis,' and Hunter conjectures 
that he was born at Gainsborough, Linooln- 
shire, divided from Nottinffhamshire by the 
Trent; a conjecture which tne parish register 
in its damaged state leaves undecided. 

Dr. John Brown, in his * Pilgrim Fathers * 
(1895), conjectures that the pastor was bom 
in Lincoln, and was the son of John Bobin- 
son, D.D. {d, 1698) fq. v.l, precentor of Lin- 
coln from 1672, ana prebendary from 1673. 
For this there is no evidence ; baptisms in 
Lincoln Cathedral are entered in the register 
of St. Mary Magdalene, which only begins 
in the seventeenth centurv. 

Some details in the early career of a third 
contemporary John Bobinson suggest a 
likelihood of his identity with the pastor^ 
but at a critical point the argument creaks 
down. Bobert Booinson (<2. September 1617)^ 
rector of Saxlingham Nethergate and Saxlingr. 
ham Thorpe, Norfolk, had a son John, who was 
baptised at Saxlingham on 1 A.pril 1676. This 
John Robinson is probably to be identified 
with the John Bobmson, admitted as a sizar 
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, on 2 March 
1592-^, who graduated M.A. 1600, B.D. 

The Saxlingham renters further show 
that John Bobinson, clerk, was married on 
24 l\i\j 1604 to Anne Whitfield. The Nor- 
wich diocesan records state that John Robin- 
son, B.D. (doubtless the Emmanuel graduate). 




WIS appointed perpetual carate of Great Yar> 
moath in 160&, was then aged 34, and was a 
native of Sazlingham. A serious obstacle 
to the endmTouT to identify this Yarmouth 
enrate with the pastor of the pilgrim fathers 
is rsised by the appearance of the year 1609 
in this entry. I^eale, the New England his- 
tGnUf assertSy in his ' History of the Puri- 
taas^'that the pastor of the pilgrim fathers 
VM * beneficed about Yarmouth/ and the Yar- 
nooth corporation records of 1608 mention 
'Kr. Robinson the pastor ' (John Bbownb, 
Omffreffotumaium in Norfolk and Suffolk), 
BttC in 1608 the pastor left England, and he 
ii DOt known to have returned. 

It is very probable that Hobinson the pastor 
stodied at Cambridge during the last decade 
of the aixteentb century, and perliaps he 
came under the personal influence of William 
Perldna [q. T.l In early life he held ' cure 
lad ebaige ' 01 souls in Norwich, and * cer- 
tejn eitixena were excommunicated for re- 
mtiag Tnto and praying with ' him (AiNS- 
woEZHy CcurUer-poyionf 1608 p. 246, 1642 
p. 145). Hobinson hunself mentions his 
resideace at Norwich in his ' People's Plea * 
(1618), dedicated to his ' Christian friends 
in Norwich and thereabouts.' Hall confi- 
deady asserts ( Common Apologie,^. 145) that 
Robinaoa's separation from Uie established 
church was due to his failing to obtain ' the 
nastershippe of the hospitalf at Norwich, or 
a lease from that citie' (presumably of a place 
of worship). Later writers sneak of him 
ashaTingkeld a Norfolk benence — ^perhaps 
the Yarmouth curacy already noticed — and 
as baring been suspended. About 1607 
Bobinscm, according to a guess of Hunter, 
seems to have join^ the 'gathered church' 
meetinff at Scroobv Manor, Nottinghamshire, 
the resulence of William Brewster [q. v.], of 
which mcbard Clifton ^i\, v.] was pastor. 
Clifton himaelf held a hving, but there are 
other instances of beneficed deigy who at 
the same time were members of congrega- 
tional churches. Robinson, as Hall observes, 
had been influenced by John Smyth, to 
whom the 8crooby church owed its origin ; 
but he did not follow Smyth's later views. 
In 1006 Smyth emigrated to Amsterdam, 
wbi^e he beeune an Arminian and a baptist. 
In Aogost 1606 Clifton also emigrated to 
Amsterdam with some of the Scrooby con« 
gregation; later in the year Robinson fol- 
Siwed with others, who had made seyeral 
bieffectual attempts to obtain a passage. 

At Amsterdam the emigrants joined the 
f eparatist church which had Francis Johnson 
( 1561^1618) [q. y.] as its pastor, and Ains- 
worth as its teacher. The prospect of dis- 
on church government which broke 

out in this church in the followin{[ year may 
have determined Robin8<m'8 oontmgent not 
to settle at Amsterdam. Many of them were 
weavers, and at Ijeyden there was employ- 
ment for cloth-weavers. On 12 Feb. 1609 
they obtained permission from the authorities 
at Leyden, and removed thither by 1 May. 
Robinson was publicly ordained as their 
pastor; Brewster was a ruling elder; the 
community numbered about one hundred, 
and increased to three hundred ; their form 
of church government was congregational. 

At Leyden, which had not the trading 
advantages of a port, their life was hard. 
They maintained an excellent character, 
the authorities contrasting their diligence, 
bonesty, and peaceableness with the behaviour 
of the Walloons. Bradford says that more 
' public favour' would haye been shown them 
but for fear of ' giving offence to the state 
of England.' There is no truth in the state- 
ment, gathered by Prince from old people at 
Leyden in 1714, that one of the city churches 
was granted for their worship. In 1610 
Henry Jacob (1563-1624) [q. v.] went from 
Middelburg to Leyden to consult Robinson 
on matters of church government. In January 
1611 Robinson and three others bought, for 
eight thousand guilders, a house 'by the 
belfry ; ' the conveyance is dated 5 May 161 1, 

gossession was obtained on 1 May 1612 (there 
ad evidently been difficidty in raising the 
purchase money), and the building was con- 
verted into a dwelling and meetmg-house. 
In the rear twenty-one cottages were erected 
for poorer emigrants. 

Some time l^fore 1612 Robinson had cor- 
responded, about terms of communion, with 
William Ames (1676-1633) [a. v.], then at 
The Hague. These 'private letters' were 
commumcated by Ames to 'The Prophane 
Schisms of the Brownists,' 1612, pp. 4/ seq., 
a composite work, fathered by Christopher 
Lawne and three others ; Ames and Robert 
Parker (1664.^-1614) [q. v.] also contributed 
to it. (George Homius (HUt. Eoclei, 1665, 

L232) thinks Ames and Parker modified 
binson's views ; this does not appear to 
have been the case. There may be some 
basis of fact for the story of a three days' 
disputation at Leyden in 1613 between 
Robinson and Episcopius ; but that it was 
undertaken by Robinson, at the request of 
Pol]^ander (Jan Eerckhoven) and the city 
ministers (Bradford), or held in the uni- 
yersity ( Winslow), seems improbable. The 
university records are silent about it, and at 
Leyden the party of Episcopius was in the 
ascendant. On 6 Sept. 1615 Robinson was 
admitted a member of the university, by per- 
mission of the magistrates, as a student of 





theology; his age is pxen as 89; his Gam- 
bridge standingi if it existed, is ignored. 
This enrolment entitled him to obtain half 
a tan of beer a month, and ten gallons of 
wine a quarter, free of duty. He attended 
lectures by Episcopius and rolyander. 

Robinson's controversial writing besfan in 
1600 or 1610, with an * Answer' to a letter, 
addressed to himself and John Smyth, in 
< Epistles,' 1608, ii. 1 et soq. by Joseph Hall 
[q, T.] This * Answer' is only known as re- 
printed, with a reply, in Hall's ' Common 
Apologie of the Cburch of England,' 1610. 
It exhibits considerable power of lan^age, 
and is the production of a man of cultivated 
mind as well as of strong conviction. He 
afterwards defended the separatist position 
against Richard Bernard tq. v.1, William 
Ames, and John Yates of Norwich. In the 
Amsterdam disputes he sided with Ains- 
worth, writing against the doctrinesof Smyth 
and his coadjutor, Thomas Helwys fq. v.], 
and criticising the presb^terian positions of 
Johnson His 'Apologia,' advocating the 
congregational type of church government, 
and rejecting the nicknames ' Brownist' and 
' Barrowist,' is a very able and comprehen- 
sive statement, written with moderation. 

As early as 1617 a project of emigration 
to America had been matured by the leaders 
of the Leyden community. John Carver, a 
deacon, and Robert Cushman, * our right hand 
with the adventurers,' were sent to London 
to forward the scheme. They carried a docu- 
ment to be presented to the privy council, 
signed by Robinson and Brewster, and con- 
taining ' seven articles,' acknowledging the 
long's authoritv in all causes, and that of 
bishops as civilly commissioned by him (Co- 
hnial Papers, i. 48). Cushman negotiated 
a loan with the merchant adventurers of 
London for seven years, on hard terms, the 
risk being great, and the emigrants dependent 
on their own labour. On 12 Nov. 1617 Sir 
Edwin Sandys, subsequently treasurer and 
governor of the Virginia Company, addressed 
a letter to Robinson and Brewster (who had 
been a tenant of the Sandys family), ex- 
pressing satisfaction with the * seven articles.' 
Robinson and Brewster replied on 16 Dec. 
Their letter explains that the intending 
colonists are industrious, frugal people, who 
may be trusted to stay and work. A similar 
letter was addressed on 27 Jan. 1617-18 to 
Sir John Wolstenholme, giving full par- 
ticulars of their ecclesiastical views, and em- 
phasising their agreement with the French 
reformed churches, except in some details. 
A patent, imder the Virginia Company's seal, 
was obtained in September 1619 ; it proved 
useless, as John Wincob, in whose name it 

was made out, did not join the expedition. 
The members of the Leyden community were 
now asked to volunteer for the enterprise. 
It was agreed that if a majority of the church 
volunteered, Robinson their pastor should 
accompany them, otherwise Brewst-er was to 
be in charge of the expedition. To Robin- 
son's disappointment only a minority volun- 
teered. The Speedwell, a vessel of 60 tons, 
was bought in Holland ; Carver and Cush- 
man went to London, with Thomas Weston, 
an English merchant, to make final arrange- 
ments, and hire another vessel large enough 
to carry the freight. All being ready, a day 
of humiliation and prayer was held at Leyden 
on 21 July 1620, Uobinson preaching from 
Ezra viii. 21. On 22 July the Speedwell 
sailed from Delft Haven to Southampton, 
where the Mayflower (180 tons) from London 
awaited her. While at Southampton the 
pilgrims received a letter of advice from 
Robinson, bidding them ' be not shaken with 
unnecessary novelties.' To Carver he wrote 
a further letter (27 July), engaging to em- 
brace * the first opportunity of hastening to 
them.' The two vessels left Southampton 
on 6 Aug. ; but either the Speedwell proved 
unseaworthy, or, as the emigrants believed, 
Reynolds, the master, and some of his convoy 
lost courage. They put in to Barmouth, and 
again to Plymouth, for repairs; at length 
the Speedwell was sold, and the Mayflower 
alone, of which Thomas Jones was mast-er, 
the expedition being reduced to 101 pas- 
sengers, set sail from Plvmouth on 6 Sept. 
She was bound for the Hudson river, but at 
the outset of the voyage was weather-bound 
for some days at Hull ; * after long beating at 
sea' Cape (Jod came in view ; further storms 
frustrated the intention of proceeding south- 
ward. Returning to Cape Cod, the pilgrims 
landed at Plymouth Rock on ] 1 Nov. 

Robinson's pastoral care for the oolonista 
is shown in his letter (80 June 1621) 'to 
the church of God at Plymouth, New Eng- 
land.' The remainder of the Leyden com- 
munity became more willing to join their 
brethren in New England. Yet Robinson 
writes to Brewster (20 Dec. 1628) that his 
removal was ' desired rather than hoped for.' 
They could not raise money, and the mer- 
chant adventurers would take no further 
risk. Robinson thought influential persons 
wished to prevent his going out. Meantime 
he refused to sanction the administration of 
the sacraments by Brewster, an elder, but 
not an ordained pastor. 

Just as his life was closing, Robinson pub- 
lished a volume of sixty-two essays on ethical 
an d spiritual topics. They show reading and 
good sense, and their style is marked by ease 




and simplicity. He left ready for publica- 
tion his last thoughts on the question of sepa- 
ration, bat bis fnends withheld it from the 
press for nine years, on the ground that 
*8omey though not many' of the Leyden 
church '-vrere contrary minded to the autnor^s 
judgment.' It was at length printed in order 
to jtistify the action of some senaratists who 
were occasional hearers of the parochial 
dezgy. The position taken in this treatise 
is veil deserihied by John Shaw ^manuscript 
'Adyice to his Son/ 1664, quoted m HvTmBB, 
1854, p. 185), who says that beamed and 
nous Mr. Robinson ... so far came back that 
he v^froved of communion with the church 
of England, in the hearing of the word and 
prayer (though not in sacraments anddis- 
ciplme), and so occasioned the rise of such 
as are called semists, that is semiseparatists, 
or independant^.' He had always been in 
fsYOur of * private communion ' with * godly ' 
members of the church of England, herem 
di&ring from Ainsworth ; and according to 
John Paget {d. 1640) [q. v.] he had preached 
the lawfulness of attending Anglican services 
aseaily as July 1617, and nad tolerated such 
attendance on Brewster^s part much earlier 
(PkQ^r, Arrow against the Separation^ 1618). 
Eobert Baillie, D.D. [q.T.]' ^ strong opponent 
of his ecclesiastical principles, characterises 
him as ' tiie most learned, polished, and 
modest spiiit that ever that sect enjoyed.' 

Bobinaon fell ill on Saturday, 22 Feb. 
1635, yet preached twice the next day. The 
plague was then rife at Leyden, but he did 
not take it. He suffered no pain, but was 
weakened by ague. He died on 1 March 
1625 (Dutch reckoning, or present style ; in 
the old English reckoning it was 19 Feb. 
1624). No portrait or description of his 
person ezista. His autograph signature is on 
the title-page of the British Museum copy 
(C. ^, d. 25) of John Doye's ' Perswasion to 
the English Becusants,' 1608. On 4 March 
he was buried under the pavement in the 
aisle of St. Peter's, Leyden, in a common 
grave^ bought for seven years, at a cost of 
nine goilders. There is no truth in WinsloVs 
story that his funeral waa attended by theuni- 
Tersity and the city ministers. He married 
Bridget White (his second wife, if he were 
the John Eobinson of Emmanuel), who sur- 
vived him, and, with his children, removed 
in Maroh 162^-30 to Pljrmouth, New Eng- 
land. In October 1622 his children, accord- 
ing to the Leyden census, were Isaac, Mercy, 
Fear, and James. It is doubtful whether he 
had a son William ; Abraham Robinson, who 
settled in New England, was not his son, 
though claimed as such. His descendants, 
u traced by W. Allen, DJ)., are given in 

Ash ton's 'Life' (compare Savaob's Qeneik- 
logical Dictionary of the First Settlers qf 
New JEnglandf 1661, iii. 549 seq.) After his 
death some members of his church returned 
to Amsterdam,and joined John Canne [q. v.], 
others went to New England (thirty-nve in 
1629, sixty more in 16d0). About 1650 his 
house was taken down, and replaced by a 
row of small buildings ; on one of these, in 
1865, a marble slab was placed, with the 
inscription, ' On this spot hved, taught, and 
died John Robinson, 1611-1625.' On 24 July 
1891 was publicly dedicated a bronze in- 
scribed tablet, provided by a subscription 
(suggested by Dr. W. M. Dexter, d. November 
1890), executed in New York, and placed on 
the outer wall of St. Peter's, facing the site 
of the dwelling. On 29 June 1896 the 
foundation-stone of a ' John Robinson Me- 
morial Church ' was laid at Gainsborough by 
the Hon. T. F. Bayard, ambassador from 
the United States, on the assumption that 
Gainsborough was Robinson's birthplace, and 
that he was a member of the 'gathered' 
church at Scrooby Manor, which is in proxi- 
mi^ to Gainsborough. 

Nothing thatRobmson ever wrote reaches 
the level of his alleged address to the depart- 
ing pilgrims ; expressing confidence that 'the 
Lord has more truth yet to break forth out 
of his holy word ;' bewailing ' the condition 
of the reformed churches^ who are come to 
a period in religion,' the Lutherans refusing 
to advance ' beyond what Luther saw, while 
the Galvinists stick fast where they were left 
bv that great man of God, who yet saw not 
all things;' and exhorting the pilgrims to 
' study union' with ' the godly people of Eng- 
land,' ' rather than, in the least measure, to 
affect a division or separation from them.' 
Neither Bradford nor Morton hints at this 
address. It appears first in the ' Briefe Narra- 
tion ' appended to Edward Winslow's * Hypo- 
crisie V nmasked,' 1646, pp. 97 seq. Winslow, 
who is not a first-rate authority, brings it 
forward as a piece of evidence in disproof 
of the intolerance ascribed to the separatists. 
He had been for three years (1617-20) a 
member of Robinson's church, and afiirms 
that Robinson ' used these expressions, or to 
the same purpose;' he gives no date, but it 
was when the pilgrims were ' ere long' to 
depart ; his report is mainly in the third per- 
son. Cotton Mather, writmg in 1702, turns 
the whole into the first person, and makes 
it {Magnaliaj i. 14) the parting address 
to the pilgrims, changing ^ere long' into 
'quickly.' Neal {Hist, of New Eftglandy 
if 20) follows Mather, but omits the closing 
exhortation, with its permission to 'take 
another pastor,' and treats the address as the 




peroration of the sermon preached on 21 July 
1620. This last point ne drops (Hist of 
Puritans, 1782), but it is taken up by Brook 
and others. This famous address, recollected 
after twenty-six years or more, owes some- 
thing to the reporter's controversial needs. 

Robinsonpublished : 1 . ' An Answer to a 
Censorious Epistle ' [1610] ; see above. 2. ' A 
Ivstification of Separation from the Church 
of England/ &c. [Leaden], 1610, 4to [Am- 
sterdanol, 1639, 4to (m reply to * The Sepa- 
ratists ochisme,' by Bernard). Bobinson's 
defence of this tract, against the criticisms 
of Francis Johnson, is printed in Ainsworth's 
* Animadversion to Mr. Richard Clyfton,' &c., 
Amsterdam, 1618, pn. Ill seq. 8. ' Of Reli- 
flious Commvnion, Private & Publique,' &c. 
nLeyden], 1614, 4to (against Helwys and 
Smyth). The British Museum copy (4828 b) 
has the autograph of Bobinson's orother^in- 
law, Randall Thickins, and a few manuscript 
notes. 4 ' A Manvmission to a Manvdvc- 
tion,' &c. [Leyden], 1615, 4to (in reply to 
'A Manvdvctionfor Mr. Robinson,' &c.,Dort, 
1614, by Ames). 5. * The People's Plea for 
the Exercise of Prophesie,' &c. [Leyden], 
1618, 16mo ; 2nd edit. 1641, 8vo (in reply to 
Tates). 6. 'Apologia Ivsta et Necessaria 
. . . Quorundam Christianorum . . . dictorum 
Brownistarum, sive Barrowistarum,' &c. 
fLeyden], 1619, 16mo. 7. ' An Appeal on 
Truths Behalfe (conceminge some diiierences 
in the Church at Amsterdam),' &c. [Leyden], 
1624, 8vo. 8. ' A Defence of the Doctrine 

Firopovnded by the Synode of Dort,' &c. 
Leyden], 1624, 4to. 9. < A Briefe Cate- 
chisme concerning Church Qovemment,' &c., 
Levden, 1624 P 2nd edit. 1642, 8vo ; with 
title, ' An Appendix to Mr. Perkins his Six 
Principles of Christian Religion,' &c., 1656, 
8vo. 10. ' Observations Divme and Morall,' 
&c. [Levdenl, 1625, 4to; with new title- 
page, ' New Essayes, or Observations Divine 
and Morall,' &c. 1628, 4to ; 2nd edit. ' Essays, 
or Observations Divine and Morall,' &c. 1638, 
12mo. 11. ' A Ivst and Necessarie Apologie 
for certain Christians . . called Brownists 
or Barrowists,' &c. [Leyden], 1625, 4to (see 
No. 6); 1644, 24mo, with 'An Appendix 
to Mr. Perkins,' &c. (See No. 9). Posthu- 
mous was : 12. ' A Treatise of the Lawful- 
nes of Hearing of the Ministers in the Church 
of England,' &c. [Amsterdam], 1684, 8vo; 
partly reprinted, with extracts from Philip 
Nye [q. t.], 1688, 4to. His ' Works' were 
eited (1851, 8vo, 3 vols, with 'Life') by 
Robert Ashton (No. 4 is not included, but 
is reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. 
vol. 1.) ; lengthy extracts from most of them 
"will be found in Hanbuxy's ' Historical Me- 
moriaU/ 1889| vol. L 

[After Robinson's own writings, the first 
authority for his Leyden life is William Brad- 
ford, whose History of Plymouth Plantation waa 
first fully printed in Ckillections of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, 4th ser.vol.iii. 1866 ; 
for the portion to 1620, with Bradford's Dianr 
of Occurrences, his Letters, Winalow's Jouroal, 
aDd other documents, see Young's Chronicles of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, 2Dd edit 1844. Secondary 
sources are Morton^s New England's Memoriall, 
1669, Cotton Mather's Magnalia, 1702, and 
Prince's Chronological Hist, of New England, 
1736 (the edition used above is 1862); cdl cri« 
ticised in George Sumner's Memoirs of the Pil* 
p;rims at Leyden, Mass. Hist See. Szd ser. vol. 
IX. 1846, which gives results of researdi at 
Leyden. Hunter's Collections concerniDg the 
Founders of New Plymouth^ 1849, are corrected 
on some points in Ashton's Life of Bobinson, 
1861, and are improved in Hunter's Collections 
concerning the Church at Scrooby, 1864. Most 
of Hunter's conjectures are adopted in Dexter's 
Congregationalism of Three Hundred Years, 
1880, valuable for its bibliography. Baillie's 
Dissuasive from the Errours of the Time, 1646 ; 
Neal's Hist, of New England, 1720, i. 72 seq. ; 
Neal's Hist, of the Puritans (Toulmin), 1822, 
ii. 43, 110 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, 
ii. 834 seq. ; Marsden's Hist, of the Early Puri- 
tans, 1860, pp. 296 seq.; Cooper's Athenss 
Cantabr. 1861, ii. 286; Evans^ Early English 
Baptists, 1862« i. 202 seq. ; Barclay's Inner Life 
of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, 
1876, pp. 63 seq.; Browne's Hist, of Codrt. in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, 1877, p. 127 ; Proceedings 
at the Unveiling of the Tablet in Lejden, 1891 ; 
Brown's Pilgrim Fathers, 1896, pp. 94 seq. ; 
extracts &om register of Emmanuel Coll. Cam- 
bridge, per the master ; extracts from register 
and order-book of Corpus Christi Coll. Cam- 
bridge, per the master ; extracts from the Norwich 
diocesan registers, per the Bev. Gt. S. Barrett, 
D.D. ; extracts from the narish registers of Sax- 
lingham Nethergate and Saxlingham Tborpe, 

Ser the Rev. R. W. Pitt; information from the 
ean of Lincoln and from the master of Christ's 
Coll. Cambridge.] A. G. 

^ ROBINSON, JOHN (1617-1681), royal- 
ist, son of William Robinson of GwersyUt, 
Denbighshire, and grandson of Nicholas Ro- 
binson (d, 1586) [q.v.l, bishop of Bangor, was 
bom in 1617, matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, 26 Sept. 1684, at the age of seventeen 

§F*08TEB, Alumni Osvn.\ and became a stu- 
ent of 6ra/s Inn, 28 Dec. 1687 (Fobtsr, 
Gfrav*s Inn Register), He appears to have 
resided for some time in Dublin previous to 
the outbreak of the civil war in 1642. He 
exerted himself with great seal on behalf of 
the royal cause in North Wales and the ad- 
joining counties. Although only twenty-six 
years of age, he held the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and was made governor of Holt Castle 
m Denbighshire in November 1648. In the 




fbUowing' year he commanded a company at 
the batw of Rowton Heath in Cheshire ; on 
1 Feb. 1646 he was selected by the royalist 
commander, Liord Byron, as one of his com- 
mifidoners to neffotiate the surrender of Ches- 
ter, and acted in a similar capacity when 
Gblonel Richard Bulkeley surrendered Beau- 
muis, 14 June following. 

Qtt the triumph of the parliamentary 
cussy Robinson, who was marked out for 
soedil Tengeance, fled from Qweraryllt in 
ud disguise of a labourer, first to tne Isle 
of Man, uid then into France. His estates 
wera confiscated. His name appears in the 
bill for the sale of delinquents' estates 
(26 Sept. 1660). At the Restoration in 1660 
be lecoTered his estates and received other 
maiks of roTal &YOur. He was nominated a 
knight of the Royal Oak for Anglesea. He 
vas colonel of the company of foot militia or 
tnined bands in Denbighshire, when that re- 
gioment was called out on the apprehension of 
a Tidskg in July 1666 (CaL State Papers). 
HaTiagsucceededSirHeneageFinch as mem- 
ber &r Beaumaris at a by-election in July 
1601, he retained his seat until the dissolu- 
tion of the * pensionary ' parliament in January 
1679; he ia said to have been in receipt of a 
pension of 400/. a year {* A Seasonable Argu- 
ment for a New Parliament/ 1677, reprinted 
iRCosBBrr'sPiurUamentarySteton/). Itobin- 
Bon sneeeeded Sir John Owen of Clennennau 
in the post of vice-admiral of North Wales 
in 16S6, and held the office till his death in 
March 1681. He was buried in Gresford 
cfanrdL He left two sons, John and William. 
His ^Eandaon, William Robinson, M.P. for 
Denbigh &om 1706 to 1708, assumed the sur- 
name ai Liytton on inheriting from his cousin 
in 1710 the estate of Knebworth in Hertford- 
shire, and was ancestor of Earl Lytton. 

[Borke's Landed Gentry; Wood's Athense, ed. 
mas; PhiUipe's Ciril War in Wales and the 
lUrcfaflB; Buliamentaiy Returns; Williams's 
IMiamentaiy History of Wales.] W. R. W. 

BOBIKBON, JOHN (1660-1723), bishop 
of London, bom at Cleasby,near Darlington, 
ITorkshire^ on 7 Nov. 1650, was second sur- 
Tiring son of John Robinson (d. 1651) of 
aeasby, l^ his wife Elizabeth (d, 1688), 
daughter oi Christopher Potter of the same 
narish. His father appears to have been in a 
nnmhle station of life ; his g^reat-grandfather 
is described as 'John Eomnson esquire of 
Crostwick, Bomaldkirk, to. York.' His elder 
brother, Cliristopher (1645-1603), emigrated 
to Vixginia about 1670, settled on the Kapa- 
hannock river, became secretary to the colony 
and one of the trustees of the William and 
Hazy Coll^fe ; he was father of John Robin- 
ton (d. 1749), president of Virginia, and 

grandfather of Sir Frederick Philipse Robin- 
son [q. v.] 

The future bishop was, according to 
Heame {lieliqut€B, ii. 134), apprenticed to a 
trade, but his master, finding nim addicted 
to book learning, sent him to Oxford ; he ac- 
cordingly matriculated from Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford, as a pensioner on 24 March 
1670, graduated B A. 1673, and M.A. 1684, 
and was fellow of Oriel College from 1676 
(elected 18 Dec.) to 1686. The college in 
1677 gave him leaye to go abroad, which was 
renewed in 1678 and 1680. He was made 
D.D. by Tenison at Lambeth, 22 Sept. 1696 
{Oent. Mag. 1864, i. 636), and at Oxford 
by diploma 7 Aug. 1710. 

Abo at 1680, possibly through the influence 
of Sir James Astrey, whose servitor he had 
been at 3rasenose, Kobinson became chap- 
lain to the English embassy at the court of 
Sweden. He remained abroad till 1709, and 
was regarded by successive governments as 
an industrious and capable political agent. 
During the absence of the envoy, Philip, only 
son of Sir Philip Warwick [q. v.], he filled 
the posts first of resident and then of envoy 
extraordinary at the Swedish court (cf. 
WooD,2>iy(?a7M2 Times^ ii. 462, 469). In Octo- 
ber 1686 he resifi|ned his fellowship at Oriel 
and gave the college a piece of plate, in the 
inscription upon which he is aescribed as 
' RegiSB majestatis apud regem SuecisB min- 
ister ordinarius.' In 1692 he confirmed 
Charles XI in the English alliance and helped 
to defeat the French project of a ninth elec- 
torate. In 1697, in token of his approbation, 
William III granted him the oenefice of 
Lastingham in Yorkshire, which he held 
until 1709, and the third prebend at Canter- 
bury. As with English cuplomatists of the 
period, his allowances were habitually in ' 
arrears, and his complaints to the treasury 
were numerous. In January 1700 he was in- 
strumental in obtaining the renewal of the 
treaty of the Hague. Shortly afterwards he 
accompanied Charles XII, with whom he 
was in high favour, on his chivalrous journey 
to Narva ; he also effected the junction of 
the fleets of England, Holland, and Sweden 
in the Sound, and the consequent recognition 
of free navigation in the North Sea. From 
1702 to 1707, while still accredited to Sweden 
(where in 1708 he was formally nominated 
commissary during absence), he was also ac- 
credited to Augustus of Poland, and spent his 
time in Poland or Saxonv. In 1707 he resumed 
attendance on Charles xn at Altranstadt. By 
favour of, and as a compliment to, the Swedish 
monarch, he assumed as his motto the 'Runic' 
or Norse, *Madr er moldur auki' ('As for 
man, his days are grass '). He commemo- 




rated his connection with Sweden more 
effectually in his ' Account of Sueden : to- 
gether with an extract of the History of that 
kingdom. By a person of note who resided 
many years there (London, 1695, a shilling 
book in small octavo; French translation, 
Amsterdam, 1712; 3rd ed. London, 1717, 
subsequently bound up with Molesworth's 
'Denmark,' 1738^. The little work was 
stored with useful information set forth in a 
style not unlike that of a modem consular 
report. Marlborough wrote of Robinson's ex- 
cellent influence at the Swedish court in 
1704, and in 1707 thought of employing him 
to appease the Swedish kin^, who cherished 
grievances against the allies. Ultimately 
(April-May 1707) Marlborough decided to 
conduct the negotiations himself, but Robin- 
eon acted throughout as interpreter, and was 
utilised to administer the usual bribes to the 
Swedish ministers. * I am persuaded,' wrote 
Marlborough to Sunderland, * that these gen- 
tlemen would be very uneasy should it pass 
through any other hands.' In the autumn of 
1707 ne was sent to Hamburg to aid the 
Imperial Commission appointed to settle the 
dispute between Hamburg and the Circle of 
Lower Saxony; his correspondence (Jan. 
170&-Sept. 1709) with Lord Raby is in the 
British Museum (Addit MS, 22198). 

In July 1709 Robinson refused an offer of 
the bishopric of Chichester. A few months 
later he returned to England, and was, on 21 
Nov. 1709, granted the deanery of Windsor, 
together with the deanery of Wolverhamp- 
ton and the registry of the knights of the 
Garter (HarL MS, 2264, f. 37). He was not 
superseded in his post as Swedish minister 
until tlie following summer, when hie secre- 
tary, Robert Jackson, was appointed. On 
19 Nov. 1710 Robinson was consecrated 
bishop of Bristol. The queen, as a special 
favour, granted him lodgings in Somerset 
House wnere, on Easter day, 1711, he recon- 
secrated with Anglican rites, the Roman 
catholic chapel, which had long been an 
offence to the liondon populace. This cir- 
cumstance rendered him popular; at the 
same tims his pleasing address and wide 
fund of general information rendered him so 
ffreat a favourite with Harley that, if the 
btter's influence had remained supreme, 
there is little doubt that Robinson woula 
have succeeded Tenison as primate. In the 
meantime he was appointea governor of the 
Charterhouse, dean of the (3napel Royal, a 
commissioner for the building of fift^ new 
ohurohes in London, and later for finishing 
St. Paul's Cathedral ; he was also allowed 
to hold the deanery of Windsor in commenr 
dam with his bishopric. On 29 Aug. 1711 

Swift went to a reception at York Buildings, 
where Harley, with great emphasis, proposed 
the health of the lord privy sesl. j?rior 
thereupon remarked that the seal was so 
privy tnat no one knew who he was. On 
the following day the appointment of Robin- 
son was announced. 

The choice was popularly regarded as a con- 
cession to the moderate party in the church 
(BoTEB, Queen Anne^ 17&, p. 515 ; preamble 
to patent, Brit. Mus. 811 K 54). But it was 
really intended to preface the bishop's nomi- 
nation as the first Englidi plenipotentiary at 
the peace conference to be held in uie following 
year at Utrecht. The chief di iHculties to the 
peace had already been removed by the secret 
operations conducted by Harley and Mesnager 
tnrough Prior and the Abb6 Gaultier. The 
ministers now wanted a dignified exponent of 
English views to represent them at the con- 
gress, and in the absence of any tory peer of 
adequate talent and energy, after the unex- 
pected deaths of Newcastle and Jersey, Harley 
fell bade on the bishop, who possessed genuine 
qualifications. The worst that was said of 
tne selection was that the appointment of an 
ecclesiastic to high diplomatic office smacked 
of medieval practice. Tickell warmly com- 
mended in verse the queen's choice of * mitred 
Bristol.' Strafford accepted the office of se- 
cond plenipotentiary. The bishop was the 
first to arrive at Utrecht on 16 Jan. 1712 
(fifteen days after the date appointed for the 
commencement of the negotiations), and he 
opened the conference on 29 Jan., appearing 
in a black velvet gown, with gold loops and 
a train borne by two sumptuously duressed 
pages. Despite rumours which were spread in 
London to the contrary, the two English 
diplomatists worked well together. After 
the fiasco of the allies before Denain in Mav, 
there devolved upon the bishop the awk- 
ward task of explaining why Ormonde had 
been directed to co-operate no longer with 
the allied forces. From this time the Engp- 
lish envoys detached themselves with cou- 
siderable adroitness from the impracticable 
demands of the emperor. A suspension of 
arms was proposed by Bobinson on 27 June. 
During the absences of Strafford at The 
Hague and in Paris, the Anglo-French 
understanding was furthered by meetings at 
Robinson's house in Utrecht, and on 
11 April 1718 he was the first to sign the 
definitive treaty, by the chief terms of 
which England secured Newfoundland, 
Acadia, Hudson's Bay, Gibraltar, and 
Minorca, together with a guarantee against 
the union or the French and Spanish crowns, 
the recognition of the protestant succession, 
and the Assiento contract (cf. Leckt, HiaU 




Qf Inland dttring the Eighteenth Century, 
Tol. L and art. Moobb, Arthub). 

Shortlj after his return ^8 Aug. 1713) 

Kobinaon 'w^as nominated to tne see of Lon- 

don, in succession to Compton, and his 

election was confirmed on 18 March 1714. 

He gare a strong support to the schism bill ; 

hat upon the estrangement of Ilarley, now 

earlofOxfordy and Bolingbroke, he adhered 

to the former, and eyinced his loyalty to the 

pn)testant succession by voting agamst the 

coot on 13 April 1714 ; he met his reward 

wiien, in September 1714, he was put upon 

the pnTj council of George I. Me never- 

tbel^ opposed some phrases in the king*s 

speedi as injurious to the memory of Queen 

Amie, at whoee deathbed he was a con- 

ipicaouB figure (^aaxsEJUhirD^Queene of Eng- 

hmdy In December 1714 he ofilered, in his 

capacity as dean of the Chapel Royal^ to wait 

upon the princess (afterwards Queen Garo- 

Inie), in order to satisfjr any doubts or 

■cnipleB she might entertain in regard to the 

Aa^ican mode in religion {Diary of Lady 

Cawper^'p. ^l}y the princess was much piqued 

by this ofiicioumess. In the following year, 

wiieo StrafiTord was impeached for his share 

in the trea^ of Utrecht, it was said in the 

hoase l^t it appeared as if Robinson ' were 

to have benefit of clergy.' The bishop am- 

bignoosly explained to the upper house that 

he had beoi kept greatly in the dark as to 

the precise course of the negotiations. He 

had the fortitude to protest against the abuse 

of the whig majority by opjwsing Harley's 

impeachment and the septennial act of 1716. 

His last appearance in the House of Lords 

was as a supporter of the justly contemned 

'BiJl for the sumiression of blasphemy and 

proianeDess' (2 May 1721). 

Bobinsont who is commended by Charles 
Wheatley for haying made ' a j ust and elegant 
tianalation of the £n«^lish Ltui]^ into Ger- 
man,' assisted Archbishop Sharp m his efforts 
to restore episcopacy in Prussia, and, on ac- 
count of his strenuous opposition to Whiston 
and dacke, Waterland spoke warmly of his 
' truly pimitiTe zeal against the adversaries 
of oar common faith ;' but, though good-hu- 
moured, charitable, and conscientious in the 
discharge of episcopal duties, Robinson was 
not conspicuously successful either as a bishop 
or theological controTersialist. In 1719 he 
issued an admonitory letter to his cler^ on 
the iimovations upon the doxology mtro- 
dnced by Clarke and Whiston. The latter 
r^oined in a scathing 'Letter of Thanks.' 
An ally of Robinson's made an unconvincing 
reply, which Whiston in another letter sub- 
jected to fother ridicule. Other whigs and 
i'lJafimtcTg commented no less forcibly upon 

the bishop's shortcomings. Galamy obser^'es 
that his displays of ' ignorance and hebetude 
nnd incompetency' as bishop of London dis^ 
gusted his mends, who ' wished him anywhere 
out of siriit' (Oalamt, Oton Life, 1829, ii. 
270-1). %ut Robinson was eminently liberal 
in his benefactions. He built and endowed 
airee school and rebuilt the church and par- 
sonage at his native place of deasby, where 
he more than once visited his father's cot- 
tage. To Oriel College he gave, in 1719, the 
sum of 760/. for the erection of a block of 
buildings in the college garden, now the 
back quadrangle, on which there is an in- 
scription recording the gift and ascribing it 
to the suggestion of the bishop's first wife, 
Mary ; at the same time he devoted 2,600^. 
to the support of three exhibitioners at Oriel ; 
he presented an advowson to Balliol Col- 
lege, of which society he was visitor ; he also 
greatly improved the property of the see at 

Robinson died at Hampstead on 11 April 
1723 (Hist. Hey, Chron. Diary, p. 18), and 
was privately buried in the churchyard at 
Fulham on 19 April (the long Latin epitaph is 
pointed in Ltsgnb's Environs and in Faulk- 
siSBi"^ Fulham ; cf. Le Neve, Fasti Eccl Angl. 
ii. 304-6^. He married, first, Maiy, daugh- 
ter of WiUiam Langton, a nephew of Abra- 
ham Langton of The How, Lancashire ; and, 
secondly, Emma, widow of Thomas, son of 
Sir Francis Comwailis of Abermarlais, Wales, 
and daughter of Sir Job Charlton, hart. ; she 
was buried at Fulham on 26 Jan. 1748. The 
bishop, who left no children, bequeathed his 
manor of Hewick-upon Bridge, near Ripon, 
to a son of his brother Christopher in Virginia. 

Besides his ' Account of Sweden,' Robin- 
son only published two sermons and a few 
admonitions and charges to the cler^ of 
his diocese. In 1741 Richard Rawlmson 
'rescued from the grocers and chandlers' a 
parcel of Robinson's letters and papers relat- 
ing to the treaty, which had been in the 
possession of the bishopis private secretary, 
Anthony Gibbon (Letter of 24 June, Ballard 
MS. ii. 69). Portions of his diplomatic cor- 
respondence are preserved among the Straf- 
ford papers at the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 22206>7). In person the bishop was 
described by Mackay as * a little brown man 
of grave and venerable appearance, in deport- 
ment, and everything else, a Swede, of good 
sense, and very careful in his business.' 

An anonymous portrait, painted while he 
was in Sweden, is preserved at Fulham 
Palace (Ca^. of Nat Portraits at South Ken- 
sijigton, 1867, No. 1 70). It has been engraved 
by Vertue, Picart, Vandergucht, and others, 
and for the ' Oxford Almanac ' of 1742. A 




copy of the Fulham portrait was presented 
to the college in 1852 by Provost Edward 
Hawkins [q. v.] The bishop's widow pre- 
sented to Oriel College a portrait of Queen 
Anne, which the latter had expressly ordered 
to be painted by Dahl in 1713 for presenta- 
tion to Kobinson. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Foster's 
PeecBge, 1882; Burnet's Own Time, 1823, ii. 
636, 680, 607, 608, 630; Beyer's Annals of 
Queen Anne, 1786, pp. 243, 298, 476| 616, 623, 
632, 667, 664,669, 683,614, 618, 649, 668, 682, 
706, 713; Tindal's Contin. of Bapin, 1746, ir. 
222, 247, 260, 276, 809-10, 407, 429, 680; 
Calendars of Treasury Papers, toIs. iii. and iy. 
passim; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 600, iv. 281, t. 
496, viii. 4, ix. 86 ; Noble's Contin. of Granger, 
ii. 79 ; Lrsons's Environs of London, ii. 886-6 ; 
Elulkner^i Hist. Account of Fulham, 1813, p. 1 17 ; 
Oent.Ma^. 1802, i. 129-80 ; NoUsand Queries, 
2nd ser. u. 424, 4th ser. i. 436, 6th ser. iii. 187, 
▼. 249, 886, 476, vi. 437, 646; EembWs State 
Papers and Correspondence, 1867, pp* 90, 134, 
219, 480 ; Zouch's Works, ii. 406 ; Whiston's 
Memoir of Clarke, p. 99 ; Calamy's Account, ii. 
289, 270 ; Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble,iii. 37, 
71, 81, 218, 364, and Beliquise Hearnians,!!. 
133-4; Anderson's Colonial Church, iii. 49; 
Lady Cowp^^r's Diary, p. 41 ; Addison's Works 
(Bohn),v.246,890; Stoughton's English Church 
under Anne. i. 76, 124 ; Milman's AnnaU of St. 
Paul's, p. 466 ; Abbey's English Bishops in the 
Eighteenth Centuxy; Macray's Annals of the 
Bodleian Library, p. 176; Went'worth Papers, 
passim; Hyde Corresp. ed. Singer, i. 179; Marl- 
borough's Letters and Despatches, ed. Murray, 
Tols. i. iii. and ir. passim ; Coxe's Memoirs of 
Marlborough, 1848, t>p. 37-68; Swift's Works, 
ed. Sootty passim ; Macknight's Life of Boling- 
broke, jMssim; Stanhope's Hist, of England; 
Wyon's JSngland under Queen Anne ; Journal de 
P. de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau, t. xiii. 
and xiv. ; Dumont's Lettres Historiques; Casimir 
Freschot's Hist, du Congr^ et de la Paix d'Utrecht, 
1716 ; Legrelle's Succession d'Espagne, It. passim, 
esp. chap. yiii. ; Ottokar Weber^s Friede yon 
Utrecht, Gotha, 1891 ; Geijer und Carlson's Qe- 
Bchichte Sohwedens, iv. 168; Luttrell's Brief 
Belation, ir. 126, t. 282-8, 321, vi. paasim; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Brit.Mus. Cat. ; notes kindly 
supplied by Charles L. Shadwell, esq., fellow of 
Onel, Vniliam Shand, esq., of Newcastle, and 
the Ber. Edirard fiussey AdamsoUi of Gkites- 
head.] T. S. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1716-1746), por- 
trait-painter, was bom at Bath in 1716. He 
studied under John Vanderbank [^. v.^, and 
attained some success as a portrait-painter. 
Having married a wife with a fortune, he, 
on the death of Charles Jervas [q. t.], pur^ 
chased that painter's house in Cleveland 
Court. He thus inherited a fashionable 
practice; but he had not skill enough to 

keep it up. He dressed many of his sitters 
in the costume of portraits by Vandyck. 
Robinson died in 1746, before completing 
his thirtieth year. A portrait of Lady Char- 
lotte Finch by Robinson was enmved in 
mezzotint by John Faber, jun., and the title 
of the print subsequently altered to 'The 
Amorous fieauty.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting; Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1682-1763), orga- 
nist, bom in 1682, was in 1700 a <^ild of 
the chapel royal under Dr. Blow. In 1710 
he was appointed orffanist to St. Lawrence 
Jewry ; in 1716 to St. Maffnus, London Bridge 
(Btthpus). He enjoyed popularity both as 
a performer on the organ and as professor of 
the harpsichord, while as a composer there is 
extant by him the doable chant in £ flat at 
the end of vol. i. of Boyce's' Cathedral Music' 
On 20 Sept. 1727 Rooinson succeeded as or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey Dr. William 
Croft [q. T.], whose assistant he had been for 
many vears. Benjamin Cooke in 1746 be- 
came ttobinson's assistant. Robinson died 
on 80 April 1762, aged 80, and was buried 
on 13 May in the same grave with Croft. A 
portrait by T.' Johnson, engraved by Vertue, 
shows Robinson seated at a harpsichord. 

Robinson married, on 6 Sept. 1716, Ann, 
daughter of Dr. William Turner (1661-1740) 
fq. v.] She was a vocalist, and appeared as 
Mrs. Turner Robinson in 1720 a« Echo in 
Scarlatti's ' Nardssus.' On 6 Jan. 1741 she 
died, and on the 8th was buried in the west 
doister of Westminster Abbey. Several 
daughters died young ; one became a singer, 
often heard in Handel's oratorios. Robii^n 
married a second wife, who survived him, and 
had by her a son, John Daniel. 

[Hawkins's History of Music» p. 827 ; Bumpus's 
Oiganists; Grove's Diet. iii. 139; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. x. 181; Boyce*s Cathedral 
Harmony, i. 2, iii. 18 ; Chambttrlayne's Anglise 
Nodtia; Ohester^s Westminster Abbey Keg. 
pp. 48, 808, 813, 867, 400 ; P. 0. C. Admini- 
stration Aeto, June 1762.1 L M. M. 

BOBmSON*, JOHN (1727-1802), poU- 
tician, bom on 15 July 1727, and baptised at 
St. Lawrence, Appleby, Westmoreland, on 
14 Aug. 1727, was the eldest son of Charles 
Robinson, a thriving Applebj tradesman, 
who died on 19 June 1780, m his fifly-eighth 
year (Bellabis, (Murch Notes, p. 23), having* 
married, at Eirkby There on 19 May 1726, 
Hannah, daughter of Richard Deane of Ap- 
pleby. John was educated until the age of 
seventeen at Applebv grammar school, and 
was then artideoT to his aunt's husband, Ri- 




diaid Wordswor t h, of Sockbridge in Barton, 
Westmoreland, derk of the peace for the 
eonntyy and grandfather of the poet Words- 
worth. Wlien he was admitted as attorney 
he practiaed in his native town, and became 
town deik on 1 Oct. 1760; he was mayor in 
1760-1. On 2 Feb. 1759 he was entered as 
a student of Gray's Inn (Fostbb, Chraffs Inn 

Is 1769 Robinaon married Mary Crowe, said 
to bave been daughter of Nathaniel Crowe, a 
wealthy merchant and planter in Barbados, 
obtaining -with her an ample fortune. He 
abo inherited from his grandfather, John Bo- 
lanson, alderman of Appleby 1703-46, much 
property in the county, and eighteen bunfa^e 
tenures^ carrying votes for the borough, m 
Appleby. On the accession of Sir James 
Lowther, afterwards Earl of Lonsdale, to the 
yast estates of that &mily, the abilities of 
Eobinson, *a steady, sober-minded, indus- 
trious, clever man of business,' and a man 
*■ whose will was in constant subjection to 
hk xmderstanding,' soon attracted his notice. 
He became his principal law agent and land 
^ewiid, w^as created a magistrate and de- 
paty4ientenant of Westmoreland in 1762, 
and throoff h the influence of Lowther, who 
is said to have qualified him, as was not un- 
eommonly done at that date, for election, was 
returned as member for the county on 6 Jan. 
1761, and continued to represent it until the 
dissolution in September 1774. 

In 1766 Robinson rebuilt the White 
House, Appleby, which was described as ' a 
laise oblong-square, whitewashed mansion,' 
and lived there in much splendour. He en- 
tertained in it Lord North, when prime 
minister. Lowthei's politics were tory, but 
be diffiefed from North on the American war, 
and xealously co-operated with the whigs. 
He expected his nominees to follow him on 
all questions, but Robinson, who had been 
created secretary of the treasury by Lord 
North on 6 Feb. 1770, declined, and a fierce 
quarrel ensued. Lowther sent a challenge to 
a duel, bttt the hostile meeting was refused. 
Bcliiiison at once resigned the post of law 
agent to tlie Lowther estates, and was suc- 
ceeded in it by his first cousin, John Words- 
worth, the poet's father. 

Bolnnson held thesecretamhipof thetrea^ 
smy until 1783. Through his quarrel with 
Lowther it was necessary for nim to find 
another seat, and he found refuge in the safe 
government borough of Harwich, which he re- 
pft^ented 60m October 1774 until his death. 
UL 1780 he was also returned for Seaford in 
Smsex, but preferred his old constituency. 
While in ofl& he was the chief ministerial 
agent in earryingonthebusinessofparliament, 

and he was the medium of communication 
between the ministry and its supporters. The 
whig satires of the c[ay,such as toe ' RoUiad ' 
and the ' Pjrobationary Odes,' re^larly in- 
veighed against him, and Junius did not spare 
him. Those whom he seduced from the opposi- 
tion were known as ' Robinson's rats,' and 
Sheridan, when attacking bribery and its 
authors, retorted, in reference to shouts of 
' name, name,' by looking fixedl^r at Robinson 
on the treasury bench, and exdaiming, ' Tes, 1 
could name him as soon as I could say Jack Ro- 
binson.' He brought, on 8 July 177/ an action 
against Henry Sampson Woodiall, printer of 
the ' Public Advertiser,' for Ubel, in accusing 
him of sharing in government contracts, and 
obtained a verdict of forty shillings and costs 
{Annual Beg. xx. 101). The means of cor- 
ruption which he was forced to employ were 
distasteful to him, and his own hands were 
clean. He declined acting with North on 
his coalition with Fox. On his retirement 
from the post of secretary of the treasury, he 
came into the enjoyment of a pension of 
1,000/. a year {Hansard, xxii. 1846>68). His 
correspondence and official papers, including 
many communications from George IH, are 
in the possession of the Marquis of Aberga- 
venny at Eridge Castle. The substance of 
part of them is described in the 10th Report 
of the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
(App. pt. vi.) Excerpts from the whole col- 
lections are beinr edited by Mr. B. F. Stevens 
for the Royal mstorical Society. 

After their quarrel Robinson offered his 
estates in Westmoreland and the burgage 
tenures in Appleby to Lowther, and, on ms 
declining to purchase, sold nearly the whole 
property for 29,000/. to Lord Thanet, who 
thus acquired an equal interest in the repre- 
sentation. About 1778 he purchased Wyke 
Manor at Syon Hill, Isleworth, between 
Brentford and Osterley Park, where he 
'modernised and improved ' the house. He 
was created a D.C.L. of Oxford on 9 July 1773, 
when Lord North, as chancellor, visited the 
university; he declined a peerage in 1784, 
but in December 1787 Pitt appointed him 
surveyor-general of woods and forests. He 
planted at Windsor millions of acorns and 
twenty thousand oak trees, and both as poli- 
tician and agriculturist was a great favourite 
of George III. In 1794 he printed a letter to 
Sir John Sinclair, chairman of the board of 
agriculture, on the enclosure of wastes, which 
was circulated by that board {Kenyon M88, ; 
Hist MS8. Comm, 14th Rep. App. pt. iv. 

f. 541). Robinson had a paralytic stroke in 
782, and he died of apoplexy, the fate he 
always dreaded, at Harwich, on 23 Dec. 1802, 
and was buried at Isleworth on 2 Jan. 1803, 




His wife died atWyke House on 8 June 1805, 
aged 71, and was buried at Isle worth on 
5 June. Their only child, 'pretty Mary Ro- 
binson/ was baptised at St. Lawrence Church, 
Appleby, on 24 March 1769, and married, 
at Isleworth on 3 Oct. 1781, the Hon. Henry 
Neville, afterwards second Earl of Aberga- 
yenny. She died of consumption at HotweUs, 
Bristol, on 26 Oct. 1796, and was buried in 
Isleworth churchyard, where a moniunent 
was erected to her memory. Her home was 
at Wyke House, and all ner children were 
bom there. 

By his will Robinson left legacies to 
Captain John Wordsworth and Richard 
Wordsworth of Staple Inn, London. The 
enormous wealth wmch it was currently re- 
ported that Robinson had amassed had no 
existence in fact. His means were compara- 
tively small. There was no fixed salary in 
the surveyorship, and Robinson was autho- 
rised by Pitt to take what he thought fitting. 
After his death his accounts were called for, 
and it was some time before they were passed, 
and the embargo placed by the crown on the 
transfer of his Isleworth property to Lord 
Jersey removed. Robinson was a liberal bene- 
factor to Isleworth, Appleby, and Harwich, 
leaving books to the grammar schools in the 
last two towns, and building at Appleby * two 
handsome crosses or obelisks one at each end ' 
of the high street (Lindsbt, Harwich, 100). 

His portrait (he is described, but not quite 
accurately, as * a little thickset handsome 
fellow ') was painted by G. F. Joseph, and 
en^ved by W. Bond. From it there was 
pamted by Jacob Thompson of Hackthorpe 
a picture which is now at Lowther Castle. 

[Atkinson's Westmorland Worthies, ii. 151- 
160 ; Westmorland Gaiette, 26 Dec. 1885 ; 
Foster^s Alumni Ozon. ; Gen. Mag. 1802 ii. 
1172, 1805 ii. 680; Burke's Vicissitudes of 
Families (1883 edit.), i. 287-300 ; Aunjiw's 
Isleworth, pp. 179, 212; Notes and Qutvies, 
2nd ser. is. 412-13; Someaccountof the Family 
of Bobinson, of the White House, Applnby 
(1874), passim.] W. l\ C. 

ROBINSON-, JOHN, D.D. (1774-1840), 
scholar, bom of humble parentage at Temple 
Sowerby, Westmoreland, on 4 Jan. 1774, was 
educated at the grammar school, Penrith, and 
at Christ's C^olleffe, Cambridge, where he was 
admitted a sizar 1 Jan. 1807. He was master of 
the grammar school, Ravenstonedale, West- 
moreland, from 1 795 to 1818, perpetual curate 
of Kavenstonedale from 26 June 1813 to 1833, 
and rector from 31 July 1818 of Clifton, and 
from 12 Aug. 1833 of Clibum, both in West- 
moreland, until his death on 4 Dec. 1840. He 
was author of several scholastic works, and 
is described on the title-pages, from 1807 as of 

Christ's (Allege, Cambridge, of which, how- 
ever, he was not a graduate, and from 1815 
as D.D. His works, all of which were pub- 
lished at London, are as follows: 1. 'An 
Easv Grammar of History, Ancient and 
Modem,' 1806, 12mo ; new edition, enlarged 
by John Tillotson, with the title 'A Gram- 
mar of Historvy Ancient and Modem,' 1856^ 
12mo. 2. ' Modem History, for the use of 
Schools,' 1807, 8vo. 3. ' Arcnseologia Grseca,' 
1807, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1827. 4. ' A Theo- 
logical, Biblical, Ecclesiastical Dictionary,' 
18l5, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1836. 5. ' Ancient 
History: exhibiting a Summary View of the 
Bise, Progress, Revolutions, Decline, and 
Fall of the States and Nations of Antiquity,' 
1831, 8vo (expanded from the 'Easy Gram- 
mar'). 6. * Universal Modern History : ex- 
hibiting the Rise, Progress, and Revolutions 
of various Nations £rom the Age of Ma- 
homet to the Present Time,' 1839, 8vo (ex- 
panded from the 'Modem History for the 
use of Schools'). 

Robinson also compiled a 'Guide to the 
Lakes in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and 
Lancashire, illustrated with Twenty Views 
of Local Scenery and a Travelling Map of 
the Adjacent Country,' 1819, 8vo ; and con- 
tributed the letterpress to an unfinished 
series of ' Views of the Lakes in the North 
of England, from Original Paintings by the 
most Eminent Artists/ 1833, 4to. His 
'Ancient History ' forms the basis of Francis 
Young['s 'Ancient History: a Svnopsis of 
the Rise, Progress, Decline, and I? all of the 
States and Nations of Antiquity,' London, 
1873, 4 vols. 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1841, i. 320 ; Foster's Index 
Eccles. ; Whellan's Cnmberland and Westmore- 
land, pp. 766, 790, 791 ; Biographical Diet, of 
Living Authors, (1816); Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit.] J. M. R. 

(1791-1863), chief justice of Upper Canada, 
the second son of Christopher Robinson and 
his wife Esther, daughter of the Rev. John 
Sayre of New Brunswick, was bom at Ber- 
thier in the province of Quebec on 26 July 
1791. His lather — cousin of Sir Frederick 
Philijjse Robinson [q. v.] — served during the 
American war of independence as a loyalist 
in the queen's rancers, and was present as an 
ensign m ComwaUis's army at tne surrender 
of Yorktown in 1781. He then settled at 
Toronto, where he practised as a barrister. At 
an early age John became a pupil of Dr. 
Strachan (afterwards bishop of Toronto), was 
further educated at Cornwall, Upper Canada, 
and finally entered an attomers office. In 
1812, when the war with the United States 
broke out, Robinson Tolonteered for the 




militia, and received a commission under Sir 
Isaac Brock; he was present at the capture 
of Fort Detroit and at Queenston and several 
other engagements. 

In 1814 Kobinson served for one session 
is clerk of the house of assembly for Upper 
Canada ; at the end of the year he qnabned 
for the bar, and was at once called upon to 
act for a short time as attomey-^neral. In 
181-5 he became solicitor-general, and in Fe- 
broiTy 1818 attomey-geDeral, having rapidly 
ae^oired one of the best practices at the 
bar, and exerting remarkable influence with 
jmies. He entered the assembly, but soon 
migrated to the legislative council on nomina- 
tion, being speaker of that body from 1828 
to 1840. He was the acknowle<L?ed leader of 
the tory party both in and out oiparliament; 
and one of the clique known as the ' Family 
Comnact ' of Ganaaa ; as such he was violently 
attacked by William Lyon Mackenzie [q. v. 1 
On 15 July 1829 he became chief justice of 
ITpper Canada, remaining in the council till 
the reonion of the two Ganadas in 1840. 
That union he stoutly opposed, but on its 
completion he took an active part in adjusting 
the financial arrangements, and received the 
thanks of the Upper Canada assembly. 

From this time Kobinson became more and 
more absorbed in the heavy work of the 
courts. He was created O.B. in November 
18-50, and a baronet in 1854. He was created 
D.C.L. of Oxford on 20 June 1865. He died 
at Toronto on 31 Jan. 1863. 

Robinson is a prominent figure in the 
history of Upper Uanada ; he was the em- 
bodiment of the 'high church and state 
tory,' and was always suspicious of the de- 
mocratic leaders. In his earlier days he was 
impulsive, and as attorney-general prose- 
cuted the editor of the ' Freeman ' for a libel 
on himself. He was a pleasant speaker, with 
an easy, flowing, and equable style. His 
work was marked by indefatigable industry 
and research. 

Robinson married, in London in 1817, 
Emma, daughter of Charles "Walker ofHarlea- 
den, Middlesex, by whom he had four sons 
and four daug^hters. He was succeeded in 
the baronetcrp' by his eldest son, James Lukin, 
who died on 21 Aug. 1894. His second son, 
John Beverley, bom in 1820, was lieutenant- 
governor of Ontario from 1880 to 1887. • 

Robinson left several small works, but 
none of more importance than his pamphlet 
on * Canada and the Canada Bill,^embodv- 
ing his aiguments against the union of the 

[Koigan's Sketches of Celebrated Caoadians ; 
Barker's Canadiaa Monthly Magazine, May 1846; 
l>)dge'fBiiODetage, 1863 ; Burke'sPeerage, 1896; 

Foster*8 Alumni Oxon. and Peerage, 1882; With- 
row's Hist, of Canada; Morgan's Bibliotheea 
Canadensis; Ryerson's American Loyaliets, ii. 
198-9.] 0. A. H. 

1871), line engraver, was bom at Bolton, 
Lancashire, in 1796, and passed his boyhood 
in Staffordshire. A.t the age of eighteen he 
became a pupil of James Heath, A.R.A., 
with whom he remained a little more than 
two years. He was still a young man when, 
in 1823, he was commissioned to engrave for 
the Artists' Fund *The Wolf and the Lamb/ 
the copyright of which had been given to 
that institution by the painter, William Mq1-» 
ready, R.A., who was one of its founders. 
The plate, for which the engraver received 
eight hundred guineas, proved a success ; one 
thousand impressions were sold, and the 
fund was benefited to the extent of rather 
more than 900/. In 1824 Robinson sent to 
the exhibition of the Society of Briti^ Ar- 
tists six engravings — * The Abbey Gate, 
Chester,* a 'Gipsy,' and four portraits, in- 
cluding that of Georgiana, duchess of Bed- 
ford, alter Sir George Hayter, but he never 
exhibited again at that gallery. In the next 
few years he engraved many jpnvate por- 
traits and illustrations for books, incluoing 

* A Spanish Lady,' after Gilbert Stuart 
Newton, R.A., for the * Literary Souvenir ' 
of 1827 ; ' The Minstrel of Chamonix,' after 
Henry W. Pickersgill, R.A., for the * Amu- 
let ' of 1880 ; ' The Flower Girl,* after P. A. 
Gaugain, for the ' Forget me not ' of 1830 ; 
and three plates, after Stothard, for Rogers's 

* Italy,' 1830. He was one of the nine emi- 
nent engravers who, in 1836, petitioned the 
House of Commons for an investigation into 
the state of the art of engraving in this 
country, and who, with many other artists, 
in 1837, addressed a petition to the king 
pravingfor the admission of engravers to the 
nigliest rank in the Royal Academy — an act 
of justice which was not conceded until some 
years later. In 1866, however, Robinson 
was elected an 'associate engraver of the 
new class,' and in the following year lost 
his election as a full member only by the 
casting vote of the president. Sir Charles 
EasthJie, which was given in favour of 
George Thomas Doo; on the retirement of 
the latter in 1867 he was elected a royal 
academician. Among his more importani 
works were * The Enoperor Theodosius refused 
admission into the Church by St. Ambrose ' 
and a portrait of the Countess of Bedford, 
both after the pictures by Vandyck in the 
National Gallery ; * James Stanley, Earl of 
Derby, and his Family,' also after Vandyck ; 

* The Spanish Flower Girl/ after MuriUo ; 




'Napoleon and Pope Pius VII/ after Sir 
David Wilkie ; ' Sir Walter Scott,' after Sir 
Thomas Lawrence ; ' The Mother and Child/ 
after Charles Bobert Leslie, R.A. ; ' Little 
Red Riding Hood ' (Lady Rachel Russell), 
' The Mantflla ' (Hon. Mrs. Lister, afterwards 
Lady Theresa Lewis), ' Twelfth Night' (Mar- 
chioness of Abercorn), and ' Getting a Shot,' 
all after Sir Edwin Landseer ; * Queen Vic- 
toria,' after John Partridge; 'The Sisters,' 
after F. P. Stephanoff ; < Bon Jour, Messieurs,' 
after Frank Stone, A.R A. ; and, lastly, his 
fine plate of Anne, countess of Bedford, after 
the celebrated picture by Vandyck at Pet- 
worth, upon which he worked from time to 
time whenever he felt disposed to use his 
ffraver. This ch^ cPcsuwe of refined and 
aelicate execution he sent to the Ro^al Aca- 
demy exhibition in 1861, and again in 1864. 

Besides Uie portraits already mentioned, 
he engraved those of George Bidder, the 
calculating boy, after Miss Hayter; Nicho- 
las I, Emperor of Russia, after George Dawe, 
R.A. ; Napoleon Bonaparte, when first con- 
sul, after Isabey ; the Duke of Sussex, after 
Thomas Phillips, R. A. ; Baron Bunsen, after 
George Richxnond, R.A. ; Lablache, after 
Thomas Caxrick, and many others. He re- 
ceived a first-class gold medal at the Paris 
International Exhibition of 1865. 

Robinson diedl at New Grove, Petworth, 
Sussex, where he had lonff resided, on 21 Oct. 
1871, aged 75. Somewhat late in life he 
married a lady of property, which rendered 
him independent of his art, and enabled him 
to devote to his plates all the time and 
labotur which he thought necessary to make 
them masterpieces of engraving. He was 
a justice of the peace for the county of Sussex 
and an honorary member of the Imperial 
Academy of the Fine Arts at St. Petersburg. 

[Art Journal, 1871, p. 293; Atheneam, 1871, 
ii. 666 ; Illustrated London News, 8 Aug. 1867, 
with portrait ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gxaveni, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9. ii. 
392 ; Redgrave's Diet of Artists of the English 
School, 1878 ; Pye's Patronage of British Art, 
1845.] R. E. Q. 

KER a822-1888), writer on French history 
under ner maiden name of Frebb, daughter 
of John Booth Freer, M.D., was bom at 
Leicester in 1822. Her first book, * Life of 
Maivuerite d'Angouldme, Queen of Navarre, 
Ducheese d'Alen^on, and De Berry, Sister 
of Francis I,' appeared in 1854, in two 
volumes. In 1861 she married the Rev. 
John Robinson, rector of Widmerpool, near 
Nottingham, but all her works bear her 
maiden name. She continued publishing 
books dealing with French history untu 

1866. ShediedonU July 1888. Her works 
are mere compilations, although she claimed 
to have had access to manuscripts and other 
unpublished material. Although inferior in 
style and arrangement to the books of Julia 
Pardee [q. v.] on similar subjects, they en* 
joyed for a time wide popularity. Two of 
them, ' Marguerited' AngoiuSme * and ' Jeanne 
d'Albret' (1855^, reached second editionfl. 
Mrs. Robinson died on 14 July 1888. 

Her other works are: 1. 'Elizabeth de 
Valois, Queen of Spain and the Court of 
Philip n,' 2 vols. 1857. 2. ' Henry HI, King 
of Fiance and Poland : his Court and Times/ 
8 vols. 1858. 3. « History of the Reim of 
Henry IV, King of France and Navarre,''^part 
i. 2 vols. 1860 ; part. ii. 2 vols. 1861 ; part ill. 
2 vols. 1863. 4. < The Married Life of Anne 
of Austria and Don Sebastian/ 2 vols. 1864. 
5. * The Regency of Anne of Austria/ 2 vols. 

[AUiboDe*s Dictionary, ii. 1839; Athonnam, 
1888.] E. L. 

as 'Perdita/ actress, author, and mistress 
of Geoige, prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV), of Irish descent, was born on 
27 Nov. 1758 at CoUege Green. Bristol. 
The original name of her fathers family, 
McDermott, had been changed by one of her 
ancestors into Darbv. Her father, the cap- 
tain of a Bristol whaler, was bom in Ajnerica. 
Throuffh her mother, whose name was Seys. 
she clamied descent from Locke. She showed 
precocious ability and was fond of elegiac 
poetry, reciting at an early age verses from 
Pope and Mason. Her earliest education was 
received at the school in Bristol kept by the 
sisters of Hannah More [q. v.] A scheme of 
establishing a whale fishery on the coast of 
Labrador and employing Esquimaux labour, 
which her father originated, and in which he 
embarked his fortune, led to his temporary 
settlement in America. His desertion of 
her mother brought with it grave financial 
difficulties. Mary was next placed at a school 
in Chelsea under a Mrs. Lorrington, an able 
erratic but drunken woman, from whom 
she claims to have learnt all she ever knew, 
and by whom she was encouraged in writing 
verses. She passed thence to a school kept 
by a Mrs. Leigh in Chelsea, which she was 
compelled to leave in consequence of her 
father's neglect. After receiving, at the early 
age of thirteen, a proposal of marriage from a 
captain in the royal navy, she temporarily 
assisted her mother in keeping a girls school 
at Chelsea. This establisnment was broken 
up bv her father, and she was sent to a 
' nnisning school ' at Oxford House, Mary- 
lebone, kept by a Mrs. Hervey. Hussey, the 




duieiiig-iiiaster there, was ballet-master at 
Gcnrent Garden Theatre. Thioiurh him she 
was introduced to Thomas HullTq. t.1 and 
Afterwards to Arthur Murphy [q. t.J and 
David GUrrick. 

Struek by her appearance, Garrick offered 
tohrin^ her oat as Cordelia to his own Lear. 
He paid her much attention, told her her 
Toioe recalled that of Mrs. Gibber, and encou- 
raged hsr to attend the theatre and familiarise 
hoself with stage life and proceedings. But 
her appearance on the boards was lonff de- 
ferred owing to her marriage, on 12 April 
1774 at St. Martin's Church, with Thomas 
Robinson, an articled clerk, who was re- 
gvded by her mother as a man of means 
and expectations. At his request her nup- 
ttsk were kept secret, and she lived for a 
vlule with h^ mother in a house in Ghreat 
Qoeen Street, on the site now occupied by 
toe Freemasons' Tavern. After a viut to 
Wales to see the father of her husband, 
whose bbth was illegitimate, she returned to 
LcndoB Kod lived with Robinson at No. 18 
Hattoa Garden. During two years she led 
a fuihionable life, neglected h^ her husband, 
reeeifingooaipromismg attentions from Lord 
Lvttdton and other rakes, and at the end 
of this period she shared the imprisonment 
of her husband, who was arrested for debt. 

During a confinement in the king's bench 
prison, extending over almost ten months, 
she oecopied in writing verses the hours that 
were not ^ent in menial occupation or attend- 
ing to her child. Her poems, while in manu- 
script, obtained for her the patronage of the 
Duchess of Devonshire ; a first collection was 
poblished in 1776 (2 vols.) After her release 
firom prison, she took refuge in Newman 
Street. There she was seen by Sheridan, to 
whom she recited. At the instance of Wil- 
liam Brereton she now applied once more to 
Garrieky who, though he had retired from 
the stage, still took an active interest in the 
afiairs of Dmry Lane. In the peen-room of 
the thiMtre she recited the prmcipal scenes 
of Joliet, supported by Brereton as Homeo. 
Juliet was chosen for her d6but by Ghirrick, 
who superintended the rehearsals, and on 
some occasions went through the various 
scenes with her. A remunerative engage- 
meat was promised her, and on 10 Dec. 
1776 she appeared with marked success 
as Juliet, (iarrick occupied a seat in the 
oieheetn. On 17 Feb. 1777 she was Statira 
in ' Alexander the Great,' and on 24 Feb. was 
the onginal Amanda in the 'Trip to Scar- 
bofooen/ altered by Sheridan mm Van- 
brugh%^' Belapse.' In this she had to face 
some hostility directed against the piece by 
a paUic to which it had been announced as 

a novelty. She also played for her benefit 
Fannv Sterling in the 'Clandestine Mar- 
riage.' On 30 Sept. 1777 she appeared as 
Ophelia, on 7 Oct. as Lady Anne in ' Bichard 
the Third,' on 32 Dec. as the Lady in 
' Oomus,' on 10 Jan. 1778 as Emily in the 
'Runaway,' on 9 April as Araminta in 
the 'Confederacy,' on 28 April as Octavia 
in ' All for Love.' For her benefit she played 
somewhat rashlv on SO April Lady Macwth 
in place of Cordelia, for which she was pre* 
viously advertised. On this occasion her 
musical farce of the ' Lucky Escape,' of whidi 
the songs only are printed,wa8 produced. Her 
name does not appear in the list of charac- 
ters. In the following season she was the 
first Lady Plume in the 'Camp ' on 16 Oct. 
1778, and on 8 Feb. 1779 Alinda in Jephson's 
' Law of Lombardy.' She also nlayed Palmira 
in ' Mahomet,' Miss Richly in the ' Discovery,' 
Jacintha in the ' Suspicious Husband,' Fideua 
in the ' Plain Dealer, and, for her benefit, Cor- 
delia. In her fourth and last season (1779^ 
1780) she was Viola in the ' Twelfth Night,' 
Perdita in the ' Winter's Tale,' Rosi£nd, 
Oriana in the 'Inconstant Imogen,' Mrs. 
Brady in the ' Irish Widow,' and on 24 May 
1780 was the original Eliza Campley, a girl 
who masquerades as Sir Harry Revel in the 
'Miniature Picture ' of Lady Craven (ttAer* 
wards the margravine of Anspach). At tiie 
dose of the season she quitted the stage ; her 
last appearance at Drury Lane seems to have 
been on 31 May 1780. 

Her beauty, which at this time was remark- 
able, and her figure, seen to great advantage 
in the masculine dress she was accustomed 
to wear on the stage, had brought her many 
proposals from men of rank and wealth. On 
3 Dec. 1778, when Ghirrick's adaptation of the 
' Winter's Tale,' first produced on 20 Nov., 
was acted by royal command, ' Gentleman 
Smith' [see Smith, William, d, 1819], the 
Leontes, prophesied that Mrs. Robinson, who 
was looking handsomer than ever as ' Perdita,' 
would captivate the Prince of Wales (subse- 
ouently George IV). The prediction was ful- 
nlled. She received, through Lord Maiden 
(afterwards Earl of Essex), a letter signed 
' Florisel,' which was the beginning of a corre- 
spondence. After a due display of coyness on 
tne part of the heroine, who invariably signed 
herself 'Perdita,' a meeting was arranged 
at Eew, the prince being accompanied by 
the Duke of York, then bishop of Osnaburgh. 
This proved to be the first of many Romeo 
and Juliet-like encounters. Princes do not 
sigh long, and after a bond for 20,000/., to 
be paid when the prince came of age, had been 
sesled with the royal arms, signed, and given 
hex, Mrs. Robinson's position as the royal 




mistress was recognised. After no long 

Feriod the prince, who had transferred his 
interest' to another ' fieiir one/ wrote her a 
cold note intimating that they must meet 
no more. One further meeting was brought 
about by her pertinacity, but the rupture was 
finaL The royal bond was unpaid, and Mrs. 
Robinson, knowing how openly she had been 
compromised, dared not face the public and 
resume the profession she had dropped. Ulti- 
mately, when all her letters had been left un- 
answered and she was heavily burdened with 
debt and unable to pay for her establishment 
in Cork Street, Fox granted her in 1788 a 
pension of 500/. a year, half of which after her 
death was to descend to her daughter. She 
then went to Paris, where she attracted much 
attention, and declined overtures from the 
Duke of Orleans ; she also receiyed a purse 
netted by the hands of Marie- Antoinette, who 
(gratified, no doubt, by the repulse admini- 
stered to Philippe d'OrUans) aiadreesed it to 
* La Belle An^aise.' In Paris she is said to 
hare opened an academy. Returning to Eng- 
land, sue settled at Brighton. Report, which 
is sanctioned by Horace Walpole, coupled her 
name with Charles James Fox. She formed a 
close intima<^, extending over many yeftrs, 
with Colonel (afterwards Sir Bana8tre)Tarle- 
ton, an officer m the English army in America. 
In a journey undertaken in his behalf, when 
he was in a state of pecuniary difficulty, she 
contracted an illness that ended in a species 
of paralysis of her lower limbs. 

From this period she devoted herself to 
literature, for which she had always shown 
some disposition. She had already published, 
besides her poems (1776), * Captivity,' a poem, 
and ' Celadon and Lydia,' a tale, both printed 
together in 4to in 1777. Two further volumes 
of poems saw the light in 1791, 8vo; ' Ange- 
lina,' a novel, 3 vols. 12mo, in 1796. <The 
False Friend,' a domestic story, 4 vols. 12mo, 
in 1799, 'Lyrical Tales' in 1800, and * Effii- 
sions of Love,' Svo, n.d., purporting to be her 
correspondence with the I^ince of Wales. 
She is also credited with 'Yaucenza, or the 
Dangers of Credulitjr,' a novel, 1792 ; * Wal- 
sin^am, or the Pupil of Nature,' a domestic 
story, 2nd ed. 4 vols. 12mo,1806, twice trans- 
lated into French; and 'Sappho and Phaon,' 
a series of sonnets, 1796, 16mo. ' Hubert 
de Sevrac,' a ' Monody to the Memory of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds,' and a ' Monody to the Me- 
mory of the late Queen of France,' ' Sight,' 
' The Cavern of Woe,' and * Solitude ' werepub- 
lished together in 4to. To these may be added 
' The Natural Daughter,' ' Impartial Reflec- 
tions on the Situation of the Queen of France,' 
and ' Thoughts on the Condition of Women.' 
Halkett and Laing attribute to her a ' Letter 

to the Women of En{;land on the Injustice 
of Mental Subordination, with Anecdotes by 
Anne Frances Randall,' London, 1799, Svo. 
Under the pseudonym of Laura Maria^ she 
published 'The Mistletoe,' a Christmas tale, 
m verse, 1800. She is said to have taken 
part under various signatures, in the Delia 
Cruscan literature [see Mbbbt, Robebt], 
and is, bv a strange error, credited in 
' Literary Memoirs of Living Authors,' 1798 

ej David Rivers, dissentmg minister of 
ighgatel, with being the Anna Matilda 
of the * World,' who was of course Hannah 
Cowley [a. v.] Manv other poems, tracts, 
and pamphlets of the latter part of tlie eigh- 
teenth century are ascribed to her, often on 
very doubtful authority. Her latest poetical 
contributions were contributed to the 'Morn- 
ing Post' under the signature, 'Tabiths 
Bramble.' Mrs. Robinson's poems were col- 
lected bj her daughter. What is called the 
best edition, containing many pieces not 
previously published, appeared in 1806, 3 vols. 
8vo. Another edition appeared in 1826. 
Her memoirs, principally autobiographical 
but in part due to her daughter, appeared, 
4 vols. l2mo, 1801 ; with some posthumous 
pieces in verse, affain in 2 vols. 1808 ; and 
again, with introduction and notes by Mr. 
J. Fitzgerald Molloy, in 1894. 

Mrs. Robinson was also active as a play- 
wright. To Drury Lane she gave ' Nobody,' 
a farce, never prmted, but acted, 29 Nov. 
1794, by Banister, jun., Bensley, Barrvmore, 
Mrs. Jordan, Miss Pope, Mrs. Coodall, and 
Miss de Camp. It was a satire on female 
gamblers. It was played three or four times 
amid a scene of great confusion, ladies of 
rank hissing or sending their servants to hiss. 
A principal performer, supposed to be Miss 
Farren, threw up her part, saving that the 
piece was intenoed to ridicule her particular 
mend. Mrs. Robinson also wrote the ' Sici- 
lian Lover,' a tragedy, 4to, 1796, but could 
not get it acted. 

Ikury Robinson died, crippled and im- 
poverished, at Englefield Cottage, Surrey, 
on 26 Dec. 1800, ^^ed 40 (according to the 
tombstone, 43). She was buried in Old 
Windsor churchyard. Poetic epitaphs by 
J. S. Pratt and * C. H,' are over her grave. 
Her daughter, Maria or Mary Elixabeth, died 
in 1818; the latter published 'The Shrine of 
Bertha,' a novel, 1794, 2 vols. 12mo, and 
' The Wild Wreath,' 1805, 8vo, a poetical 
misoeUany, dedicated to the Duchess of York. 

Mrs. Robinson was a woman of singular 
beauty, but vain, ostentatious, fond oi ex- 
hibiting herself, and wanting in refinement. 
Her desertion by the prince and her subse- 
quent calamities were responsible for her 




Botorietj, And the referenees to her ro^ral 
lover io her Terse contributed greatly to its 
popttlsri^. She was to be seen daily in an 
ahMfd ehaziot, with a device of a basket 
likelT to be taken for a ooronet, driven by 
the UTOored of the day, with her hushand 
and etadidatee for her favour as outriders. 
*To-dqr die was a payaanne, with her straw 
hat tisd at the back of her head, looking as 
if too new to what she passed to know 
wkldie looked at. Yesterday she perhaps 
kai been the dreesed belle of Hyde Panc^ 
cnmnedy powdered, patched, painted to 
the stBoot power of rouge and white lead. 
To-Boixow ahe would be the cravatted 
Aaasoa of the lidii^-honse ; but be she what 
she mt|^t, the hats of the fashionable pro- 
sMoaden swept the ^und as she passed ' 
(HAWKnra, Memain, iL 24). A companion 
picture shows her at a later date seatea, help- 
ieaaly paralysed, in one of the waiting-rooms 
of the opera-house, ' a woman of fasHonable 
appeannee^ still beautiful, but not in the 
blooai of heanty*8 pride. In a few minutes 
her liw fi ed servanta came to her,' and after 
oavmm their arms with long white sleeves, 
* liiledher np and conveyed her to her car- 
riage* (A. p. o4). As an author she was cre- 
dited in her own day with feeling, taste, and 
and was ouled the English Saopho. 
> songs, notably ' Bounding Bute w, 
diy mo^n,' ' Lines to him who will 
oadssCaad them,' and 'The Haunted Beach,' 
oqoyed moicfa popularity in the drawinj;^ 
mom; hftt thou^ her verse has a certam 
of laeOity, it appears, to modem 

^ime, afbcted, and inept. Wolcot 
(Feter nndar) and others belauded her in 

J oelebiatmg her graces, which were real, 
and her talents, which were imaginary. 

Many portraits of Mary Robinson are in 
eststenee. Sir Joshua painted her twice, one 
portrait beinff now in the possession of Lord 
Orani^lle, and another in that of Lady Wal- 
lace. He 'orobablj used her as model in 
some of his nney pictures, for she sat to hini 
very aandnon^ throughout the year * (1782) 
(Lbsue and Tatlob, L(fe of Meynold^y ii. 
S13). The Garrick Club collection has a per- 
mit after Sir Joshua Reynolds, and one by 
r, as Rosalind. A nortrait, engraved by 
J. R. Smith, was paintea by Romney. An- 
other is in Huiah'a < Life of George IV.' A 
f sD-kagth portrait of her in undress, sitting 
by a bath, was painted by Stroehling. Two 
portraits were painted by Cosway, and one 
ftvIMiiee. AportvaitbyHoppnerwasNo.^Q 
ia the Oaelph Exhibition.^ A half-length 
by Gainabofooch was exhibited in the Na- 
tional Portrait Exhibition of 18C8. Engraved 
pofftraitB aie in the various editions of her 


life. In his ' Book for a Rainy Day,' J. T. 
Smith tells how, when attending on the 
visitors in Sherwin's chambers, he received 
a kiss from her as the reward for fetching a 
drawing of her which Sherwin had made. 

[The chief if not a1 vaye trustvorthy authority 
for the life of Mn. Robinson is her posthumoas 
memoirs published by herdaughter. Lettersfrom 
Perdita to a certain Israelite and her Answer 
to them, LondoD, 1781, 8vo, is a coarse satire 
accusiDg her and her husband of swindling. 
Even coarser is Poetical Epistles from Floriael 

to Perdita •< , and Peidita's Answer, &c., 

liondon, 1781, 4to, and Mistress of Royidty, or 
the Loves of Florizel and Perdita, n. d. (Brit. 
Mns. Cat. s.v. 'Perdita'). Other books consulted 
are the Life of Reynolds b j Leslie and Taylor ; Me- 
moirs of her by Miss Hawkins ; G-enest's Account 
of the Stage ; MonthlyMirror ; Walpole Correspon- 
dence, ed. Cunningham ; Doran's Annals of the 
Stage, ed. Lowe; Allibone's Diettonaiy ; Bryan's 
Dictionary of Painters; Georgian &a; Clark 
Russeirs Representative Actors ; Bioffraphia 
Dramatica; Thespian Dictionary; John Taylor's 
Records of my Life ; Gent Mag. 1804, ii. 1009 ; 
Literary Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 178, 348, iv. 105, 
6th ser. ix. 59, 7th ser. vi. 147.] J. K. 

ROBINSON, MARY {n, 1802), 'Mary of 
Buttermere.' [See under Hatfibld, John.] 

ROBINSON, MATTHEW (1628-16d4), 
divine and physician, baptised at Rokehy, 
Yorkshire, on 14 Dec. 1628, was the third 
son of Thomas Kohinson, barrister, of Gray's 
Inn, and Frances, daughter of Leonard 
Smelt, of Kirby Fletham, Yorkshire. When, 
in 1643, his father was killed fighting for the 
parliament in the civil war, Matthew was 
recommended as page to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 
But it was decided that he should continue 
his education ; and in Octoher 1644 he ar- 
rived at Edinhurgh. In the spring the plague 
hroke out, and he left. In May 1645 he made 
his way to Camhridge, which he reached, after 
some hairhreadth escapes, on 9 June. A. few 
days after he hegan his studies Camhridge was 
threatened hy the royalists. He and a com* 
panion, while trying to escape to Ely, were 
Drought hack hy ' tibe rude rabhle.' Robin- 
son now offered his services to the governor 
of the town, and until the dispersu of the 
king*8 forces undertook military duty every 

On 4 Nov. he was admitted scholar of St. 
John's College. His tutor, Zachary Cawdry 
[q.v.l became his lifelong friend. Robinson 
excelled in metaphysics, and for recreation 
translated, but cud not publish^he' Book of 
Canticles ' into Latin verse. He gradoated 
B.A. in 1648 and M. A. in 1652. In 1649 he 
was elected a feUow of Christ's College, but 




tibe election was disallowed by 'mandamus 
firatn the powBn then in being.' A resolve to 
go to Pftdua was defeated by want of money. 
On 18 April 1660) however, he was elected 
fellorwof St. John's. He now resumed his 
studies, and particularlj that of physic, which 
he meant to make his profession. He ' showed 
Ina seniors viyidissections of dogs and such- 
like creatures in their chambers.' Sir Thomas 
Browne ('Dr. Brown of Norwich *) sent him 
'epistolary resolutions of many questions.' 
But after studying medicine ' not two full 
years,' he was persuaded by his mother to 
accept presentation to the family living of 
Bumeston, YorKshire. He went into resi- 
dence in August 1651. Meanwhile his me- 
dical advice was in great request, and Sir 
Joseph Cradock, the commissair of the arch- 
deaconry of Bichmond, procurea him a license 
to practise as a physician. He had much 
success, especially in the treatment of oon- 

Both Robinson and Cawdry had scruples 
about the act of uniformity, which thoir bi- 
shop, Brian Walton rq»V'lof Chester, took 
reat pains to satisfy (Newcome, Diary, 
Aug. 1662). Robinson had much respect 
for nonconformists; and he allowed some 
of them to preach in his parish (Newcohb, 
AutMogr. pp. 218, 227, 295, &c. ; Calamt, 
Account ff. 158). Plurality and non-residence 
he * utterly detested,' and was ' of my Lord 
Veralaai's judgement ' as to the desirability 
of maay ouier church reforms. He wrote 
his 'Oassander Reformatus' to 'satisfy the 
bissenters eveij way,' but did not publish it. 
In September 1682 he resigned the living of 
Bumeston in favour of his nephew, and re- 
moved to Ripley, where, ibr two years, he 
managed Lady Ingleby's estates (' Diary of 
George Orey ' in StrBTBEs's Durham, ii. 15). 
At Bumeston he erected and endowed two 
free schools and a hospital. 

In 1685 or 1686 he began his * Annota- 
tions on the New Testament,' which he 
finished in December 1690. The occasion of 
this undertaking was his disappointment 
'inth Poole'^s ' Synopsis,' in the preparation of 
wldiA he had asmsted. The ' AnnotaUons,' 
in two laive finely written folios, recently 
passed to the Rev. Dr. Jackson of the Wee- 
leyan OoU^, Richmond. 

Among Robinson's versatile tastes was one 
for horses. He bred the beet horses in the 
north of England, and, while staying with 
\m brother Leonard in London, was sum- 
moned to Whitehall by Oharles II for oon- 
anltation respecting a charger which Mon* 
month afterwards rode at Bothwell-Brigg. 
He also began a book on horsemanship and 
Um tnataieot of horses^ bat thou^t it ' not 

honourable to his cloth to publish.' Som» 
of his 'secrets ' were embodied in the ' Gen- 
tleman's Jockey and Approved Farrier' 
0676, 4th edit.) He died at Ripley on 
a7 Nov. 1694, and was buried in Bumeston 
ehurdi (WhIt^keb, BidmumdMre, iL 190). 
He left an estate of 700/. per annum, his skill 
in afiairs being 'next to miraculous.' Her 
married, on 12 Oct. 1657; Jane, daughter of 
Marie Pickering of Ackworth, a descendant 
of ArchbishopTobie Matthew [q. v.l but had 
no children. Their porUnits, formerly at Bui^ 
neston, have perished. 'Hioresby xhentions 
that 'A Treatise of Faith by a Dying Divine ' 
contains an account of Robinson's diaracter. 
This, with a manuscript introduction in Ro- 
binson's writing, recently belonged to J. IL 
Walbran, esq., of Fallcroft, Ripon. 

[The Life of Matthew Robinson was printed 
in 1856 by Professor Mayor in pt. ii. of Cam- 
bridge in the Seventeenth Oentuzy, from a 
mannseript in St. John's CoUese Library, with 
numerous notes, appendix, and mdioes. It pur- 
ports to be, with the exception of the last foar 
pages, an autobiography. It was completed 
by Robinson's nephew, Geoiige Qrey. The 
latter's son, Zaobary, supplied chronological 
notes and corrections, See also Baker's Hist, of 
St. John's College (ad. Mayor); Thoresby'a 
Diary, L 75, 281-2; and authorities cited.] 

Q. 1a G. N. 

bishop of Bangor, bom at Conway in North 
Wales, was the second son of John Robinson^ 
hy his wife Ellin, daughter of William 
Brickdale. The families of both parents 
came originally from LancashireandOneshire 
respectively, but appear to have been settled 
at Conway for several generations (Dwjtn, 
Heraldie VisitaHons, ii. llS-14; Wood, 
Athena Oxen, ii. 797-8, footnote; Arch, 
Cambr, 5th ser. ziii. 87). 

Robinson was educated at Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he proceeded B.A« 
in 1547-^, and within a twelvemonth was 
made a fellow of his coUeffe, by the command, 
it is alleged, of the royu commissioners for 
the visitation of the university. In 1551 he 
commenced M.A., was bunar of his own 
college in 1551-8, and a proctor in the uni- 
versit^P' for 1552, dean of his college 1577-8, 
and vice-preudent of his college in 1661. 
Plays written by him were acted at Queena' 
Colle^ in 1550, 1552, and 1553, the last- 
mentioned being a comedy entitled ' Strylius.' 
In 1555 he subscribed tne Roman oathoUo 
articles. He was ordained at Bangor by Dr. 
William Glvnn, &st as acolyte and sub- 
deacon on 12 March 1556-7, tlien deacon oa 
the 18th, and prieston the 14Ui, under aspecial 
faeulty from Cacdinal Pole, dated 28 Feb. 




tneeediiig. Archbishop Parker^sfUtement in 
nis* De Antiquitate Itetannica' (see Strtse, 
BsHker, iii. 291), that BobinsoD 'suffered ear* 
lamities for the protestant cause in the reign 
ofQueenMarj, is hardly probable. 

Ob 20 Dec. 1559 Parker licensed him to 
preadi throughout his province; and he iras 
then, or about that time, appointed one of 
his dttpUins (Stbtpb, Pttrker, ii. 457). He 
wocaeaed at Cambridge B.D. in 1660 and 
UJ). in 1666. A sermon preached by him at 
St. Pool's Gross in December 1561 was de* 
scribed by Orindal as ' vei^ good ' (i6.) ; the 
manuscript is numbered 104 among Arch- 
bishop Packer's manuscripts at Corpus 
Chnsti CoU^ey Cambridge (Stbtpb's Far- 
kfr, L 464-^ ; and Hawbib's Sketches of the 
Mefwvtatidn, pp. 161-2). After this pre- 
fennent eame apace. He was appointed on 
13 Dec 1561 to the rectory of Shepperton in 
Middlesex (NEWooirBTyjR^per^orntm,i.726); 
on 16 June 1562 to the archdeaconry of 
Merioneth (Walus, p. 142); and on 26 Aug. 
of the same y ear to the sinecure rectory of 
Xorthopin Flintshire. He also became re(y 
tor of Witney in Oxfordshire (see Nasxith, 
QxLafC.C.C. MS8. p. 154). In ri^ht of 
his azehdeaeonry he sat in the eonrocation of 
1562-8, when he subscribed the Thirty-nine 
AitlcleB ^9tbttb, Annal§, i. i. 490), and 
TOled against the proposal which was made, 
bat not adopted, to make essential modifica- 
tion in certain rites and ceremonies of the 
dmrdi (d. pp. 602-8). In 1564 he idso sub- 
scribed the bishops' propositions concerning 
ecdtesiastieal habits, and wrote ' Tractatus de 
Testinm nsn in sacris.^ 

He was at Cambridge during Queen Eliza- 
beth's Tisit in August 1664, and prepared an 
aeoonnt of it in Latin, an E^lish version of 
n^idt is probably that printed in Nichols's 
'Progtessee of Elizabeth' (i. 167-71). A 
emUar account was written by him of the 
guef^n's yiait to Oxford in 1566 (ib, I 229- 
347 ; see also JSarl MSL 7088, f. 181). He 
was one of the Lient preachers before the 
^oeen in 1565 (Stbtpb, Parker, iii. 185). 

Robinson was elected bishop of Banfor, in 
iiioceasioa to Rowland Meyrick [q. t.j, after 
much deliberation on the part of^the arch- 
InAa^f under a license attested at Cam- 
bridge on 80 July 1566. He also held m 
eemmendion the archdeaconry of Merioneth, 
and the rectories of Witney, Northop, and 
Shepperton. The archdeaconry he resigned 
in 1^3 in &TOur of his kinsman, Humphrey 
Robinson, bnt he took instead ^e archdea- 
eoDiT of Anglesey, which he held xmtil his 
death (Wiiijs, pp. 169, 142). He resigned 
Shepperton about November 1574. 

'm the next few years Robinson appears 

to have endeavoured to suppress the non^pro* 
testant customs in his diocese (o£ Stbipb^ 
Grindal,^. 815). On 7 Oct. 1567 Robinson 
wrote to Sir William Cecil, giving an account 
of the counties under his jurisdiction, noticing 
the prevalence therein of ' the use of images,, 
altars, pilgrimages, and vi^' {CaL State 
Papers, ed. Lemon, p. 301). On the same 
day he sent to Archbishop Parker a oopy of 
part of Eadmer's history, stating also his 
opinion as to the extent and authenticity ot 
Welsh manuscripts (CCC. Cambridge M& 
No. 114, f. 508 ; see Nasxiih's Catalogue, 
p. 155 ; also Stbxpb'b Parker, i. 609). Oif 
z3 April 1571 he was acting as one of the 
commissioners for ecclesiastical causes at 
Lambeth (Sxbxpb, Annals, ii. i. 141), and in 
the convocation held that year he subscribed 
the English translation of the Thirty-nine 
Articles and the book of Canons (Stbtpe, 
Parker, n, 54, 60). About 1581 he was sus- 
pected of papistry; on 28 May 1582 he wrote 
two letters, one to Walsingham and the other 
to the Eari of Leicester, ' justifyins' himseli 
against the reports that he was fallen away 
in religion,' and stating that his 'proceedings 
against the papists and the declaration of 
the archbishop would sufficiently prove his 
adherence to the established church' {Cah 
State Papers, ii. 56). 

He died on 18 Feb. 1584>5, and was 
buried on the 17th in Bangor Cathedral on 
the south side of the high altar. His effiff^ 
and arms wete delineated in brass, but the 
figure had been removed at the time of Browne 
Williams surveyin 1720, when only a fragment 
of the inscription remained ; tms has since 
disappeared. His will was proved in the pre- 
rorative court of Canterbury on 20 Feb. 1584 
{Areh. Cawhr, 6th ser. vi. 180). 

Robinson took considerable interest in 
Welsh history, and is said to have made 'a 
large collection of historical things relating 
to the chm^h and state of the Britons and 
Welsh, in fol. MS.' (Wood, loc. cit.), which 
was formerly preserved m the Hengwrt Li- 
brary. He translated into Latin a life of 
Grur^dd ab Cynan [q . v.] from an old Weldb 
text at Gwydyr, ana the translation, appa- 
rently in Robinson's own handwriting, is 
still preserved at Peniaith. Both text and 
translation were edited by the Rev. Robert 
Williams for the ' Archttologia Cambrensis ' 
for 1866 (8rd ser. xii. 80, 112 ; see espe- 
cially note on p. 181, and cf« xv. 862). Bishop 
Wimam Morgan (1540P>1604) [q. v.l, in the 
dedication of his Welsh vetsiom of the bible 
(published in 1588), acknowledges assistance 
m>m a bishop of Bangor, presumably Robin- 
son. At any rate, I&binsan may be safely 
n^garded as one of tilM elusf pioneers of tbie 





Tsfbrmation in North Wales, and he appears 
to hare honestly attempted to suppress the 
irregularities of the native clergy, though 
periia]^ he was himself not quite free firom 
the tamt of nepotism. 

Robinson married Jane, daughter of Randal 
Brereton, by Mary, daughter of Sir William 
Qriffith of Fenrhyn, chamberlain of North 
Wales, and by her he had numerous sons, 
including Hugh [q. y.], and William, his 
eldest, wnose son was John Robinson (1617- 
1681) [q. y.] the royalist. 

[The chief authorities for Nicholas Robinson's 
life are Wood's Athens Ozon. ii. 797-9; Le 
Neva's Fasti, i. 105, 115-16; Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen, pp. 459 et seq. ; Cooper's Athene 
Oantabr. i. 603-6; Yorkes Royal Tribes of 
Wales, ed. Williams, pp. 23, 173; Strype's 
various works.] D. Lu T. 

1776), physician, a native of Wales, bom 
about lo9/ , graduated M.D< at Rheims on 
15 Dec. 1718, and, like Richard Mead [q. v.], 
who wa3 his first patron, began practice with- 
lout the necessary license of the College of 
Physicians, residixig in Wood Street in the 
^ity of London. In 1721 he published ' A 
Compleat Treatise of the Gravel and Stone,' 
in which he condemns the guarded opinion 
/which Charles Bernard [q. v.] had given on 
>tihe subject of cutting into the kidney to re* 
move renal calculus, and declares himself 
«troiigly in favour of the operation. He de- 
. scribesa tincturalithontriptica, pulvislithon- 
tripticus, and elixir lithontripticum devised 
by him as sovereign remedies for the stone 
•and the gravel. In 1725 he published ' A New 
(Theory of Physick and Diseases founded on 
the Newtonian Philosophy.' The theory is 
Indefinite, and seems little more than that 
ithere is no infallible authority in medicine. 
In 1727 he published < A New Method of 
treating Consumptions/ and on 27 Mardi 
nvas admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians. He moved to Warwick Court 
in Warwick Lane, and in 1729 published 
'A New Systein of the Spleen, vapours, 
and Hypochondriack Melancboly,' dedicated 
to Sir lians Sloane [q^v.] He mentions in 
it, from the renort of eye-witnesses, the last 
symptoms of Marlborough's illness, which 
are generally known from Johnson's poetical 
allusion to them, and relates as example of the 
occasional danger of the disease then known 
AS vapours that a Mrs. Davis died of joy be- 
cause her son returned safely from India; 
while a Mrs, Chiswell died of sorrow because 
her son went to Turkey. In 1729 he published 
« 'Discourse on the Nature and Cause of 
Sudden Deaths/ in which he maintains that 

some cases of apoplexy ought not to be treated 
by bleeding, and describes from his own ob* 
servation the cerebral appearances in opium 
poisoning. His ' Treatise of the Venereal 
Disease,' which appeared in 1786, and ' Essay 
on Gout,' publisheii in 1755, are without any 
original observations. He used to give leo* 
tures on medicine at his house, and published 
a syllabus. He also wrote * The Christian 
Philosopher ' in 1741, and ' A Treatise on the 
Virtues of a Crust of Bread ' in 1766. All 
his writings are diifuse, and contain scarcely 
an observation of permanent yalue. He died 
on 18 May 1775. 

fMunk*8 Coll. of Phys. ii. 108 ; Works.] 

N. M. 

(1776-1858), architect, bom in 1776, became 
a pupil of Henry Holland (1746 P-1806} [q. y.] 
From 1795 to 1798 he was articled toWuliam 
Porden [q. y.], and he resided in 1801-2 at 
the Pavilion at Brighton, superintending the 
works in Porden's absence. In 1805 he de- 
signed HansTown Assembly Rooms, Cadogan 
Place $ in 1811-12 the Egyptian Hall, Pic- 
cadilly, which William Bullock of Liverpool 
intenaed for his London museum of natural 
history. The details of the elevation were 
taken from V. Denon'sworkon the Egyptian 
monuments, and especially from the temple 
at Denderah; but the composition of the 
design is quite at variance with the prin- 
ciples of Egyptian architecture. About this 
Seriod he employed the young James Duf- 
eld Harding [a. v.] for perspective draw- 
ing. Harding also contributed illustrations 
to ' Vitruvius Britannicus ' and other works 
of Robinson. In 1818 he designed the town- 
hall and market-place at Llanbedr, Car- 
diganshire. In 1816 he travelled on the 
continent, and visited Rome. In 1819 ha 
made alterations at Bulstrode for the Duke 
of Somerset; in 1821 he restored Mickle- 
ham church, Surrey; in 1826-8 he made 
alterations at York Castle gaol ; in 1829-32 
he built the Swiss Cottage at the Colosseum, 
Reffent's Park ; in 1836 he sent in dest^s 
which were not successful in the competition 
for the new Houses of Parliament. He also 
designed or altered numerous country houses 
for private gentlemen. 

He projected the continuation of Vitruvius 
Britannicus,' commenced by Colin Campbell 
{d, 1729) [q. v.], and continued by George Ri- 
chardson (1736 P-1817 P) [q.v.],and published 
five parts, vis. : * Wobum Abbey,' 1827 ; ' Hat- 
field House,' 1833 ; ' Hardwicke Hall,' 1835 ; 
< Castle Ashby,' 1841 ; and < Warwick Castle/ 
1842. He also published 'Rural Archi- 
tecture: Designs for Ornamental Cottages/ 




1838; 'An Attempt to ascertain the Are of 
tbe Cbnrch of Miekleham in Surrey/ 1824 ; 
'Ornamental Villas/ 1825-7 ; ' Village Ap- 
chiteetnie,' 18S0 ; ' Farm Buadings/ 1830 ; 
'Gate Cottages, Lodges, and Park iSitranoes/ 
183S ; * Domestic Ajchitectnre in the Tudor 
Style/ 18S7 ; * New Series of Ornamental 
CottMcs and Villas/ 1838. Robinson be- 
came FJS^. in 1828, and was (1835-9) one 
of the first Tice-preaidents of the Institute of 
Bntidi Architects. He read papers to the 
uucitute, 6 July 1835, on 'The newly dis- 
eoTered dypt at York Minster,' and, 5 Dec. 
1836, OD 'Oblique Arches.' About 1840 
pemnisry difficulties led him to reside at 
AMiIqgBe, frhere He died on 24 June 1858. 

[Dict.of Aichitectnre; Stiilder, xyi. 458 ; Notes 
aad Qieries, 5th ser. iii. 284 ; Roget*s History 
of tbe 'Old Water Colour* Society, i. 51 ; Trans. 
Int. of Brit^ ArchitecU, 1835-6.] C. D. 

BOBINSON, RALPH (Ji. 1551), trans- 
Istor of More*8 * Utopia,' bom of poor 
pszcnts in Lincolnshire in 1521, was edu* 
cated at Qrantham and Stamford grammar 
schoob, and had William Cecil (aiterwards 
LordBurgfaley) as companion at both schools. 
In 1596 he entered Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, graduated B.A. in 1540, and was 
elected fdlow of his college on 16 June 1542. 
In March 1544 he supplicated for the degree 
of AI jIu Coming to London, he obtained the 
liverr of the Goldsmiths' Company, and a 
small post as derk in the service of his early 
fiiend, Cecil. He was long hampered by the 
poverty of his parenta and brothers. Among 
the Lantdowne MSS. (ii. 57-9) are two ap- 
peala in Latin for increase of income addressed 
by him to Cecil, together with a copy of 
Latin TerseSy entitled * His New Year*s Gift.' 
The first appeal is endorsed May 1551 ; upon 
tbe eeeona, which was written after July 
lo72y appears the comment, 'Rodolphus 
Ilobynaonoa. For some place to relieve his 

In 1551 Robinson completed the first 
renderiiu^ into English of Sir Thomas 
Mde'a * Utooia/ In the dedication to his 
former adioolfellow, Cecil, he expressed re- 
gret for Mere's obstinate adherence to dis- 
credited religions opinions, modestly apolo- 
gised ibr the shortcomings of his translation, 
and reminded his patron of their youthful 
intimaey. The book was published by Abra- 
ham Veal, at the si^ of the Lamb in St. 
BsuTs Chmchyard, m 1551 (b. L 8vo, Brit. 
Mas.) A second edition appeared in 1556, 
without the dedicatory letter. The third 
option is dated 1597, and the 'newly cor- 
rected ' fourth (of 1624) is dedicated bv the 
paUisher, Bernard Alsop, to Cresacra More 

[see under Mobb, Sib Thovas]. The latest 
editions are dated 1869, 1887, and 1893. 

Although somewhat redundant in style^ 
Robinson's version of the ' Utopia' has not 
been displaced in popular esteem by the sub- 
sequent efibrts of Gilbert Burnet (1684) and 
of Arthur Cayley (1808). 

[See art. Moss, Sir Thovas; Lupton's pre- 
face to his edition of the Utopia, 1896 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss.] 8. L, 

ROBINSON, RALPH (1614-1655), 
puritan divine, bom at Heswall, Cheshire, 
m June 1614, was educated at St. QLtharine 
Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1688, MA. 1642. On the strength of his 
preaching he was invited to St. Mary's Wool- 
noth, Lombard Street, and there received 
presbyterian ordination about 1642. He was 
scribe to the first assembly of provincial 
ministers held in London in 1647, and united 
with them in the protest against the king's 
death in 1649. On 11 June 1651 he was ar- 
rested on a charfi;e of being concerned in the 
conspiracy of Christopher Love [q. v.] He 
was next day committed to the Tower, and 
appears to have been detained there at any 
rate until October, when an order for his trial 
was issued. Perhaps he was never brought 
up, but if so it was to be pardoned. He aied 
on 15 June 1655, and was buried on the 18th 
in the chancel of St. Mary Woolnoth. His 
fune^l sermon was preached by Simeon Ashe 
[q. vA and published, with memorial verses,, 
a^ * The Good Man's Death Lamented,' Lon- 
don, 1655. By his wife, Mary, Robinson had 
a daughter Rebecca (1647-1664). 

Besides sermons, Robinson was the authoi 
of : 1. ' Christ all in all,' London, 1656 ; 2nd 
edit. 1660; 3rd edit. Woolwich, 1828; 4th 
edit. London, 1868, 8vo. 2. ' navon-X/a. Uni- 
versa Arma ' (' Hieron ; or the Christian com- 
pleatly Armed '), London, 1656. 

[Transcript of the Registers of St. Muy 
Woolnoth, by the rector, 1886, pp. zir, 48, 228, 
233 ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1661, pp. 247, 
249, 251, 262, 467, 4G6 ; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, iii. 237 ; information from tbe registruj 
ofCambr. Univ.] C. F. S. 

ROBINSON, RICHARD (^. 157^1600), 
author and compiler, was a freeman of the 
Leathersellers' Company, and in 1576 waa 
residing in a chamber at the south side of St. 
Paul's. In the registers of St. Peter's, Com* 
hill THarl. Soc.), there are several entries of 
the oirths and deaths of the children of 
Richard Robinson, skinner. In 1585 he ia 
described as of Fryers {ib, p. Id5\ In 1595 
he presented to Miaabeth the tnird part of 
his * Harmony of King David's EUrp.' Id 
his manuscript 'Enpolemia' he gives aa 




nmuAug account of the queen's reception of 
the gift. His hope of pecuniary recognition 
was disappointed, and he was obliged to sell 
his books and the lease of his house in Harp 
Alley, Shoe Lane. He was a suitor to the 
aueen for one of the twelve alms-rooms in 
Westminster. The poet Thomas Church* 
yard [q.v.], with whom he co*operated in 
the translation from Meteren's 'Historiie 
Belgioe ' Q 602), prefixed a poem in praise of 
him to Hooinson's ' Auncient Order of Prince 
Arthure.' The supposition that he was the 
father of Richara Robinson, an actor in 
Shakespeare's plays, is not supported by any 
evidence (Oox.i.TEBy Memoirs oj the Principal 
Actors in the Plays of Shakespeare), 

Robinson was the author of: 1. 'Certain 
Selected Histories for Christian Recreations, 
with their several! Moralizations brought 
into English Verse,* 1576, 8vo. 2. * A Moral 
Methode of Civil Policie ' (a translation of 
F. Patrizi's 'Nine Books of a Common- 
wealth'), 1676, 4to. 8. * Robinson's Ruby, 
an Historical Fiction, translated out of 
Latin Prose into English Verse, with the 
Prayer of the most Christian Poet Ausonius,' 
1677. 4. 'A Record of Anient Historyes, 
entituled in Latin Qesta IComanorum [by 
John LelandP], Translated, Perused, Cor- 
rected, and Bettered,' 1677, 8vo. 5. ' The 
Dyall of Dayl^ Contemplacon for Synners, 
Moral and Divine Matter in English Prose 
and Verse, first published in print *anno 
1499, corrected and reformed for the time ' 
(dedicated to Dean Nowell), 1678. 6. *Me- 
lancthon's Prayers Translated . • into Eng- 
lish' ^dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney), 1579. 
7 *Tne Vineyard of Virtue, partly trans- 
lated, partly collected out of the Bible and . . . 
other authors/ 1579, 1591. 8. 'Melanchthon 
his Learned Assertion or Apology of the 
Word of God and of His Chuich,' 1680. 

9. 'Hemming's Exposition upon the 25th 
Psafan, translated into English,' 1580. 

10. ' A Learned and True Assertion of the 
OriginalLife, Actes, and Death of. . . Arthure,' 
(a translation of John Leland's work), 1582. 

11. ' Part of the Harmony of King David's 
Harp, conteining the first 21 Psalmes . . , 
expounded by ^rigelius, translated b^ [Ro- 
binson],' 1582, 4to 12. ' Urbanus Regius, an 
Homely or Sermon of Gbod and Evil Angels 
. ^ • translated into Exifflish,' 1588 (dedicated 
to Gabriel GK>odman, dean of Westminster); 
later editions 1590 and 1698. 18. < A Rare, 
True, and Proper Blazon of Coloures in 
Armoryes and Ensigns (Military) ' 1588. 
14. ' Gnie Ancient Oitler Sodetie and Unitie 
Lauda|l)le of Prince Arthure . . . translated by 
(Robinson),' 1588, 4to. 16. ' 1%e Solace of 
Sion and Joy of Jerusalem . . . being a Qodly 

exposition of the 87th Psalme (by Urbanus 
R4»^U8) . . . translated into English,' 1587; 
later editions 1690, 1594. 16. ' A Proceed- 
ing in the Harmony of King David's Harp, 
being a 2nd portion of 18 PsaJuns more,' 1590. 
17. * A Second Proceeding in the Harmony 
of King David's Harp,' 1592. 18. ' A Third 
Proceeding . . .' 1595 (dedicated to Queen 
Elizabeth). 19. ' A Fourth Proceeding,' 1596. 
20. ' A Filth Proceeding,' 1598. 

The following works by Robinson in manu* 
script are contained in Royal MS. No. 18 : 
1. *Two Several Surveys of the . . . Soldiers 
Mustered in London,' 1688 and 1599. 2. ' An 
Account of the Three Expeditions of Sir 
Francis Drake,' Latin. 8. ' An English Quid 
for a Spanish Quo . • . being an Account of 
the 11 Voyaj^ of (Jeoree, Earl of Cumber- 
land ' (also in Hist. 2d&S^ Comm, 5th Rep. 
p. 304, 12th Rep. pt. i. p. 16). 4. ' Robinson^ 
Eupolemia, Archippus, and Panoplia,' being 
an account of his worl^ 1576-1602. 

The compiler must be distinguished from 
RiOHABB Robinson {fl, 1574), poet^ who 
describes himself as 'of Alton,' which has 
been understood as Halton in Cheshire ; it is 
more probably Alton in Staffordshire. Corser 
identified him with the student at Cambridge 
who published ' The Poor Knight his Palace 
of PnvatePleasure,' 1579. But the identifi- 
cation is unlikely because the only Richard 
Robinson known at Cambridge in 1579 was 
beadel of the university {Cal, State Papers f 
Dom. Elix. cxxxii. 19 Oct. 1579). Li <The 
Rewarde of Wickednesse ' Robinson speaks 
of himself as servant in 1574 in the house- 
hold of the Earl of Shrewsbury, ' the simplest 
of a himdred in my lord's Itouee,' and as 
writing the poem ' in such times as my turn 
came to serve in watch of the Scottish Queen. 
I then every night collected some part thereof.' 
Li ^ A Gk>lden Mirrour ' Robinson shows an 
intimate a^uaintance with the nobility and 
gentry of Oneshire. It is presumable from 
the concluding lines of this latter poem that 
he was advanced in years at the time of its 
composition, and it may have been published 
posthumously. John Proctor the publisher 
purchased the manuscript of it in 1687, with- 
out knowing the author, but supposing him 
to have been ' of the north country.' 

To RoImhsou the poet are ascribed : 1. < The 
ruefull Tragedie of Hemidos and The! ay,' 
1669 (Abbbb, Stationers^ JRegieter, i. 220) ; 
not known to be extanU 2. ' The Rewarae 
of Wickednesse, discoursing the sundrie 
monstrous Abuses of wicked and ongodlye 
Worldelinges in such sort set out as the same 
have been dyyerseW practised in the Persons 
of Popes, Harlots, Proude Princes, Tyrantes, 
Romish ByahoppeB/ &C., 1673 ; dedioated to 




Gilbert Tslbo^ second mil of the Earl of 
Sfasemboiv, and dated ' from my chamber m 
Sheffield cSiatle; 19 Aug. 1574 (flic). It La- 
tredueee Skelton, Wager, Heywood, Googe, 
Studlejy and otlien. and near the end con- 
taim a fiuioiie attack on Bonner as the devil's 
agent om earth. Fk^sumably he had suffered 
at Bomer^a hands. 8. ^ A Qolden Minour 
eonteiningB eertaine pithie and figoiatiTe 
Visas promcstlcating Good Fortune to 
JSaf^MDd ana aU true English Subjects • • • 
vtoeto be adjoyned eertaine ijretie PoemS| 
wiittea on the Kames of sundrie both noble 
and woirahipfall^' London, 1689 (renrinted for 
the Chfttham Socfetj, with introauction by 
Goner» in 1861.) 

[Aflthoatiee giTon above ; Coner^s intTodao- 
tion to the reprint of A Golden Minour (Chet- 
ham See.) ; HasiiU's Handbook, pp. 70, 615, 
aod CoO. 1st eer. p. 362 ; CoUitt's Bibl. Cat. ii. 
27U2 ; Oat. Hath Xibr.] W. A & 

BoxBST in the peerage of Ireland (1709- 
1794), aiehbishop of Armu^h, b<ffn in 1709, 
vas the sixth son of Willjam Robinson 
(1670-1720) of BokebVy Yorkshire, and 
Merkm Abbey, Surrey, by Anne, daughter 
and hnreas of Robert Walters of Cundall in 
the North Riding. Sir Thomas Robinson 
(lTOOP-1777) [q. v.], first baronet^ was his 
eldest brother ; his third brother, William 
(dL 1785), succeeded in 1777 to Sir Thomas's 
faaronetey. The youngest brother was Sep- 
timus (see below). The Robinsons of Rokeby 
-were descended from the Robertsons, barons 
^of Stroan or Strowan, Perthshire. William 
Robinson settled at Kendal in the reign of 
Henzy Vlll, and his eldest son, Ralph, be- 
came owner of Rokeby in the North Riding of 
York&hire by his marriage with the eldest 
daughter and cohmress of James Philips of 
Brignal, near Rokeby. 

ludiard Robinson was educated at West- 
minster, where he was contemporary with 
Lord Mansfield, Gecnge Stone [q. v.] (whom 
he aaoceeded as primate of Ireland), and 
HiomasNefwton, bishop of Bristol. Hematri- 
calatad at Christ Church, Oxford, on 13 June 
1726, and giaduated BA. in 1730 and M. A. 
in 17SS, In 1748 he proceeded BJ). and 
D J), by accumulation. (Cleaving Oxford he 
ha^tmuk chaplain to Blackbume, archbishop 
€f York, who, in 1738, presented him to the 
rectory of Etton in tibe East Riding. On 
4 Mav of the same year he became prebendary 
of York (La Nevb, JFiuti Eccles. Anglic, iii. 
192 >, witii which he held the vicarage of 
AldboroivlL In 1742 he was also presented 
by Lord Rockingham to the reetory of Httt- 
ton, Yozkihire. 

In 1751 Robinson attended the Duke of 

Dorset^ lord lieutenant, to Ireland as his 
chaplain. He obtained the see of Killala 
through the influence of Lords Holdemess 
and Sandwidi, his relatives, and was conse- 
crated on 19 Jan. 1752. He was translated 
to Leighlin and Ferns on 19 April 1759, 
and promoted to Kildare on 13 Apiil 1761. 
Two days later he was admitted dean of 
Cbrist Church, Dublin. After the areh- 
biahopric of Armagh had been declined l^ 
Newton, bishop of Bristol, and Edmund 
Keene of Chester, it was offered to Robinson 
by the influence of the Duke of Northumber- 
land (then lord lieutenant) contrary to the 
wishes of the premier, Georg^e Grenville, who 
brought forward three nommees of his own 
{WALTOJJ^Memoir8<;fQeorffeIII). Robin- 
son became primate of Ireland on 19 Jan. 

Robinson did much both fas the Irish 
church and for the see of Armagh. To his 
influence were largely due the aets for the 
erection of chapelB or ease in laroe parishes, 
and their formation into perpetuus cures; the 
encouragement of the residues of the clergy 
in their benefices; and the prohilntion of 
burials in churches as injurious to health 
(11 & 12 G^eorge III, ch. xvi., xvii., and xxii.) 
He repaired and beautified Armagh Cathe- 
dral, presented it with a new OEgui, and 
built houses for the yicars choraL The city 
of Armagh itself he is said to have changed 
from a collection of mud cabins to a hand- 
some town. In 1771 he built and endowed 
at his own cost a public library, and two 
years later laid the foundations of a new 
classical schooL Barracks, a coun^ ff^^lf 
and a public infirmary were erected under 
his auspices, while in 1793 he founded tzbe 
Armeu^h Ofaseryatory, which was endowed 
with lands specially purchased, and the rec- 
torial tithes of Carlii^ord [cfi art Rosmsoir, 
Thomas Roif^isrl. The historian of Armaoh 
estimates the archoishop's expenditure inpm- 
lie works at 35,000/., independent of legacies. 
He also built a new marble archiepiscopal 
palace, to which he added a chapel. In 
1783 he erected on Xnox^s Hill, to the south 
of Armagh, a marble .obelisk, 114 foet high, 
to commemorate his friendship wkh the 
Duke of Northumberland. At the same 
time he built for himself a mansion at 
Marlay in Louth, which he called llokeby 
Hall; his family inhabited it tUl it was 
abandoned after the rebellion of '98. John 
Wesley, who visited Armagh in 1787, entered 
in his * Journal ' some seyere reflectioiis on 
the archlushop's persistent indulgence in his 
taste for building in his old age, citing the 
familiar Horatian linee, 'Tu secanda 
mora,' &c. (Journal, xzi. 60). 




Robinson's sermons are said to have been 
* excellent in style and doctrine/ though his 
voice was low (cf. Boswell, Johnsmif ed. 
Croker,p. 220). Cumberland, who knew him 
well, said Robinson was 'pubUckly ambitious 
of great deeds and privately capable of good 
ones/ and that he * supported the first station 
in the Irish hierarchy with all the magnifi- 
cence of a prince palatine.' His private for- 
tune was not large, but his business capacity 
was excellent. Churchill condemned Robin- 
son's manners in his ^ Letter to Hogarth : ' 

In lawn sleeves whisper to a sleepiog crowd. 
As dull as B— — ^n, and half as proud. 

Horace Walpole thought Hhe primate a 
proud, but superficial man/ without talents 
tor political intrigue. 

Robinson was named vice-chancellor of 
Dublin University by the Duke of Cumber- 
land, and enthroned by the Dukes of Bed- 
ford and Qloucester. He left a be<^uest of 
6,000/. for the establishment of a university 
in Ulster, but the condition that it should 
be carried out within five years of his death 
was not fulfilled. 

On 26 Feb. 1777 he was created Baron 
Rokeby of Armagh in the peerage of Ire- 
land, with remainder to his cousin, Matthew 
Robinson-Morris, second baron Rokeby [q.v.], 
of West Lay ton, Yorkshire. On the creation 
of the order of St. Patrick, he became its 
first prelate. In 1785 he succeeded to the 
English baronetcy on the death of his bro- 
ther William. In 1787 he was appointed 
one of the lords justices for Ireland. His 
later years were spent chiefly at Bath and 
London, where he kept a hospitable table. He 
died at Clifton on 10 Oct. 1704, aged 86, and 
waa buried in a vault under Armagh Cathe- 
dral. He was the last male survivor in direct 
line of the family of Robinson of Rokeby. Bj 
his will he left 12,000/. to charitable insti- 
tutions. The Canterbury Gate, Christ 
Church, Oxford, is one monument of his 
munificence. A bust of him is in the col- 
lege library, and a portrait of him by Sir 
J<Mhua Reynolds, as bishop of Kildare, is in 
the hall. A duplicate is in the archiepisco- 

el palace, Armagh. It was engraved by 
ouston. A bust, said to be * altogether un- 
worthy of him,' was placed in the north aisle 
of Armagh Cathedral by Archdeacon Robin- 
son, who inherited his Irish estate. A later 
SDrtrait of the primate, engraved by J. R. 
mith, was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
In the'AntnologiaHibemica' (vol. i.) there 
is an engraving of a medal struck by Mossop 
<^ Dublin. The obverse bears Rokeby's head, 
and the reverse shows the south front of 
Armagh Observatory. 

Rokeby's youngest brother, SiB SBpmnjs 
RoBiysow (1710-1766), bom on 80 Jan. 
1710, was educated at Westminster, whence 
he was elected to Cambridge in 1726. He^ 
however, preferred Oxford, and matriculated 
at Christ Church on 14 May 17dO. In his 
twenty-first year he entered the French 
army, and served under Galleronde in Flan- 
ders. He afterwards joined the English 
army, and served under Wade in the '45^ 
and subsequently in two campaigns in Flan- 
ders under Wade and Ligonier. He left the 
army in 1754 with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel of the guards. From 1751 to 1760 
he was governor of the Dukes of Gloucester 
and Cumberland, brothers of George HI. 
On the accession of the latter he was knighted 
and named gentleman usher of the olack 
rod. He died at Brough, Westmoreland, oa 
6 Sept. 1765, and was buried in the family 
vault at Rokeby. On the north side of tbe 
altar in the church is a monument, with a 
medallion of his profile by Nollekens, bear- 
ing a Latin inscription from the pen of his 
brother, the archbishop. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, 
vol. Tii. ; Biogr. Peerage of Ireland, 1817; 
Welch's Alumni Westmon.; Foster^s Alamni 
OxoD. ; Whitaker's Bicbmondshire, i. 154->d, 
184 ; Cotton's Fasti, Ecdos. Hibem. ii. 47, 235, 
341, iii. 26, iv. 76 ; Stuart's Hist. Hemoirs of 
Annagh, pp. 446-67 ; Mant's Hist, of the Irish 
Church, ii. 606, 611, 631-3, 661, 727-32; Gent. 
3lag. 1765 p. 443, 1786 ii. 751, 772, 1794 ii. 
965; Walpole's Memoirs of Geoige III, ed. 
Barker, ii. 30-1 ; R. Cumberland's Memoirs, 
1806, Soppl. pp. 37-9 ; Bishop Newton's Life by 
himself, 1782, pp. 16, 85-6, 87; Webb's 
Compend. Irish Biogr.; Evans's Cat. Engr. 
Portraits.] G. Lk G. N. 

ROBINSON, ROBERT (1735-1790), 
baptist minister and hymn-writer, yoongest 
child of Michael Robinson (d, 1747 P), was 
bom at Swaffham, Norfolk, on 27 Sept. 
1735 (his own repeated statement ; the date, 
8 Oct., given by Rees and Flower, is a re- 
daction to new style). His father, bom in 
Scotland, was an exciseman of indifferent 
character. His mother was Mary (d, 
September 1790, aged 93), daughter c£ 
Robert Wilkin (d. 1746) of MUdenhaU, 
Suffolk, who would not countenance the 
marriage. He was educated at the grammar 
school of Swaffham ; afterwards at that of 
Seaming, under Joseph Brett, the tutor of 
John Norris (1734-1777) [q. v.l and Lord- 
chancellor Thurlow. Straitened means in- 
terfered with his projected education for the 
Anglican ministry ; on 7 March 1749 he was 
apprenticed to Joseph Anderson, a hair- 
dresser in Crutched Friars, London, The 




OTRaehing of Wbitefield drew him to the 
CalTiBiBtic methoduts ; he dates his dedica- 
tion to a religious life from 24 May 1762, 
his complete conversion from 10 Dec. 1766. 
Shoitlj oefore lie came of a^ Anderson re- 
Booaeed his indentures, giving him a high 
chsiactar, but adding that he was ' more em* 
ployed in reading than working, in follow<- 
mg pnseherB than in attending customers.' 
BoiiBson began preaching at Mildenhall 
(1758), and "was soon invited to asmst W. 
Csdworth at the Norwich Tabernacle. 
Siortly afterwards he seceded, with thirteen 
others, to fain an independent church in St. 
PaoFs narish« Norwich. Early in 1769 he 
reeeiTed adult baptism from Dunkhom, 
bapdst minister at Great EUingham, Norfolk. 
On 8 July 1769 he preached for the first 
tine it otone Yard Baptist Chapel, Gam- 
hridge ; after being on trial for nearly two 
yean, he made open communion a condition 
oCbii acceptance (28 May 1761) of a call, and 
wtsQidained pastor (11 June). The con^e- 
gaboB was small, the meeting-house, origi- 
nally absm, "was ruinous, and Kobinson's sti- 
pcaid for the first half-year was 8/. 12«. 6d, 
His preaching became popular; a newmeet- 
ing-faoQse was opened on 12 Aujf. 1764, and 
Rofainaon*s evening sermons, delivered with- 
out notes, drew crowded audiences. He had 
trouble with lively gownsmen (who on one 
oocaaioB broke up the service); this he effeo' 
tirely met bv his caustic discourse (10 Jan. 
1 773) * on a \)ecomiiig behaviour in religious 

He lived first at Fulboum, some four 
Bules from Cambridge, then in a cottage 
at Hauxton, about the same distance off, 
removing in June 1778 to Chesterton, above 
a mile firom his meeting-house. Here he 
fanned a piece of land, bought (1776) and 
T^milt a nouse, and did business as a com 
merdiant and coal merchant. In 1782 he 
boaght two other fsrms, comprising 171 
acres. His mercantile engagements drew 
the eenanre of 'godly boobies,' but, while 
ceeoriiig his independence, he neglected 
neither his vocation nor his studies. On 
Sondes he preached twice or thrice at 
Cambridge ; on weekdays he evangelised 
nei^booring villages, having a list of fifteen 
stationa whae he preached, usually in the 
ereaing, sometimes at five o*clock in the 
monmig. His volume of village sermons 
eihilnts bis powers of plain speech, homely 
and local iOnstrationi wit and pathos. The 
semoDi^ however, were not actually delivered 
as printed, far he invariably preached extem- 

la poUtks a strong liberal, and an early 
a^Toeate far the emancipation of the slavoi 

Robinson showed his theological liberalism 
bv the part he took, in 177§, in promoting 
the relaxation of the statutory siibscription 
exacted from tolerated dissenters. At Cam- 
bridge he was in contact with a class of men, 
sevml of whom were on the point of se- 
cession from the church as unitarians. In 
opposition to their doctrinal conclusions he 
published, in 1776, his 'Flea for the Divinity 
of our Lord,' which at once attracted notice 
by resting the case on the broad and obvious 
tenour of scripture. He was offered induce- 
ments to conform. 'Bo the dissenters know 
the worth of the manP' asked Samuel Ogden 
(;i716-1778) [q. v.] ; to which Robinson re- 
joined, 'The man knows the worth of the dis- 
senters.' He had sent copies to Theophilus 
Lindsey [q. v.] and John Jebb, M.D. [q. v.], 
with both of wnom he was on friendly terms. 
Francis Blackbume (1705-1787) [q. v.], who 
thought it unanswerable, twitted the unita- 
rian £indsey with the silence of hisparty . Not 
till 1785 did Lindsey publish his (anonymous) 
' Examination ' in reply. Bv this time Robin- 
son had begun to recede from the position 
taken in his' Plea,' which was infact Sabellian, 
' that the living and true God united himself 
to the man Jesus ' (PleOf p. 68). His change of 
view was due to his researches for a history 
of the baptist body, and to the writings of 
Priestley, to which he subsequently referred 
as having arrested his progress 'from en- 
thusiasm to deism.' In a letter (7 May 1788) 
to John Marsom (1746-1833) he scouts the 
doctrines of the Trinity and of the personality 
of the Spirit. But in his own pulpit he did 
not introduce controversial topics. 

In 1780 Robinson visited Edinburgh, where 
the diploma of D.D. was offered to him, but 
declined. His history of the baptists was 
projected at a meeting (6 Nov. 1781) of his 
tiondon friends, headed by Andrew Qifford 
[q. v.] Robinson was to come up to London 
once a month to collect material, Gifford of- 
fering him facilities at the British Museum, 
and expenses were to be met by his preaching 
and lecturing in London. The pUm did not 
work, and Robinson's services in London, 
popular at first, soon offended his orthodox 
friends. After 1783 he took his own course. 
Through Christopher Anstey fq. v.1 he had 
enjoyed, firom 1776, the use 01 a library at 
Briiikley, two miles from Cambridge. Of this 
he had availed himself in compiling the notes 
to his translation of Claude's * Essay,' a pub- 
lication undertaken as a relief under disable- 
ment from a sprained ankle in May 1776. He 
now obtained theprivileg^eof borrowingbooks 
from Cambridge University Library, in 1785 
he transferred his farming and mercantile 
•engagementB to Curtis, his son-in-law^ and 




devoted all his lebure to literary work. With 
his spirit of independence went a considerable 
thirst for popularity, and he was mortified, 
iind to some extent soured, by the loss of con- 
fidence which followed the later development 
of his opinions. Nor was he firee from pecu- 
niary anxiety. 

By the middle of 1789 his health had begun 
to fail, and his powers gradually declined. 
On 2 June 1790 he left Chesterton to preach 
<shanty sermons at Birmingham. He preached 
twice on 6 June, but on 9 June was found 
dead in his bed at the house of William 
Bussell (174(K-1818) [q. v.] at Showell Green, 
near Birmingham. He was buried in the Old 
Meeting graveyard at Birmingham. A tablet 
was placed in the Old Meeting by his Gam- 
.bridgB flock (inscription bv Robert Hall; re- 
moved in 1886 to Uie Old Meeting Church, 
BristolBoad). Funeral sermons were preached 
At Birmingham by Priestley, at Cambridge by 
Abraham Itees, D.D. [q. v.], and at Taunton 
•by Joshua Toulmin, D.D. [q* v.] He married 
at Norwich, in 1769, Ellen Payne (d. 23 May 
180d,aged 75), and had twelve children. The 
death of his daughter Julia (d, 9 Oct. 1787, 
aged 17) was a severe blow to him. 

In person Robinson was rather und» 
middle height ; his voice was musical, and 
his manner self-possessed. His native parts 
and his powers of acquirement were alike 
remarkame. His plans of study were mc^ 
thodical and thorough; to gain access to 
original sources he taught hinuelf four or five 
languages. His want of theological training 
led him into mistakes, but ' his massive com- 
mon sense was so quickened by lively fiincy 
as to become genius ' (W. RoBiireoir). 

His * History of Baptism,' partly printed 
. before his 4eath, was edited in 1790, 4to, by 
George Dyer [q. v.], who edited also his un- 
finished 'Ecclesiastical Researches/ Cam- 
bridge, 1792, 4to, being studies in the churcb 
history of various countries, with special re- 
. ference to the rise of heretical and indepen- 
dent tjrpes of Christian opinion. Both works 
are strongly written, full of minute learning, 
.disouraive m character, racy with a rustic 
mirth, and disfijfuied by unsparing attacks 
upon the champions of orthodoxy in all ages. 
Kobinson has much of the animus with little 
of the delicacy of Jorttn. His ' idol ' was 
Andrew Dudith (15da-1689X an Hun^an 
reformer, of sarcastic spirit and great liberty 
of utterance. 

His other publications, besides single ser- 
flDons and small pamphlets (1772-1788), are: 
1. < Arcana, or the First Principles of the 
late Petitioners . » . for Relief in matter of 
Subscription,' &c, 1774, 8vo. 2. ' A Dis- 
ousaion of the Question ''Is it lawful « • « 

for a Man to marry the Sister of his deceased 
WifeP'" &c., 1775, 8vo (maintains the affir- 
mative). 3. ^ A Plea for the Divinity of oiur 
Lord Jesus Christ,' &c., 1776, 8vo ; often re* 
printed. 4. ' The History and the Mystery 
of Good Friday,' &c., 1777, 8vo. 6. ' A Plan 
of Lectures on the iSrinciples of NonHX>nfor<' 
mity,' &c.; 8th edit., Harlow, 1778, 8va. 
6. * The General Doctrine of Toleratioa i^* 
plied to . . . Free Communion,' &c, 1781 , 
8yo. 7. < A Political Catechism,' &c., 1762, 
8vo; often reprinted. 8. ' Sixteen DLsoourses 
. . . preachea at the Villages about Cani- 
bridge,' &c, 1786, 8vo ; ofteii reprinted ; en- 
larged to ' Seventeen Discourses 1805, 8yo. 
9. * A Discourse on Sacramental Tests,' &c., 
Cambridge, 1788, 8vo. 10. < AnEasay on the 
Slave Trade,' 1789, 8yo. 

Posthumous were: 11. 'Posthumous Works, 
1792, 8vo. 12. * Two Original Letters/ 
1802, 8vo. 13. * Sermons . . . with three 
Original Discourses,'^., 1804, 8yo. 14. ' A 
brief Dissertation . . . of Public Preaching/ 
&c., Harlow, 1811, 8vo. His * Misceilaneous 
Works,' Harlow, 1807, 8vo^ 4 vols., were 
edited by Benjamin Flower [q.v.] He trans- 
lated from the French the 'Sermons' of 
Jacques Saurin (1677-1730), 1770, 8vo 
(two sermons), and 1784, 8yo, 5 vols. ; and 
the ' Essay on the Composition of a Sennon,' 
by Jean Claude (1619-1687), Cambridge, 
1778-9, 8vo, 2 vols., with memoir, disserta- 
tion, and voluminous notes, containing more 
matter than the original * Essay ; ^ reissued^ 
vrithout the notes, 1796, 8vo, by Charles 
Simeon [a. y.] ; also some other pieces from 
the French. He contributed to the ' Theo- 
logical Magazine ' and other periodicals. He 
supplied Samuel Palmer (1741-1813) [q. v.] 
vritn addenda and corrections for the ' Koit^ 
conformist's Memorial,' 1776-8, and furnished 
materials for the life of Thomas Baker 
(1666-1740 fa. v.] in Kippis's ' Biographia 
Britannica,' 1778. In the ' Monthly Eepo^ 
sitoTT,' 1810, pp. 621 sq., is an account of 
Cambridgeshire dissent, arawn up by Robin- 
son and continued by Josiah Thompson [q. v.] 

Early in life Robinson vnx>te eleven hymns, 
of no merit, issued by AVhitefield on 1 Feb, 
1767 as 'Hymns for the Fast-Day,' from 
' an unknown hand,' and ' lor the use of the 
Tabernacle congregation.^ In 1768 Jamea 
Wheatley, of theTi^orwich Tabernacle, printed 
Robinson's h^n < Come Thou Fount of eveiy 
blessing,' which was claimed by Daniel Sedg- 
vrick [q. y.l in 1868 on * worthless evidence' 
(JuuAir) for Selina Hastings, countess of 
Huntingdon rq..v«] In 1774 mbinson's hymn 
* Mighty Goa, while angels bless Thee,' wa^ 
issuM in copperplate as * A Christmas Hymn, 
set to Music by Dr. Randall.' These twe 




hpoB {1758 ftnd 1774), of gieat beauty and 
power, tTB otill extensivelj used. In 1768 
ttobinsoD pdnted an edition (revised partly 
br hiffiwlf ) of the metrical version of the 
htlrn bj William Barton [q.T.l for the 
ue <tf Gamfaridgeahixe baptists; this seems 
the litest edition of Barton. 

[Facsnl aermona by PziestUy, Bma, and 

ToaJDui, 1790; Memoirs by Dyer, 1796 (tran»- 

ked ato Gtrmao, with titie ' vw Prediger wie 

man soUte,' Leipsig, 1800); Brief Memoirs 

hj Jlower, 1804, prefixed to Miscellaneoas 

V.-b. IW! ; Memoir by W. Bobinaon (no re- 

him) prefixed to Select Works, 1861 ; Protes- 

tut DisKoters' Magazine, 1797 p. 70, 1799 pp. 

134 iq.; ErangeUeal Magazine, December 1808; 

Xoethir Bepoeitory, 1806 p. 608, 1808 p. 848, 

1810 pp.629 sq., 1S12 p. 678, 1818 pp. 261, 704, 

1817 pp. 9 n., 645, 1818 pp. 860 sq. ; Belsham's 

lUtninofLiiidmy, 1812, pp. 179 sq.; Baptist 

Hagujae, 1831 pp. 821 sq., 1882 pp. 886 sq. ; 

Rttt'i Mfloioirs of Primtley, 1882, iL 67 sq.; 

CbiitiaD Seformer, 1844, pp. 815 sq. ; IMQllar's 

OvfijBiM, 1866, pp. 214 sq.; Browne's HisL 

Coegz: JTorfolk and Suffolk, 1877, pp. 189, 563 ; 

Be&le'« Xemorials of the Old Meeting, Birming- 

baa, 1883; Jnlxan'a Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, 

ff 2»i. 480, 1579.] A. O. 

I'tyi}, soosntric diTine, was bom about 
1727. He was educated for the dissenting 
Bmstzy at Plaisterers' Hall, London, under 
Z^pbiush Marryat (d. 1754), and John 
^alker. Asa etudent he abandoned Cal- 
Tmisffl, bat remained otherwise orthodox. 
Hu first settlement was at Conffleton. 
Cheshire, in 1748. Hf^ remoTed to the Old 
Cbpel, Dukinfield, Cheshire, where his 
oinistiT beoan on 12 Nov. 1752, and ended 
69 *i6 30T. 1755. Hb q^ipears to have been 
^M to outbreaks of temjper ; his ministry 
It Dotinfield terminated m consequence of 
kif bsTingset the constable to whip a begginjg^ 
^oa^. At the end of 1755 he became mini- 
E^st Dob Lane chapel, near Manchester. 
TiroKraxms which in 1757-8 he preached 
[tad afterwards printed) on the artificial 
ti« in the price of com gained him the ill- 
fill of interested speculators. His arianis- 
iog flock found £ault with his theology, as 
veil M with his political economy. His 
c^>ogiegation fell away; he lived m Man- 
d^er, and did editonal work for B. Whit- 
VQfiii, a local bookseller. Whitworth pro- 
jtttea an edition of the Bible, to be sold in 
parts, and thought Bobinson's name on the 
t*Je-pa^ \rould look better with a degree^ 

^ for Robert Bobinson (1785-1790) [q. v.] 
« Cambridge. OaI4Bea 1774 hexeceired 

from the Dob Lane people what he calls & 
* causeless dismissaVsigned by ' 18 subscribers 
and 18 ciphers.' He wrote back that he had 
been in possession twenty years, and intended 
to remam ' to August 1st, 1782, And as much 
longer as I then see cause.' Fruitless efforts 
were made, first to eject, and then to buy 
him out. He held the trust-deeds, locked 
the doors of the chapel and graveyard (hence 
interments were made in priyate grounds), 
and for three years seems to have preached 
but once, a lastF^ay sermon agamst the 

folitics of dissent. Kesigning some time in 
777, he applied in vain for episcopal ordi- 
nation. Be bought the estate of Bairack 
HiU House at Bredbur^, near Stockport, 
and spent his time there in literary leisure. 
He died at his son's house in Manchester 
on 7 Dec. 1701, and, by his own directions, 
was buried, on 15 Dec. at 7 ▲.!!., in a square 
brick building erected on his property. A 
movable glass pane was inserted in nis eo£Bin, 
and the mausoleum had a door for purposes 
of inspection by a watchman, who was to 
see if he breathed on the glass. His widow 
died at Barrack Hill House on 21 May 1797, 
aged 76. 

ISe published^ among other discourses, * The 
Doctrine of Absolute Submission • • « the 
Natural Ri^ht claimed by some Dissenters t4 
dismiss their Ministers at pleasure exposed,' 
&c. 1775, 8vo (dealing with his Dob Lan« 
troubles), and in the same year he advertised 
as ready for the press ' A Discourse in Vin- 
dication of the true and proper Divinity oi 
our Lord,' &c., with appendices. In the 
'Gentleman's Magazine^ (1789, iL 843) is a 
Latin poem, ' The Kev. Dr. Bobinson's Ad- 
vice to a Student on Admission into the 
University ; ' in the same magasine (1790, L 
12, 165, and 1791, ii. 451) are translations by 
him from Latin poetry. 

[Gent. Mag. 1791 ii. 755, 1166, 1232, 1797 
i. 447 ; MontUy Repository, 1823, p. 683 (pa^ 
by William Hampton, incorrect) ; Cat. Edin- 
burgh Graduates, 1858, p. 244; Urwick's Non- 
conformity in Cheshire, 1864, pp. 329 sq. (faUowa 
Hampton); Manchester City Notes and Queries, 
19 and 26 Jan., 9 and 16 Feb. 1884; Head's 
Congleton, 1887, p. 254 ; Nightiogale'a Lanca* 
shire Nonconformity, 1893, v. 44 sq.; Gordon'a 
Historical Account of Dukinfield Chapel, 1896. 
pp. 50 sq. ; Dukinfield Chapel treasurer's ao 
counts (manuscript).] A. G. 

(1809-1889), admiral, bom on 6 Jan. 1809, 
was the third sonof Sir John Robjnson, bart., 
archdeacon of Armagh, by Mary Anne^ second 
daughter of James Spenoer of RAthansan, Kil- 
dare,attd grandson of William Freind (1715- 
1766)[q.v.],deaAofCant0ibary. Hefntered 




the navy in 1821 ; in 1826 was a midshipman 
of the Sybille in the Mediterranean, with 
Sir Samuel John Brooke Pechell [q. v.], and 
passed his examination in 1828. lie was pro- 
moted commander on 28 June 1838, in July 
1839 he was appointed to the Phoenix steamer, 
and in March 1840 to the Hydn, in the Me- 
diterranean, where he took part in the opera- 
tions on the coast of Syria [see Stopford, 
Sib Robebt], and was advanced to post 
rank on 5 Nov. 1840. For the next nine 
years he remained on half-pay. From 1860 
to 18d2 he commanded the Arrogant in the 
Channel fleet, and in June 18& he com- 
missioned the Colossus, which formed part 
of the fleet in the Baltic and off Cronstadt 
in 1856. In January 1856 he was moved 
into the Ho^al Qeorge, which was paid off 
in the following August. In 1868-9 he com- 
manded the Exmouth at Devonport, and on 
9 June 1860 was promoted to he rear-ad- 
miral. He was then appointed one of a 
commission to inquire into the management 
of the dockyards, and in the following year 
became controller of the navy, which office 
he held for ten years. During the last two 
— December 18o8 to February 1871 —he was 
also a lord of the admiralty under Hugh 
Childers. He became vice-admiral on 2 April 
1866, was made a civil K.C.B. on 7 Dec. 
1868, and an admiral on 14 June 1871. 
During his later years he was well known 
as a writer to the ' Times ' on subjects con- 
nected with the navv, and as author of some 
pamphlets, among which mav be named ' Re- 
sults of Admiralty Organisation as esta- 
blished by Sir James Graham and Mr. Chil- 
ders ' (1871), and < Remarks on H.M.S. De- 
vastation ' (1878). He died in London on 
27 Julv 1889. He married, in 1841, Clemen- 
tina, daughter of Admiral Sir John Louis, 

[CByme's Nar. Biogr. Diet. ; Times. SI July 
1889; Foster's Baronetiige; Navy Lists.] 

J. K. Xi. 

R0BIN80N, SAMUEL (1794-1884), 
Persian scholar, was bom at Manchester on 
'28 March 1794, educated at Manchester New 
College (then situated at York), and entered 
business as a cotton manufacturer, first at 
Manchester, and, after his marriage to Miss 
Kennedy, at Dukinfield ; he retinal in 1860. 
His fatbier, a well-known cotton ' dealer/ was 
a man of cultivated tastes, and from an early 
age the son showed a strong interest in poetry, 
especially German and Persian. In 1819, in- 
spired by the writings of Sir William Jones 
(1746-1794) [q. vj, he read a critical sketch 
of the ' Life ana Writings of Ferdusi,' or Fijv 
dausii before the Literuy and Fhiloeophical 

Society of Manchester, which was included 
in the ' Transactions,' andprinted separately 
for the author in 1828. For fifty years he 
published nothing more onPersian literature, 
but he had not alMindoned the study (Preface 
U) Persian Fdetryfor English Beaders, 1888, 
n. v). When he was nearly eiffhty years old 
he printed selections ^from nve or six of 
the most celebrated Persian poets, with short 
accounts of the authors and of the subjects 
and character of their works.' They appeared 
in five little duodecimo paper-coverea books, 
uniform but independent, anonymous save 
for the initials S. K. subscribed to the pre- 
faces, and published both in Manchester and 
London, in the following order : 1 . ' Analysis 
and Specimens of the Joseph and Zulaikha, 
a historical-romantic Poem, by the Persian 
Poet Jam!,' 1873. 2. < Memoir of the Life and 
Writing of the Persian Poet Nizami, and 
Analysis of the Second Part of his Alexander 
Book,' 1878. 3. < A Century of Ghazels, or 
a Hundred Odes, selected and translated 
from the Diwan of Hafiz,' 1875. 4. < Flowers 
culled from the Gulistan . • . and from the 
Bostan ... of Sadi,' with an 'Appendix, 
bein^ an Extract from the Mesnavi ot Jelal- 
ud-din Rumi,' 1876. 5. A reprmt of the 
early 'Sketch of the Life and Writings of 
Ferdusi,' 1876. The greater part of the Sa'di 
selection had previously appeared in a volume 
(by other writere) of translations from 
Persian authors, entitled * Flowers culled 
from Persian Gardens ' (Manchester, 12mo, 
1870). The vol ume on N ixami was avowedly 
a translation from the German of W. Bacher, 
and the ' Joseph and Zulaikha ' owed much 
to Rosenzweig^s text and version. Indeed, 
Robinson, who was unduly modest about his 
knowledge of Persian, and expressly dis- 
claimed the title of ' scholar' (Preface to 
Persian Poetry, p. vii), relied considerably 
on other versions to correct and improve his 
own, though always collating with the Per- 
sian originals before him. ^e result was a 
series of extremely conscientious prose ver- 
sions, showing much poetic feeling and in- 
sight into oriental modes of thought and 
expression — ^the work of a true student in 
love with his subject. The five little volumes 
becoming scarce, they were reprinted in a 
single volume, for private ciremation, with 
some slight additions and revision, at the 
instance and with the literair aid of Mr. 
W. A. Clouston, under th^ title of ' Persian 
Poetry for English Readers,' 1883, which 
may jnstlv claim to be the best popular work 
on the subject. 

Besides his Persian selections, Robinson 
published translations of Schiller's ^ Wilhelm 
TeU ' (1825, reissued 1834), SchiUer's ' Minor 




fbnu' (1667), 'Speeimenfl of the German 
Lnic FoeU' (1878), and ^Tranalations from 
nrkns German Authon ' (1879). Apart 
fron ipedal ftudies, be took a keen interest 
ia ill mtelleetiial and eoeial moTemente, 
espedaDj in his own locality, and amon«r 
Ui owB workpeople, whoee educational ana 
■mtizyirel£ue£e had greatly at heart. He 
vu (w of the founders of the British School 
nd t^ Dddnfield Tillage library, where, in 
i^ctetf bis sbhonenoe of publicity, he often 
leerud, especially on educational subjects, 
11^ k was among the original organisers 
d tbe Manchester Statistical Society. A 
'FrioMllT Letter on the recent Strikes from 

I Uindaetorer to his own Woriroeople,' 
l9»l, was one of a series in which he gave 
Dood adriee to his empIoTees. From 1 867 
t) 1871 lis WIS president of Manchester New 
Colkfe. He died at Blackbrook Cottage, 
MHiulow, where he had lived many years, 
oo 9 Dw. 1884, in his ninety-first year, be- 
mtfaiog his librmy to the Owens College. 
He Binvd, about 1825, Maty, daughter of 
Job Keonedy of Knocknalung, Kirkcud- 
brigiitdiire; she died at Pallansa, on Lago 
It^lS^ <n 26 Aug. 186dy leaving no issue. 

[leademy, 27 Dec. 1884; Bnrke's Landed 
GtatiT, 1894, p. 1103; Maoehoster Guardian, 

II Dec. 1884 ; preftuees to his works; Brit. Mus. 
Cit.; nformattoD from the principal and the 
lilaris of Owens College.] S. L.-P. 

BOBINSON, Sib TANCRED (d. 1748), 
^jnoan and naturalist, was bom in York* 
«^, spoaiently between 1655 and 1660. 
He WIS the second son of Thomas Bobinson 
'^ I676X * Turkey merchant, and his wife 
Qabeth (d. 1664), daughter of Charles 
''*»aatfi of Aidea, but he often spelt his own 
■aeTaokzed. He was educated at St. John's 
loIl«|e,Gambridfte, graduating M.B. in 1679. 
Betaa trsTellea for some years abroad, and, 
^Haas Sloane, attended the lectures of 
Ttansfort and Duvemey at Paris. The first 
•/tJK serenteen letters by him to John Ray 
friaied in the 'Philosophical Letters' (1718) 
■ dited jhna Paris in 1683. In September 
^tke nme year he wrote from Montpellier, 
v^herisitedMagnol; and, after staying 
tt Bobgna, wheie he met Midpighi, and in 
»>neaBd Nsples, he proceeded, m 1684, to 
^^^ttta and lieyden. On his way home he 
VttnUied of objeeto he had collected. In 
^^^ 1684 he was in London, and inyited 
^j to lodge in his *quiett chamber near the 
leir^;' Kay at a later period speaks of him 
u'tnjeonmi alpha.' From Montpellier he 
^l^^tten to Martin Lister the letter on the 
^deSaiat-Esprit on the Rhine, which was 
Fated as one of nis first contributions to the 

* Philosophical Transactions of the Royal So- 
ciety ' in Jun6 1684, and in the same year he 
was elected afellow of the society. He became 
M.D. of Cambridge in 1685, and fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians in 1687, serying 
as censor in 1693 and 1717. He was ap- 
pointed physician in ordinary to George 1, 
and was kniffhted by him. Robinson died at 
an adyancea age on 29 March 1748. He 
married Alethea, daughter of George Morley, 
and left a son William. 

Thouffh his letters and papers deal with 
natural nistory generally, be paid particular 
attention to plants, and was styled by Pluke- 
net in 1696 (^Almagestumf p. 1 1 V yir de re her- 
baria optime meritus.' There is eyidence that 
he assisted both James Petiyer and Samuel 
Dale in the latinity of their scientific works, 
while Ray repeatemy acknowledges his assist- 
ance, especially in his ' Historla Plantarum ' 
(1686)and<Synop8isStirpium'(1690). Robin- 
son was mainly instrumental in securing the 
publication of Ray's ' Wisdom of Gk)d in 
Creation,' and suggested the 'Synopsis Ani- 
malium' and the 'SyUoge Stirpium Euro- 
pssarum.' His own contributions to the 
'Philosophical Transactions' include: 1. 'An 
Account of the four first yolumes of the 
''Hortus Malabaricus,"' in Nos. 145*214. 
2. 'Description, with a Figure, of the Bridge 
of St. Esprit,' yol. xiy. No. 160, p. 584 
(1684). 3. 'The Natural Sublimation of 
Sulphur from the Pyrites and Limestone, 
at ^tna, Vesuyius, and Solfatara,' yol. xy. 
No. 169, p. 924 (1685). 4. ' Obsenrations on 
BoilingFountains and Subterraneous Steams,' 
yoLxy. Nos.l69and 172, pp. 922, 1088(1685). 
5. ' Lake Ayemus,' tb. No. 172. 6. ' The 
Scotch Barnacle and French Macieuse,' tb, 
p. 1086. 7. < Tubera Term or Truffles,' yol. 
xyii. No. 204, p. 935 (1693). 8. ' Account of 
Henry Jenkins, who liyed 169 years,' yol. xix. 
No. 221, p. 267 (1696). 9. ' Obseryations 
made in 1683 and 1684 about Rome and 
Naples,' yoL xxix. No. 349, p. 473. 10. ' On 
the r^orthem Auroras, as obseryed oyer Vesu- 
yius and the Strombolo Islands,' ib, p. 483. 

Robinson has been credited witn 'Two 
Essays by L.P., M.A., from Oxford, concern- 
ing some errors about the Creation, General 
Flood, and Peopling of the World, and . . . 
the rise of Fables • • . ' London, 8yo, 1695. 
But in a printed letter, in answer to remarks 
by John Harris (1667P-1719) [q. v.], ad- 
dressed by Robinson to William Wotton, 
B.D., a college friend^ Robinson solemnly 
denied the authorship of the ' Two Essays,' 
at the same time. owning to haying assisted 
the author, and to haying written the intro- 
duction to Sir John Narborough's ' Account 
of seyerallate Voyages' (London|8yo^l694), 




«nd the epfistle dedicatory to the English 
translation of Father Louis Le Comte's 'Me- 
moin and Observations made in . . . Ohina' 
(London, 8yo, 1697). Harris printed a re^ 
joinder to Robinson. 

[Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees ; Pnlteney*s 
Sketches of tiie Progress of Botany (1790), Us 
1 18-20 ; Lifb of Bay in Select Remains (1 760) ; 
Philosophical Letters (1718); Mank's Coll. of 
Phys. (1878), vol. i.] G. S. B. 

ROBrNTSON, THOMAS (A 1520-1661), 
dean of Durham. [See Robebtson.] 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (Ji. 1688-.1608), 
lutenist and composer^ bom in England, 
seems at an early age to have practised his 
profession at the court of Denmark. He * was 
thought, in Denmark at Elsinore/ he says, 
*the fittest to instruct * the Princess Anne, 
the king of Denmark*8 daughter, afterwards 
queen <h England (Dedication to James I of 
Sbkoole &/ Mtuteke), Although the frequent 
visits of English musicians to the court of 
Christian TV were recorded at the time, and 
the reeords have been published by Dr. 
Hammerich, no notice of Robinson's sojourn 
in Denmark has been discovered. 

In 1608 Robinson published ' The Schoole 
of Mnsicke, wherein is taught the perfect 
method of true fingering of the Lute, Pan- 
dora, Orphsrion, and Viol de Oamba * printed 
by lliomas Este, London). The preiace has 
an alluBion to a former work by Robinson, 
which is not known to be extant. Robinson 
Ascribes the lute as the ' beet-beloved instru- 
ment,' and readers are encouraged to teadi 
themselves to plav at sight any lesson ' if it 
be not too trickined.' The instructions are 
written in the form of a dialoptie. Hawkins 
observed that this book, in which the method 
ef Adrian le Ro^ was generally followed, 
'tended to explain a practice which the 
masters of the lute have ever shown an un- 
willinffuees to divulge' {History , 2nd ed. 
p. 667). Rules fbr singing are not forgotten, 
and lessons for viol aa gamba as well as 
lute are set down in tablature. Some of 
the music was old, but other specimens, 
including^ almains, galliards, gigues, toys, 
and Robmson's Riddle, were ' new out of 
the fat.' 

Another Thoxab RoBivsoif (Ji. 1622), 
pamphleteer, seems to have been a native of 
kings Lynn, and to have beoa sent to Cam- 
bridge at the expense of Thomas Gurlin, a 
well-to-do eitixen of Lvnn ; but aa academic 
career proved distastenil, and he took to the 
sea. Landing at lisbon on one of his voy- 
ages, he fell in with Father Seth oiiMW Joseph 
duster, who was in diarge of the English 
mumei^tiiare. The nannery was descended 

firom the Bii^tine convent, whith was lo- 
cated at the time of the English Reformation 
at Sion House, Isleworth. All the inmates 
at Lisbon were Englishwomen. Aooordinff 
to his own account, Robinson was persuaded 
by Father Seth to enter the convent in the 
capacity of secretary and mass priest. He 
spent two years there. Returning to London, 
he recorded the immoral practices which he 
affirms he had witnessed in ' The Anatomy of 
the English Nunnery at Lisbon in Portugall 
described and laid open by one that was some 
time a yonger brother of the covent,' London 
(by George Purdowe), 1622. The dedication 
was addressed to Thomas Gurlin, then mayor 
of King's Lynn. A new edition, dated 1623, 
has an engraved title-page ; one of the com- 
partments supplies in miniature a full-length 
portrait of Robinson. The writer exhibits 
a strouff protestant bias, and his evidence 
cannot oe accepted quite literally. But his 
pamphlet was well received by English pro- 
testants. Robinson's version of some of hia 
worst charges against the nuns was intro- 
duced in 1625 by the dramatist Thomas 
Middleton into his 'Ghime at Chess' (MiB- 
P£Bioir, Works, ed. Bullen, vii. 101, IdO). 

[Authorities cited.] I«. M. M. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS ((?. 1719), writer 
on natural history, was appointed to the 
rectory of Ousby , Oumberlana, in 1672. After 
service on Sundays he presided at a kind of 
club at the village alehouse, where each 
member spent a sum not exceeding one 
penny ; he was also a warm enooura^r of 
village sports, especially footbalL His lei- 
sure he devoted to collecting facta about the 
mininjgf, minerals, and natural history of the 
counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
which he put before the world in a quaint 
' Anatomy of the Earth,' London, 1694, 4to. 
This was followed bv * An Essay towards & 
Natural History of Westmoreland and Cum- 
berland, to which is annexed a Vindication of 
the Philosophical and Theological Paraphrase 
of the Mosaicfc System of the Creation, 2 pts. 
London, 1709, 8vo ; and ' New Observations 
on the Natunl History of this World, of 
Matter, and this World of Lifb. . . To which 
is added SomeThouffhts oonceming Paradise, 
the Conflagration of the World, and a trea- 
tise of Meteorolocv,' London, 1698, 8vo (the 
same, with a different title-page, Lonaon,. 
1699, 8vo). Robinson died rector of Ousby 
in 1719. H^ was married, and had eight 

[Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumberland, i. 224^5 ; 
Nicolson and Born*8 Hist, of Westmoreland and 
Cumberland ; Jefftoon's Hist, of Leath Ward, 
p. 257; Brit. Mus. Cat.] A. N. 




BOBnreoiir, thomas (a. 1747), legai 

sntkoTy son of liathew Robinson of Edgley, 

" " 17S0 of 

admitted on 14 April 
linoolB's Imiy but was never called to the 
bar. He died on 28 Dee. 1747. 

Robineoii -was author of 'The Common 
Lair of Kent, or the Cnetoms of Gavelkind ; 
witk am eppendix concerning Borough £ng^ 
liah,' LoDaoa, 1741, dvo—^^ work "which con- 
eentratsi mneh antionaiian learning in very 
naall eompaas, ana may almost rank as 
aathoritatiTe. A third edition, by John 
WHsoB of Ifincoln's Lm, appeared at Lon- 
don in 1822, Svo; and a new edition, by 
J. D. Horwood, solicitor, at Ashford in 1868, 

{Tinooln's Inn Beg. ; Oent Maff. 1747, p. 592 ; 
LoodoQ Mag. 1747, p. 616; Athenaeam, 1859, 
1 710.] J. M. R. 

BOBINBOK, THOMAS, first Basok 
Qs4STHAM (1695-1770), diplomatist, bom in 
16B6, WIS fourth son of Sir William Robin- 
son, bart., of Newby, Torkshire, and Mary, 
eldeit daogiiter of George Aislabie of Stud- 
ley Rtffni in the same county. The family 
was deseeaded fitym William Robinson (1 532- 
l(n6), aa ' eminent Hamburg merchant,' 
who waa mayor of York and its representa- 
trve in pffrtiamftnt in the reign of ELisabeth. 
The mayoi's grandson, of the same name, was 
knighted in 1633, became high sheriff of 
ToAsiiiie in 1638, and died in 1668. The 
btter^s son by hie second wife, Metcalfe Ro- 
bmasn (d. lo89), was created a baronet on 
30 JuAf 1660. Sir Metcalfe's nephew, Wil- 
Ikm Kotenscn (1666-1786), succeeded to 
his estates, fie sat for Northallerton in the 
Convention parliament, and ftom 1697 to 
1722 l e pro e o nted York. In 1689 he was high 
alierilf of Yorkshire, and in 1700 lord mayor 
ef York. The baronetcy, which had lapsed 
at bae miclei's death, was revived in him. 
He died at Newbjr, Yorkshire, on 22 Dec. 
1736, and was buned at Topcliffe. He had 
five 0008 and a daughter. The second son. 
Sir Taacred (d, 1764^, third baronet, became 
learediniral of the white, and was lord 
SHnror of York in 1718 and 1788. 

ThoaMH^ the youngest son, was educated 
at Weatrnmater, and was admitted on 12 Jan. 
1711-ld at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he wae elected scholar in April 1/14, and 
iUBflrfciliywottlOJulyl719. Entering the 
diplooMitie service, he became in 1723 secre- 
tuy to the Eiwlish embassy at Paris. During 
the sbaenco ofthe ambassador. Horace Wal- 
pofe the elder, in 1724 and 1727, he acted as 
dbaig^ dU&ires^ and acguired the confidence 
both of hiB chirf and of !Fleury, the French 
{OOJM, Memain <^ Sir JR, WtUpok^ 

ii. 644). Robinson was always attached to 
the Walpoles, and on 9 March 1742, after Sir 
Robert's fall, he sent Horace ' the warmest 
professions of friendship, service, and devo- 
tion/ adding that his letters to him were to be 
looked upon as letters to Sir Robert (ib, in. 

In 1728-9 Robinson was one of the three 
English representatives at the congress of 
Soissons. On IT June 1780 he arrived at 
Vienna in order to act for the ambassador. 
Lord Waldegrave, while on leave. But 
Waldegrave did not return, and Robinson 
remained as English ambassador at Vienna 
for eighteen years. The object of English 
policy at the tmie was to re-establish friendly 
relations with the emperor without disturbing 
the existing arrangements with France ^d 
the Dutch. Robinson's task was complicated 
by his having to take into account the inte- 
rests of George IT as elector of Hanover. On 
8 Feb. 1781 ne was privately instructed to 
sign the treaty of Vienna, and to leave the 
German points for future consideration. The 
'thrice salutary ' trea^ was accordinglv com- 
pleted on 16 March 1781 (ib. iii. 97 ; cf Cak- 
LTLE, Frederick^ iii. 88-7, 168 ; Marehmont 
Papers, x. 62). The imperialists complained 
that he had ' sucked them to the very blood.' 
His exertions threw him into a fever TCoxe, 
Walpohj iii. 99, 100). On 10 April Harrm^on 
forwarded to him 1,000/. from George H^ ac- 
companied with emphatically expressed ap- 
proval of his conduct. He was to have his 
choice of staying at Vienna with increased 
emoluments, or of takinc^ any other post that 
should be more agreeable to him {ib, iii. 101). 
Robinson petitioned for recall. Neverthe- 
less he was kept at Vienna. * for the most 
part without instructions' (to H. Pelham, 
29 July and 80 Sept. 1738). In the matter 
of the projected match between Don Carlos 
and the second daughter of the Emperor 
Charles VI, Robinson, acting on George IPs 
private instructions, resisted the union. Ac- 
cording to Sir Robert Walpole, he was the 
great obstacle to the match, and ' deserved 
hanging for his conduct in that affair ' (LoBi> 
Hbbvxt, MemoirSf ii. 104-6). 

The accessions of Maria Theresa and Fre> 
derick the Great in 1740 completed the change 
in the European system which the conclusion 
of the family compact had begun. Robinson 
had now to remind Maria Theresa of the ser- 
vices received by her father from England 
in the Spanish succession war, with a view 
to an alliance against France, while he 
had also the unpleasant task of urging upon 
her the necessity of making concessions to 
Prussia (cf. Coxb, Souse of Austriaf ii. 288- 
240). Under stress of the recently formed 




coalition of France and Bavaria with P^russia, 
Hobinson at length induced Maria Theresa 
to consent to an accommodation with Frede- 
rick, who had invaded Silesia. On 7 Aug. 
1741 he had an interview with Frederick at 
Strehlen. Frederick, according to Garljle, 
complained that Robinson ' negotiated in ft 
woray, high droning way, as if he were 
speaking in parliament.' Frederick demanded 
tne cession of Breslau and Lower Silesia, 
and the negotiation was consequently futile. 
Hobinson left Strehlen on the 9th. Carlyle, 
who founds his account of the negotiation on 
Kobinson's despatch to Harrin^n of 9 Aug., 
dubs the document the ' Robinsoniad ' (see 
Frederick the Great, v. 42-8). 

On 29 Aug. Robinson reappeared at Breslau 
with new concessions wrung from the re- 
luctant Maria Theresa ; but Frederick refused 
to negotiate. When, a week later, Lower 
Silesia was offered, Frederick found the new 
propositions of < Tinfatigable Robinson' as 
chimerical as the old (Gabltle, v. 70). Sub- 
sequently Robinson urgently appealed to 
Maria TheresSi whom, accordmg to Sir Luke 
Schaub, he sometimes moved to tears, to give 
Frederick better terms. Although he pro- 
mised her subsidies, he informed her on 
2 Au^. 1745, ' in a copious, sonorous speech,' 
that m view of the ineffective assistance she 
had rendered to England against France, the 
former power must makepeace with Prussia 
(j3>, vi. 112-14; cf. Marchnumt Papers, i. 
217). On 18 July 1748 Robinson received a 
peremptory despatch from Newcastle, now 
secretarv of state, demanding the concur- 
rence 01 Maria Theresa in a general pacifica- 
tion. In case of refusal or delay, Robinson 
was to leave Vienna within forty-eight hours. 
Robinson believed Maria Theresa ready to 
negotiate in due course, but she made no 
sign within the stipulated period, and on 
28 July Robinson left Vienna for Hanover. 
He was now appointed joint plenipotentiary 
of England with Sandwich in the peace nego- 
tiations of Aiz-la-Chapelle (CoxE, PeUuitn 
AdminUtration, 1. 451-2). He left Hanover 
for the scene of negotiations on 13 Aug., 
being secretly entrusted by both the king and 
Newcastle with the principal direction of 
affairs (t». i. 465,466, ii.7,8). Sandwich 
had tried to conclude the negotiations before 
Robinson's arrival (Newcasue to H. Felham, 
25 Aug.; Cox£,it.lO); butthetwoplenipo* 
tentiaries subsequently worked in harmony 
(Be^ord Corresp, u 502). Kaunitz, the Aus- 
trian representative, at first ' went with them 
in nothing; 'but the treaty of Aiz-la-ChapeUe 
was final^ signed on 18 Oct. 1748. 

Soon after Robinson's return to England 
he was made one of the lords commissioners 

of trade — ^'a scurvy reward after making' 
the neace/ wrote W^pole to Mann on 26 Dec. 
1748. Robinson, who had held a seat in par- 
liament for Thirsk firom 1727 to 1734, was 
on 80 Dec. 1748 elected for Ghristchurch. 
He continued to represent that borough till 
1761. In 1749 he was appointed master of 
the great wardrobe, and was next vear sworn 
of the privy council. On the death of Henry 
Pelham in 1754, Newcastle, at the king's 
suggestion, appointed Robinson, who was a 
favourite at court, secretary of state for the 
southern department, with the leadership of 
the House of Ck>mmons (cf. Bubb DopiNa* 
TON, Diary, 2 Sept. 1765). He accepted the 
seals with great reluctance, and stipulated 
for a brief tenure of them (Chesterfield 
Corresp, ed. Mahon, iv. 119). Newcastle 
tried to persuade Pitt, then a member of the 
ministry as paymaster-general, that the ap* 
pointment was favoun^le to his interests, 
for Robinson had no parliamentary talents 
which could give rise to jealousy (Chatham 
Corresp, i. 96). Pitt's own view of Robin* 
son's qualifications was expressed in his re* 
mark to Fox, * The duke might as well have 
sent us his jackboot to lead us' (Stanhopb, 
Hist of England, 1846, iv. 60, from Lorb 
Obfobd's Memoirs, ii. 101). To Temple, 
howeveii he described Robinsoa as ' a very 
worthygentleman'(6rr«nvi7& Papers, i. 120)* 
Robinson's colleagues combined against him, 
and rendered his position impossible; Pitt 
openly attacked him, and the war secre- 
tary (Henry Fox) ironically defended him. 
On 1 Dec. Walpole wrote that < Pitt and 
Fox have already mumbled Sir T. Robinson, 
cruelly.' Murray, the attorney-general, was 
Robinson's only faithful ally in the House 
of*Ck>mmons. The government majority- 
was, says Waldegrave, largely composed of 
* laughers.' Whue in office Robinson, ao* 
cordmg to Bancroft, told the American agents 
' they must fight for their own altars and 
^residet' (Hist United States,iuAl7). From 
April to September 1755 he acted as a lord 
justice during George Il's absence from Eng- 
land. In November 1755 Robinson ^ cheer- 
fully ^ave up the seals' to Fox, and was 
reappointed master of the wardrobe. That 
office he reformed and retained during the 
rest of the reign. He also received a pension 
on the Irish estiUblishment. The king would 
have preferred to retain Robinson as secretary 
of state ; for besides sympathising with the 
king's German interests, his experience gave 
him a wide knowledge of foreign affairs, and 
he was a capable man of business. Robinson, 
however, well knew his own deficiencies; 
and when in the spring of 1757 George II, 
through Waldegrave, again offered him tho 




■eeretaiyalup of state, lie ' with a most sub- 
BuauTe preamble sent an absolute refusal' 
(BoDiarcioVy Diary^ 23 March 1767). 

Oil the aooeasion of Oeone lEE, Walpole 

relates that ' What is Sir Thomas Kobinson 

to have?' T^aa a question in every mouth. 

On 7 Afnl 1761 he received a peeraffe, with 

the title of Baron Grantham. In 1764 he 

fiagDed ft potest in the House of Lords against 

the reMintion that privilege of parliament 

does lot cover the publication of seditious 

h\tdt{AMm. JBe^. 1764, p. 178). In July 1765 

he wss named joint postmaster-genera!, and 

held the office till December 1766. 

(haatham died at Whitehall on dO Sept. 
1770, and was buried at Chiswick on 6 Oct. 
Wftlpole declares that at his death he was a 
'miserable object^' owing to scurvy. He 
WIS a fairly able diplomatist, painstaking, 
and not without persuasive power. Horace 
Walpole the younger, who always refers to 
him as ' Vienna liobinson,' exaggerated his 
Gennan proclivities (see CoxB, ^ R. Wal" 
fk, uL 114). The best estimate of him is 
probably that given by Lord Waldegrave, 
who saya that Robinson was a good secretary 
of state, as iar as business capacity went, but 
was quite ignorant of the ways of the House 
of Omunons. When he played the orator 
(which was too often) even his friends could 
hardly keep their countenances. It is signi- 
ficant that no speech by Robinson appears 
in the ' Plariiamentary History.' O&rlyle 
(oand hia despatches rather heavy, ' but mil 
of inextinguishable leal withal.' Hisdescrip- 
tionaof the imperial ministers, and especially 
his appreciation of Prince Eugene, show 
insight into character. 

Robinson married, on 13 July 1787, Frances, 
third daoghter by his first wife of Thomas 
Worsleyy esq. of Hoviagham, Yorkshire. She 
died in 1750, leaving issue two sons and 
KL daughters, and was buried at Chiswick 
on 6 Kov. of liiat year. The elder son, 
Thomas, second baron Qmntham, is sepor 
lately noticed. 

[The Robinson Papem, or Qrantbam MSS. 
<Add. MSS. 23780-877, and 22639) were largely 
'^VtatiA \fy Cotace in the varioos works quoted 
Abora, aad hj Carlyla in his History of Frade- 
vkk the Great. See also Coze's Ufe of Horatio, 
laid Walpole^ i. 198, 199, 208-10, 276 et seq. 
310, BU, it. 254; Wolpole's Letters, ii. 140, 
218, 232, 284, 376, 408, 484, iii. 78, 80, 362, iv. 
3^, T. 280, and Hemoirs of Oeorse II, i. 388, 
Ii. 44-4, 93-4; Lord Wa1degniT?8 Memoirs, 
pp. 19, 31-2, 45, 52, 81, 108 ; Bedford Corresp. 
L 4.50-1, 476-9, 480-1, 502; Bnbb I>odiDgton8 
Diary, passim ; Bet. Merab. Fkrl. ; Thackeray^s 
Life of Cfaathara, i. 208-9, 225; Gent. Mag. 
1770, p. 487 ; Lord Stanhope's Hist, of England, 
1316, ebsp. zxzii. ; Collins's Feeiage, 5th edit. 

TOlk xriu 

vol. Yiii. ; G. E. C/s Peerage ; Foster's Yorkshire 
Pedigrees, toI. i. ; admission book of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; authorities cited.] 

G. Le G. N. 

ROBINSON, Sir THOMAS (1700 ."- 
1777), 'long Sir Thomas,' governor ot Barba- 
dos and amateur architect, bom about 1700, 
was eldest son and heir of William Robinson 
(bapt. Rokeby, Yorkshire, 23 Sept. 1675, d. 
24 Feb. 1720^, who married, in 1690, Anne, 
daughter ana heiress of Robert Walters of 
Cundall in Yorkshire; she died on 26 July 
1730, aged 53, and was buried in the centre 
of the south aisle of Merton church, Surrey, 
where a marble monument was placed to her 
memory. Sir Thomas, her son, also erected 
in the old Roman highway, near Rokebv, an 
obelisk in her honour. Another son, Richard 
Robinson, first baron Rokeby [q. t,]^ was 
primate of Ireland. 

After finishing his education, Thomas 
travelled over a great part of Europe, giving 
special attention to the ancient architecture 
of Greece and Italy and the school of Pal- 
ladio. He thus cultivated a taste which 
dominated the rest of his life. On return- 
ing to fkigland he purchased a commission 
in the armv, but soon resigned it in favour 
of his brother Septimus, and at the general 
election in 1727 was returned to parlia- 
ment, through the influence of the £smily of 
Howard, for the borough of Morneth in 
Northumberland. On 2o Oct. 1728 he mar- 
ried, at Belf rev's, York, Elisabeth, the eldest 
daughter of Charles Howard, third earl of 
Carlisle, and widow of Nicholas, lord Lech- 
mere. While in parliament he xnade several 
lon^ speeches, including one vervfine speech 
which, according to Horace Walpole, he was 
supposed to have found among the papers 
of nis wife's first husband. About this 
time he designed for his wife's brother the 
west wing of Castle Howard, which, though 
pronotmced to be not devoid of merit, is out 
of harmony with the other parts. Later 
in life he and Welbore Ellis persuaded 
Sir William Stanhope to ' imnrove ' Pope's 
guxlen, and in the process tne place was 

Robinson was created a baronet on 10 Maich 
1730-1, with remainder to his brothers and 
to Matthew Robinson of Edgley in York- 
shire, and from November 1735 to February 
1742 he was a commissioner of excise. His 
expenditure was very extiavagant both in 
London and on his own estate. He rebuilt 
the mansion at Rokeby, enclosed the park 
with a stone wall (1725-30)^ and planted 
many forest trees (1780). These acts were 
recorded in 1737, in two I^tin inscriptions 
on two marble, tablesi fixed in the two stone 




S'en at lihe entrance to the park frovi Greta 
ridge. He practically made the Rokeby 
of which Sir Walter Scott wrote and which 
the tourist risits (cf. Whitakbb, Hist of 
Itidkmandshire, 1 184). He built the great 
bridge which spans the Tees at Kokeby. 
Ameng other works which he designed are 
parts of Ember Oourt, Sorreyi then the resi- 
denee of the Onslows, and the Qothic gate- 
way at Bishop Auckland in Dttrham. In 
London he ' gave balls to all the men and 
women in power and in fashion, and mined 
himself/ Horace Walpole giTea an account 
of his ball * to a little girl of the Duke of 
Kiohmond' in October 1741. There were 
two hundred guests invited, 'from Miss 
in bib and apron to my lord chancellor 
[Hardwickel in bib and mace '(Miss Bbkbt, 
J&utnals, iL 26-7). A second ball was given 
by him on 2 Dec. 1741, when six hundred 
persons were invited and two hundred at- 
tended (WlLFOLE, Chrresp. i. 96). 

The state of Robinson's finances brought 
about hisexpatriation. Lord Lincoln coveted 
his house at Whitehall, and, to obtain it, 
secured for him in January 1742 the post of 
governor of Barbados. Arriving in Barbados 
on 6 Aug. 1742, he was at once in trouble 
with his assemblv, who raised difficulties 
about voting his salary. His love of building 
led to further dispute, for, without consult- 
ing the house, he ordered expensive ohanffes 
in his nesidence at Pilgrim, and be un&r- 
took the construction of an armoury and 
arsenal, which were acknowledged to have 
been much wanted. In the rssuit ha had to 
nay most of the charges out of his own pocket. 
Another quarrel, in which he had more right 
Ob his side, was as to the command of the 
forces in the island. Eventually a petition 
was sent home which resulted m his recall 
on 14 April 1747. His first wife had died at 
Bath on 10 April 1739, and was buried in liie 
&mily vault imder the new church of R»kebv« 
He married at Barbados a second wire, 
whose maiden name was Booth ; she was the 
widow of Samuel Salmon, a rich ironmonger. 
She is oM to have paid 10,00(ML for the honour 
of being a ladv, but she declined to follow 
Bobinson to ^gland. On his return to his 
own oountrr the old habits seised him. He 
again gave balls and breakfasts, and among 
the break&sts was one to the Princess of 
Wales («&. ii. 395). In a note to Mason's 
'Epistle to Shebbeare' he is dubbed <the 
Petaronius of the p«sent age.' 

Robinson ao<][Uired a considerable number 
d shacres in Ranelagh Gardens, and became 
file director of the entertainments, when his 
IteoWlsdge of the fisshioiiable world proved 
tt «u^. H« built for himaelf a house 

called Pftwpeot Place, adjoining the gardens 
(Bbivbb, Old Chelsea, p. 297), and gave mag- 
nificent fesete {hktfi mabt €k)KB, Joumalj 
ii. 816, 878, iii. 488). At the coronation of 
G^rge m, on 22 Sept. 1761, the last occa- 
sion on which the dukes of Normandy and 
A^uitaine were represented by d^uty as 
doing homage to the king of England, Ro- 
binson acted as the first of these dukes, 
walking ' in proper mantle' next the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Grent, Me^» 1761, p. 
419). Churchill, in his ^m of * The Ghost,' 
erroneously assigns to him the part of Aqui- 
taine. Mrs. Bray speaks of his fondness for 
'books, the fine arts, music, and refined 
society,' and mentions that he had long 
suffered from weakness in the e3res. At 
last he became blind, and her father used 
often to read to him (Autobiography, pp. 

Robinson was forced in 1769 to dispose 
of Rokeby, which had been in the posses- 
sion of his familv since 1610, to John Sawrey 
Morritt, the father of J. B. S. Morritt [q. v.] 
He died at his house at Chelsea on 8 March 
1777, aged 76, without leaving legitimate 
issue, and was buried in the south-east comer 
of the chancel of Merton chuidi, a monu- 
ment being placed there to his memory 
(Makkiko and Bbat, Surrey, i. 260-1). A 
second monument was erected for him in 
Westminster Abbey, and by his will a monu- 
ment was also placed there to the memory 
of 'the accomplished woman. sgr^eMe com- 
panion, and sincere friend, ms fizat wife 
(Stavlbt, WeetnUneter Abbey, 6th edit. pp. 
288-4; FATTUUTBRy Chelsea, ii. 815). He was 
succeeded in the baronetcy by hie next sur^ 
viving brother, William. 

RoDinsonwas tall and thnn, while his con- 
temporary of the same name was short and 
fat. ' I can't imagine,' said the witty Lady 
Townshend, ^ wh^ one is preferred to the 
other. The one is as broad as the other is 
long.' The nose and chin on the head of the 
cudgel of Joseph Andrews, ' which was copied 
£K>m the face <Sf acertain lonff English baronet 
of infinite wit, humour, and gravitv/ is sup- 
posed to be a satiric touch by Fieldung at his 
expense, and he is identified with the fi^^ure 
standing in a side box in Hogarth's picture 
of the ' fieffgar*s Opera.' His appearance was 
'often rendered stul more remarkable by his 
hunting dress, a postilion's cap, a light green 
jacket, and buclLBkin breeches.' In one of 
the sudden whims which seised him he set 
off in this attire to visit a married sister who 
was settled in Paris. He arrived when the 
company was at dinner, and a French abb6, 
who was one of the guests, at last gasped 
oat, ' Excuse me, sir.t Are you tlie &mou8 




RobinaoD Cniaoe so remftrkable in history? ' 
(cf. PiCHOT, Talleyrand SauvenirB, pp. 146- 

RobiBson was a 'specious, empty man/ 

-with a talent for jQattery, remarkable even 

in tbat age for lus ' profusion of words and 

bows and compliments.' He and Lord Ches^ 

terfield maintained a correspondence for fifty 

jeuB» and ^r Tliomas kept all the letters 

whieh be reoeiTed and copies of the answers 

wbidi be sent. At his death he left them ' to 

ao asothecarv -wlio had married his natural 

dangnter, witn injunctions to publish all,'but 

BobiaiOB's brother RichaH stopped the pnb- 

licatioii. Chesterfield, in his last iUness, 

remaiked to Robinson — ^such is probably the 

coTTeetTersion of the story — ^'Ah I Sir Thomas. 

It viQ be sooner over with me than it would 

be with yoa, for I am dying by inches; ' and 

the samepe^ re f erred to him in the epigram — 

Uafika my snbjeet will I frame my song, 
It dbaU b« witty and it shan't be long. 

Sr John Hawkins records {I4fe qfJahnsonf 
p. 191) that when Chesterfield desired to 
appease Dr. Johnson, he employed Robinson 
is his mediator. Sir Thomas, with much 
flatterVyTowed that if bis circumstances per- 
nitted it, he himself would settle 600/. a 
year on Johnson. ' Who, then, are you ? ' was 
the inqoizy , and the answer was ' Sir Thomas 
RohinsoB, a Yorkshire baronet.' ' Sir,' re- 
plied Johnson, * if the first peer of the realm 
were to make me such an oner^ would show 
him the way down stairs.' JSosweU, on a 
later occasion, found Robinson sitting wit^ 
Johnson {Lif^y ed. HUl, i. 434), and Dr. Max- 
n^ll records that Johnson once reproved Sir 
Thomas with the remark, ' You talk the lan- 
guage of a savage.' 

[Vostsr's Yorkshire Families (Howard pedi- 
gi«e); FUntagenet-Harrisoii's Yorkshire, pp. 
414-16; Wotton'sBaioDetage, iv. 22^8; Areh- 
dall's Irish Peerage, vii. 171-2; Walpole and 
Ifasn (ed. Mitfoni), i. 278^9, 440; Walpole's 
Notes to Chesterfield's MesMHrs (Fhilobiblon 
Soe. zL 70-2); Walpole*s Letters, i 96, 122, ii. 
284. 895» iii. 4, v. 403, vi. 427, viii. 71 ; Wal- 
poliaaa, iL 180-1 ; Xadv Hervey's Letters, 
1821. pp. 164-5 ; Nichols's Hogarth Aneod. 1785, 
p. 22; Charchill's Poems, 1804 ed. ii, 183-4; 
$ntutUy Review, 5 Nov. 1887, pp. 624-5 ; 
Dietionarv of Architecture ; Schomburgk's His- 
toiy of ^rbadoe, pp. 326-7 ; Poyer s History 
•f Barbados.] W. P. C. 

SOBQDfflOir, THOMAS^ second Babok 
GBasTHAX (1738^1786), bom at Vienna on 
80 Nov. 1738, was the elder sonofThomas, first 
buan Graiitham fb, ▼.]» by bis nife Frances, 
ikiid dsogiiter or Tbomas Worsley of Hor^ 

ingham in the Notth Biding of Yorkshire, 
lie was educated at Westminster School and 
ChHst's College, Cambridge, where he m- 
doated M.A. in 1757. At the genersl elec- 
tion in March 1761 he was return^ to the 
House of Commons for Christchurdh in 
Hampshire, and continued to represent that 
borough Ibr nine years. He was appointed 
secretarf of the firitish embassy to the in-> 
tended congress at Augsburg in April 1761^ 
and on 11 Oct. 1766 he became one of the 
commissioners of trade and plantations. On 
13 Feb. 1770 he was promoted to the post of 
vice-chamberlain of the household, and wae 
sworn a member of the privy council on the 
26th of the same month. He succeeded his 
fiiither as second Baron Grantham on 80 Sept. 
1770, and took hie seat in the House of Lords 
at the opening of parliament on 13 Nov. fol-* 
lo Wiiig(«/buma^ of the House of Lords, zxziiL 
4). He kissed hands on his appointment as 
ambassador at Madrid on 25 Jan. 1771, and 
held that post until the outbreak of hostili- 
ties in 1779. According to Horace Wslpole, 
Grantham was ' under a doud ' in 1775. 'A 
person unknown had gone on a holiday to 
the East Lidia House and secTBtair's office, 
and, being admitted, had examined all the 
papers, retired, and could not be discovered. 
Lord Grantham was suspected, and none of 
the grandees would converse with him' 
(Journal of the Reiffn of King Qeorge III, 
1869, i. 486-7). Deceived by Rorida Blanca, 
Grantham confided in the neutrality of the 
Spanish court to the last, and wrote home 
in January 1779, ' I reaUy believe this court 
is sincere in wishing to bring about a pacifi- 
cation * (BAircBOFT, History of the United 
States, 1876, vi. 180). He seconded the ad- 
dress at the opening of the session on 26 Nov. 
1779, and declared that ' Spain had acted a 
most ungenerous and tmprovoked part' 
againstGreat Britain (Par/. JSt^. xx. 1025-7). 
He was appointed first commissioner of the 
board of trade and foreign plantations on 
9 Dec. 1780, a poet which he held until the 
abolition of the board in June 1782. Ghrant- 
ham joined Lord Shelbume's administration 
as secretarr of state for the foreign depart- 
ment in July 1782, and he assisted Shelbume 
in the conduct of the negotiations with 
France, Spain, and America. He defended 
the prelimmary articles of peace in the House 
of Lords on l7 Feb. 1783, and pleaded that 
the peace was * as good a one as, considering 
our situation, we could possiblyhave had ' 
{Pari Hist, xxiii. 402-4). He resigned 
office on the formation of the coalition go- 
vernment in April 1783. Gbuntham, who 
had declined, upon the declaration of war 
with Spain, any longer to accept his salary 





fts ambassador, was granted a pension of 
2,000/. a year on retiring from tne foreign 
office (Walpole, Jmimal qf the Beign of Kttw 
George III^ ii. 695 ; Pari Hist xxiii. 649). It 
appears that lie already enjoyed another pen- 
aion of 3,000/. a year,which had been granted 
to his father for two lives, and secured on the 
Irish establishment. He was appointed a 
member of the committee of the privy 
council for the consideration of all matters 
relating to trade and foreign plantations on 
5 Marcn 1784. He died at urantham House, 
Putney Heath, Surrey, on 20 July 1786, 
Asd was buried on the 27th at Chiswick in 
Middlesex. He married, on 17 Aug. 1780, 
ijiady Mary Jemima Grey Yorke, younger 

.daughter and coheiress of Philip, second earl 

.of Hardwicke; she died at Whitehall on 
7 Jam 18a0, aged 72. By her he left two 
«ons: Thomas Philip, who succeeded his 
father in the barony of Grantham and his 
■latemal aunt in the earldom of De Grey 
[see Gret, Thomas Philip be, Eabl db 
Grbt]; and Frederick John (afterwards first 
Earl of Ripon) [q. v.] 

Grantham was * a very agreeable, pleasing 
man' (Walpole, Letters, viii. 258), and 
< possessed solid though not eminent parts, 
together with a knowledge of foreign affairs 

. And of Europe * (Wraxall, Hist, and Pos^ 
.i^mfnous Memoirs, 1884, iL 357). A folio 
tvolume of about one hundred pages, contain- 
ing notes by Grantham while m office (1766- 
1769),Is proserved at Wrest F^k(HistMS8. 
Comm, 1st Hep. App. p. 8). Portions of his 

''•eorreepondence have been preserved in the 
manuscript collections of the Duke of Man- 

- Chester (t^. p. 13), the Countess Cowj^r (ib> 

u. App. p. 9), the Earl of Cathcart Ub, ii. App. 
p. 2o)^ the Earl of Bradford (tb. ii. App. p. 30), 

: sir &nry Gunning (ib, iii. App. p. zoO), and 
the Marquis of Lansdowne {ib. lii. App. p. 146, 
'¥. App. pp. 241, 253, 254, vi. App. p. 238). 

^Dther portions will be found among the 
•JSgerton and the Additional MSS. in the 
British Museum (see Indices for 1846-7, 
1854-75, 1882-7, and 1888-93). A mejEzo- 
tint engpraving of Grantham by William 
Dickinson after Romney was published in 

[Walpoles Letters, 1857-9, iii. 476» xii. 236, 
406, 465>6, viii. 249, 415, 419. is. 62 ; Walpole's 
Hemoirs of the Keign of George III, 1894, i. 
48-3, iv. 176 ; Political Momomnda of Francis, 
fifth Cuke of Leeds (Camden See. pibl.), 1884, 
w. 19, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82 ; Lord Edniond 
Fitsmaurice's Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, 
1875--6, iii. 222>389; Diaries and Correspon- 
dence of James Haxris, first Earl of Halmes- 
buiy, 1844, i. 634^, 626-7, 628-39, 641-2, ii. 
1, 7-26, 28 -38, 41 ; Jesse's George Selvyn and 

his Contemporaries, 1843-4, iii. 16»17, 33-6; 
Whitaker's History of Richmondshire, 1823. ii. 
122-8; Lysons*s Environs of London, 1792- 

1811, ii. 217-18 ; Collins's Peerage of England, 

1812, vii. 292; Burke's Peerage, &c., 1894, pp. 
674, 1189; G. £. C.'s Complete Peerage, iv. 
80; Orad. Cantabr. 1823, p. 401; Alumni 
Westmon. 1862, p. 646 ; Gent. Ma^. 1786ii. 622. 
1830 i. 90 ; Official Return of Members of Par- 
liament, ii. 130, 142; Foster's Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees.] G. F. R. B. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (1749-1813), 
divine, was bom at Wakefield, Yorkshire, on 
10 Sept. 1 749, in the house adjoining that in 
which Archbishop Potter was bom. His 
father, James Rooinson, was a hosier there. 
He was sent at an early age to the grammar 
school of his native town, whence he entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sixar in 1768. 
In April 1771 he was elected a scholar of his 
college, in 1772 he graduated as seventh 
wranffler (M.A. 1775), in October of the same 
year ne was made a fellow of his college, 
and in 1773 he gained one of the members* 

Erizes for a Latin essay. In or about 1772 
e was ordained to the joint curacies of 
Witcham and Wichford in the Isle of Ely, 
but from 1773 to 1778 he was afternoon lec- 
turer at All Saints', Leicester, and chaplain, 
to the infirmary. In 1778 he was appomted 
to a lectureship newly founded in St. Mary's 
Church, Leicester. Later on in the same year 
he was made vicar of St. Mary's. The state 
of Leicester at the time, and the improvement 
wrought in it by Robinson, are forcibly de- 
scribed by Robert Hall in a eulogium delivered 
before the AuxiL'ary Bible Society at Lei- 
cester, shortly ailer Robinson's death, and 
subsequently printed. At St. Mazr's in 1784 
Robinson commenced the series of discourses 
on sacred biography by which he is best known . 
The earliest appeared in the 'Theological Mis- 
cellany 'of 1784, and the wholeseries was even- 
tually printed under the title of * Scripture 
Characters' (1793, 4 vols. 12mo; 10th edit. 
1816; abridgment, 1816). He wrote also 'The 
Christian System Unfolded, or Essays on the 
Doctrines and Duties of Christianity ' (1805, 
3 vols. 8vo), and some shorter pieces. A 
collective edition of his ' Works ' was pub- 
lished in 8 vols. London, 1814. Robinson 
died at Leicester on 24 March 1813, and was 
buried on the 29th in the chancel of St. 
Maiy'si his funeral sermon being preached 
by Edward Thomas Yau^an [q. v.], who 
published a memoir of Robinson, with a 
selection of his letters, in 1816. He was 
twice married. By his first wife, who died 
in 1791, he had a son Thomas (17;90'ld73) 
[q. v.], master of the Temple. His second 
wife, whom he married in 1797| was the widow 




of Dr. Oeimrd, fonnerly waiden of Wadham 
College^ Oxford. 

[7Biigiiaii'8 Aooonnt ; Memoir prefixed to the 
CmvolDBM of Scripture Cbaraetere, 1815; Pea- 
cock's Wakefield Grammar School, 1892, p. 100 ; 
UpUm'M Waknflald Worthies, 1864, pp. 197- 
206 ; Sot« and Qoeriea, 8th ser. zii. 42.1 


BOBINSOlir, THOMAS Q790-1878), 
master of the Temple, bom in 1790, waa the 
jmagml aon of Thomaa Bobinaon (1749- 
1(^23) [q. rJ] He waa educated at Rugby 
md xVniitj College, Ounbridge, whence he 
matrieolated ms a scholar in 1809. In 1810 
he gained the first Bell scholarship, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1813 as thirteenth wrangler 
and second dasaical medallist. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1816, was admitted ad 
evtdem at Oxford in 1839, and graduated 
DJ). in 1844. He was ordained deacon in 
1615 and priest in 1816, going out at once 
8»a lussumaiy to India. He was appointed 
rhaptaJB on the Bombay establishment, and 
was stationed first at Seroor and then at 
Poooah, where he was engaged in translating 
the Old Testament into Persian. The first 
part, entitled ' The History of Joseph from 
the Pentateuch,' anpeared m 1825, and two 
others, ' Isaiah to Malachi' and ' Chronicles 
to Cantieke,' in 1837 and 1838. He at- 
tracted the favourable notice of Thomas Fan- 
tfhaw Middleton [q. t.I, bishop of Calcutta, 
to whom in 1819 he dedicated his ' Discourses 
on the Eridencea of Christianity,' publiahed 
at Calcutta. In 1826 he waa appointed 
chaplain to Middleton's successor, Be^nald 
Ileber [q. y.1, whose constant companion he 
was donng the bishop's episcopal visitations. 
He waa pieaent at Trichinopoly on 2 April 
1826, when Heberwas drowned, and preacned 
and paUiahed a funeral sermon. He also 
wrote an elaborate account of 'The Last 
Bays of Iffiahop Heber,' Madras, 1829, 8vo. 
Beldre the end of 1826 he was made arch- 
deacon Off Madras. 

In 1837 Robinson was appointed lord al- 
moner's parofesaor of Arabic m the university 
of Gammidge. He delivered his inaugural 
lecture on 22 May 1838, and published it 
the same y^sr, under the title of ' On the 
Study of Oriental Literature.' In 1846 he 
was elected master of the Temple, and in 
ISoS waa presented to the rectory of Ther- 
field, Hunpahire. In the following ^ear he 
was made canon of Rochester, resigning his 
profeesonhip at Cambridge. He gave up his 
rectory in i 860, and the mastersnip of the 
Temple in 1SC9, being succeeded by Charles 
John Vaughan, dean of Ldandafi'. He died 
at the Preeincto, Bocheater, on 18 May 


Besides the works already mentioned and 
many single sermons, Robinson published : 
1. < The Character of St. Paul the Model of 
the Christian Ministry,' Cambridge, 1840, 
8vo. 2. < The Twin FUlacies of Rome, Su- 
premacy and Infallibility,' London, 1851, 

PiVorlos in Brit. Mns. Library ; Foster^s Alumni 
Oxen. ; Grad. Cantabr. ; Cambridge Cal. ; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory, 1873; Times, 14 May 
1873; Men of the KeiKn; Darling's Cycl.; Le 
Bas's Life of Bishop Middleton, 1831, ii. 427; 
Norton's Life of Heber, 1870, pp. 120, 126, 131 ; 
Life of Heber by his Widow; Heber s Journals, 
passim.] A. F. P. 

(1792-1882), astronomer and mathematical 

giysiciat, bom in the parish of St. Anne's, 
ublin, on 23 April 1792, waa eldest son of 
Thomas Robinson (if.l810), a portrait-painter,, 
by his wife Ruth Buck (d. 1826}. The father,, 
who lefl> Windermere to settle m the north oT 
Ireland,named his son after his maater, Qeorge • 
Romney . The boy displayed exceptional pre«^ 
cocity, composing short pieces of poetry at the^ 
ajge of five. At the age of fourteen he pub- 
lished a small octavo volume of his ' Juvenile 
Poems' (1806). The volume includes a ^orl 
account of the author, a portrait, and a list of ' 
nearly fifteen himdred subscribers. Another - 
poem, an elegy on Roumey, written at the age 
of ten, was printed in W. Hayle/s life of the 
artist (1809), with a portrait of the youthful 
bard. While his family was living at Dro-- 
more, Dr. Percy, the bishop, showed much 
interest in him. At Lisbum, whither his 
father subsequently removed, he was taught 
classics by Dr. Cupples. At the end of 180L 
his father removed to Belfast, and Robinaon^ 
was placed under Dr. Bruce, at whose academy - 
of some two hundred boys he carried off all 
the prizes. Here he first developed a predi- 
lection for experimental natural philoaophy^ 
and interestea himself in shipbuilding. In 
January 1806 he became a pensioner of Trinity- 
College, Dublin. He obtained a scholarship/ 
in 1808, graduated B.A. in 1810, and was* 
elected to a fellowship in 1814. He was: 
elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy 
on 14 Feb. 1816. For some years he lectured 
at Trinitv College as deputy professor of 
natural philosophy, and in 1820 provided 
his students with a useful text-boox in hia 
'System of Mechanica.' In 1821 he relin* 
quished his fellowship on obtaining the coU 
lege living of EnniskHlen. In 1823 he waa 
appointed astronomer in charge of Armagli 
Observatory, and next year ne exchanged 
the benefice of EnniakiUen for the rectory 
of Carrickmacross, which lay nearer Armagh. 




Both these posts he retained till his death ; 
hut he always resided at Armagh. In 1872 
he was nominated prebendary of St. Patrick's^ 

The work which gives Robinson his title 
to fame was done at Armagh Observatory, 
founded by Richard Robinson, first bmn 
RokeW [q. vj, in 1798. Little work had 
been done there before his appointment in 
1823, but between 1827 and 1835 additional 
instruments were supplied by Lord John 
George Beresford, and the new astronomer's 
energy bore early fruit in the puUication of 
'Armagh Observations, 1828-80' (voL i. pts. 
i., ii., iii., 1829-32). In 1869 he published his 
great book, 'Places of 6,845 Stars [principally 
Bradley's stars] observed at Armagh from 
1828 to 1854.' For a great part of tUs period 
there are few other contemporary oleervar 
tions. Robinson's results have been used by 
the Prussian astronomer Argelander in de- 
termining proper motions, and also for the 
* Nautical Almanac' Robinson himself made 
many of the observations, besides writing an 
introduction on the instruments used. It was 
chieflvfor this work that he obtained a roval 
medal from the Royal Society in December 
1862 (JZoya/ Sooid^s Prooeedingt, 1862-8, 
pp. 296-7). The observatory instruments 
havinff been again improved, one thousand 
of Lalande's stars were observed between 
1868 and 1876, and the results published in 
' Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society,' 
1879. The observations made from 1869 
to 1888, nearly all under Robinson's direc* 
don, were published bv his successor, J. L. £. 
Dreyer, in the ' Second Armagh Catalogue of 
:8,800 Stan,' 1886. Robinson also made a 
determination of the constant of nutation 
which deserves mention, but has not come 
anto general use. In 1880 he was one of forty 
jnembers of the nautical almanac committee 
/Sophia Elizabbtu De Moboak, Memoir of 
De Mot^auy p. 883). 

Rolnnson is also well known as theinven« 
tor of the cup-anemometer, of which he de- 
vised the essential parts in 1843. He oom- 
Sleted it in 1846, and in the same ^ear 
escribed it before the British Association. 
At various subsequent times he made exp^ 
riments and wrote papers on the theory of 
the instrument. 'Wniie at Armagh he made 
many researches in physics. He published a 
great many papers on astronomy, as well as 
others dealing with such diverse subjects as 
electricity and magnetism, heat, the cup* 
anemometer, sun-dials, turbines, air-pumps, 
Msometersy fog-signab, and captive balloons. 
They are to be found in the 'Royal Irish 
Academy Transactions,' 1818-50; 'Royal 
IriAh Academy Proceedings,' 1886^77 ; ' Me- 

moirs of the Royal Astronomical Society,' 
1831-62 ; * Monthly Notices of tbe Royal 
Astronomical Society,' 1873^2; 'British 
Association Report,*^ 1834^69; < Philoso- 
phical Magazine/ 1836-67 ; < Royal Society 
Phiiosoj^ical Transactions,' 1862-81; 'Royal 
Society Proceedings,' 1868, 1869; and 'Jour- 
nal of Microscopic Science,' 1856. 

Robinson was intimately associated with 
William Pkirsons, third earl of Rosse [q. v.]. 
in the experiments culminating in the ereo^ 
tion of Rosse's great reflector at Paraone* 
towuy and lived on terms of intimacy with 
Sir William Fairbaim, Whewell, Sir Samuel 
Ferguson, and other men of learning. He 
was elected F.R.A.S. on 14 May 1830, and 
F.R.S. on 6 June 1866. He waa nresident 
of the Royal Irish Academy, 185I-6» and 
president of the British Association at Bir- 
mingham in 1849. The degrees of D.D., 
LL.D. (Dublin and Cambridge), D.C.L. (Ox- 
ford), honorary and corresponding member* 
ship of various foreign societies, were also 
conferred on him. 

He died suddenly on 28 Feb. 1882 at the 
observatory, Armagh. Robinson married, 
first, in Dublin, in 1821, Eliza Isabelle Itam- 
baut (d. 1839), daughter of John Rambaut 
and Mary Hautenville, both of Huguenot 
families. By her he had three children ; one, 
Mary Susanna, married in 1857 Sir George 
Qabriel Stokes, first baronet (1819-1903). 
In 1843 he married a second wife, Lucy Jane 
Edgeworth, youngest daughter of Ridiard 
Lovell Edgeworth, and half-sister to Maria 
Edgeworth (see Ferguson, op. cit. infra). 
A portrait, painted by Miss Maude Hum- 
phx«y from a photograph, is at th^ Boval 
Irish Academy. Sir &eorge and Lady Stokes 
(his daug[hter) possessed two portraits of 
him by his father, and a good medallion by 
Mr. Bruoe Joy. 

It is seldom that ' the early promise of 
boyhood has been succeeded by a more bril* 
liajit manhood' than in Robinson's career. 
' Eminent in every department of science, 
there was no realm of mvinity, history, lit&* 
rature, or poetry that Robinson had not made 
his own.' Gifted with brilliant conversa* 
tional powers and eloquence, and with a mar^ 
vellous memory, he was of powerful physique, 
and showed exceptional coolness in the pre* 
senoe of danger. 

Besides the works noticed, and some set^« 
mons and speeches, Robinson published : 
1. 'Report made at the Annual Visitation 
of Arma^rh Observatory,' 1842. 2. < British 
Association Catalogue of Stars ' (completed 
by Robinson, OhaUis, and Stratford), 1845. 
3. ' Letter on the Lighthouses of IxwUnd,' 




\Baj. Imh Acad. Froc. (Min* of Broe., seooxid 
ser. Tol. iiiOf ISBZ, p. 198 ; MooUily Noticas of 
Roy. Astraiu Soc 1882*3, p. 181 (br Sir Robert 
Bdl); EoejcL Brit, (by J. L. £. Drejer) ; Sir 
finoBfll Fergiison in uia Ireland of his Day, by 
iady Ifergaaan, 1896 (gives a vivid idea of 
BoUd90b*s personality); Gent. Mag. 1801 iL 
1124, 1802 1. 61, 262, 1803 i. 464, 1806 i. 63, 
3o9, 663 ; information kindly supplied by Lady 
Stoksi and J. L. £. Breyer ; see also O'Donoghners 
Irish Poets.] W. F. 8. 

fiOBINSON, WILLIAM (1720P-1776), 
•idliiteely ^dest son of William Kobinson of 
Sl GOm's, Durhun, was bom about 1720 at 
KepjeTfBBmt DuibAin, came to London, and 
was OB SX) June 1746 appointed clerk of the 
works to Greenwich Hospital^ where he 
saperintended in 1763 the building of the 
innrmarj, defiigned by James Stuart (1713- 
1788) fq.v.] Between 1760 and 1776 he 
1 Wftlpole in executing the latter's 
pbns for Strawberry Hill. Simultaneously 
lie wM derk of the works at St. Jamea^g, 
Wliitehall, and Westminster, and surveyor 
lo Hki London board of customs, for whom 
he deagned, between 1770 and 1776, the 
ezdse^Soe in Old Broad Street. In 1776 
he was aeeretary to the board of works, an 
office which he retained until his death. He 
made a design for rebuilding the Savoy, but 
this was superseded, on his death, by Sir Wil- 
liam Gfaaaib^rs's plan for Somerset House. 
He died of gont at his residence in Scotland 
Yard <m 10 Oct. 1776, and was buried in the 
chapel at Ghreenwich Hospital. His brother 
Thomas (1727-1810) was master gardener to 
George III at Kensington, whue another 
brother Bobert was sn architect in Edinburgh. 

A oontemporary William Robinson \d, 
1768), szefaitect and surveyor of Haekney, 
was author of two small technical treatises : 
* P roportional Ardluteeture, or the Five 
Orders regulated by Equal Parts, after so 
concise a method that renders it useful to all 
Artists, and Easy to every Capacity' (with 
plates. London, 1733^ 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1736) ; 
and * The Ghentleman and Builder's Director' 
(London [1775], 8vo), including directions 
for fireproof buildings and non-smoking 
chimneys. The writer is probably to be 
identified with the W. Robmson, surveyor 
to the trustees of the G^resham estate oom- 
ndttee (appointed in AugUst 1767 to super- 
intend the expenditure of IQfiOOl, voted by 
the House o( Oonunons for repairing the 
Royal Eishsnge). His death was reported 
to the oommittee on 13 Jan. 176S. 

[Kotes and Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 826, iz. 272 ; 
Fapvorth's Diet of Architecture; CJhambers's 
Civil Aiehiteetore, ed. Ghi^ilt, vol. xlv. ; Faulknei^s 
KflMingtoD, 1620, p. 214 ; Brit. Hns. Gat.] 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM (17^6P-ia03), 
friend of Thomas Gray, was the fifth son of 
Matthew Robinson (1694-1778) of West 
Layton, Yorkshire, by Elizabeth {d, 1746), 
daughter of Robert Drake of Cambridgeshire, 
and heiress of the family of Morris. Sarah, 
wife of George Lewis Soott, and Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Montagu [q. ▼ J were his sisters. He 
was bom in Cambrid^shire about 1726, and 

Jroceeded from Westminster School to St. 
ohn's (^lle^, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B. A. m 1750, and M. A. in 1754. Oki 
16 March 1752 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship of his college, and held it until his 
marriage. He had a g^eat love of literature, 
probably implanted in him by his relative, 
Conyers Middleton, and was an excellent 
scholar. He married in July 1760, when 
curate of Kensington, Mary, only surviving 
daughter of Adam Richardson, a lady, wrote 
Gray, ' of his own age and not handsome, 
with 10,000/. in her pocket.' Gray, on further 
acquaintance, called her 'a very |food- 
humoured, cheerful woman.' Immediately 
after the marriage they settled, with an in- 
valid brother of the bride, in Italy, and stayed 
there over two years, during which time 
Robinson became a good judge of pictures. 
On returning to England they dwelt at 
Benton Court, near Canterbury, and from 
23 Nov. 1764 to 1785 Robinson held the 
rectorv of the parish. His father had pur- 
chased for him the next presentation to the 
richer rectory of Burghneld in Berkshire, 
which he retained from 1768 to 1798. He 
died there on 8 Dec. 1803, leaving a son and 
two dauffhters, with ample fortunes, having 
inherited largely from his elder brother, 
Matthew Robinson-Morris, lord Rokeby 
[q. v.], who died on 80 Nov. 1800. Mary, 
the younger daughter, became the second 
wife of Sir Sami^l Ecerton Brydgee, who 
wrote a cenotaph for the church of Monk's 
Hortoa in memory of his father-in-law 
{AnH-CriiiCy pp. 199-200). 

Grtij spent tne months of May and June 
1766 with the * Reverend Billv' at Denton. 
At a second visit, in June 1768, Gray was 
'very deep in the study of natural history ' 
(Letters of Elizabeth Carter to Mr8,MmlaffUj 
i. 384). A letter to Robinson is included in 
the works of Gray, but he did not think 
Mason equal to the task of writing Gray's 
life, and he would not communicate any 
information. Long letters from Mrs. Mon- 
tagu to MJrs* Robinson are in the 'Gen- 
sura Literaria ' (i. .90-4, iii. 136-49), and 
the correspondence of Mrs. Montagu with 
her forms the chief part of Dr. Doran's 
'Lady of the Last Century.' From a pas- 
sage in that work (p. 241) it appears that 




Robinson published in 1778 a political pam- 

[Gent Mag. 1803, ii. 1 192-8 ; Brydges's Auto- 
biography, i. 11, 112. ii. 9-11 ; Hasted'g Kent, 
Hi. 818, 761 ; Gra/s Works (ed. Mitford), toI. i. 
pp. lxzziii~iv ; Corresp. of Gray and Ha«on («d« 
Mitford), pp. 193, 42 A, and Addit. Notes, pp. 606- 
508; Gray's Works (ed. Gosse), i. 185, lii. 67, 
68, 161-2, 289-48, 266.] W. P. C. 

E0BIN80N, WILLIAM (1799-1839), 
portrait^painter, was a native of Leeds, 
where he was bom in 1799. He was at first 
apprenticed to a clock-dial enameller, but 
came to London in 1820, and was entered as 
a student at the Royal Academy. Robinson 
was also admitted to work in the studio of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. About 1823 he re- 
turned to Leeds, and obtained a very con- 
siderable practice there and in the neigh- 
bourhood. He was commissioned to pamt 
some large full-lenfth portraits for the United 
Service Club in London, including one of 
the Duke of 'Wellington. He likewise drew 
small portraits, the heads being carefully 
finie^ed, and the remainder lightly touched 
after the manner of Henry rTdridge [q. v.] 
He died at Leeds, August 1839, in his fortieth 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet 
of Artists, 1760-1893 ; Catalo^es of the Royal 
Academy, Amateur Art Exhibition (1896), and 
other exhibitions.] L. C« 

ROBINSON. WILLIAM (1777-1848), 
topographer ana legal writer, bom in 177/, 
practised for many years as a solicitor in 
bartlett's Buildings, Ilolbom, London, but 
was called to the bar by the Middle Temple 
on 25 May 1827. He was elected fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries on 25 March 
] 819, and received the degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Aberdeen on 8 May 1822. 
He died at Tottenham, Middlesex, on 1 June 
1848. By his marriage, on 28 Jan. 1803, to 
Mary, second daughter of William Ridge of 
Chichester, he had a large family. One of 
his daughters became the second wife of Sir 
Frederic Madden [q. v.] 

Robinson was interested in the local his- 
tory of Tottenham, the parish in which he 
owned property, and its vicinity, and he com- 
piled several excellent volumes on the sub- 
ject. Their titles are : 1. ' History and An- 
tiquities of . . . Tottenham,' 8vo, Tottenham, 
1818; 2nd edit. 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1840. 
2. 'History and Antiquities of . . • Ed- 
monton,' 8vo, London, 1819 ; another edit. 
1839. 8. ' History and Antiquities of Stoke 
Newington,' 8vo, London, 1820; 2nd edit. 
1842. 4. 'History and Ajitiquities of in- 
field/ 9 Tols. 8vo, London, 1823. 6. ' 

tory and Antiquities of • . . Hackney,' 2 vols. 
8Vo, London, 1842-3. The value of thesa 
volumes is diminished by the want of proper 

Robinson's legal writings include : 1. ' Th& 
Magistrates' P<Kiket Book,' 12mo, London, 
1825 ; 4th edit, by J. F. Archbold, 1842. 
2. 'Lex Farochialis, or a Compendium of 
the Laws relating to the Poor,^ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1827. 3. 'Formularies, or the Magi- 
strate's Assistant,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1827. 
4. ' Analysis of and Digested Index to thd 
Cziminal Statutes,' ISSao, London, 1829. 
6. ' Introduction of a Justice of the Pe^ce 
to the Court of Quarter Sessions,' 12mo, 
London, 1836. 6. 'Breviary of the Poor 
Laws,' 12mo, London, 1837. 

A portrait of Robinson, drawn by F. 
Simonau, was engraved by J. Mills in 1822. 

[Gent Mag. 1808 i. 191, 1819 ii. 482, 1820 i. 
44, 1828 i. 277, 1848 ii. 211 ; Robinson's Hist, 
of Tottenham, 2nd edit, ii 66 ; Cat. of Lincoln's 
Inn Library ; Sweet's Cat. of Law books, 1846.1 


second Babon Rok£bt in the peerage of Ire- 
land (1713-1800), baptised at Yorkon 12 April 
1713, was the eldest son of Matthew Robin- 
son (1694r-1778) of Edgely and West Lay- 
ton, Yorkshire, who inherited property in thd 
neighbourhood of Rokeby from his great- 
unde Matthew Robinson [q. v.l, rector of 
Bumeston. His mother, Eliiabetn, daughter 
of Robert Drake of Cambridge, inherited 
estates at Horton, near Hythe in Kent, frook 
her brother, Morris Drake Morris [q. vj, who 
assumed the surname of Morris. One of 
Matthew's sisters was Mrs. Elisabeth Mont- 
agu [q. v.] Of his six brothers, Thomas, the 
second, and William, the fifth, are separately 
noticed. The third, Morris (d, 1777), a solf- 
citor in chancery in Ireland, was father oF 
Henry, third baron Rokeby fsee below]. 
John, the fourth, was a fellow of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge. The youngest, Charles (1788— 
1807), was made recorder of Canterburv ixa 
1763, and was M.P. for the city from 1780 
to 1790 (Hasted, Conterbury^ i. 58, ii. 242 n. ^ 
Gent. Mag, 1807, i. 386). 

Matthew Robinson the younger graduated 
LL.B. from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 1784^ 
and became a fellow (Lvabd, Grad, Cant.y 
He was elected M.P. for Canterbury on 1 July 
1747, and re-elected in 1754. Between these 
dates he assumed the additional name of 
Morris on inheriting, through his mother^ 
the Morris property at Monk s Horton, ne&tr 
Hythe, where ne subsequently spent mucU 
of his time in retirement. He withdrew from 
parliament on account of his health, but; 
throughout his life took a strong interest in 

Robinson-Morris 57 


politieBy and exefcised influence in Kent. 
Misprincipies were those oi ' an old and true 
whig/ As such he puhliahed between 1774 
and 1777 four able pamphlets against the 
Ameriean poliey of Lord North, and in 1797 
an 'Address to the County of Kent/ adro- 
eating the diBnaissal of Pitt. On the deatJi 
of lua cousin Riehard Robinson, first baron 
Bokeb]^ Tq. ▼Jt in 1794, he succeed to the 
Iziak title. Me died at his seat of Mount- 
nonu on 90 Not. 1800, and was buried at 
Jf oiik*s Horton on 8 Dec. 

Rohehj'a relative, Sir Egerton BrydgeSy 
calli him a scholar and a travelled gentle- 
man. In person he was tall and ungraceful. 
He is said to have been ' the c(nly peer, and 
peihaps the <Hily g^tleman, of Great Britain 
and Ireland ' of his day who wore a beard {PuIh 
He Ckara/eters)m He had many peculiarities. 
He Ured chiefly on beef-tea, and was an en- 
thuaiastie wat^nlrinker. He abhorred fires, 
andhad a hath so constructed as to be warmed 
only hj the ra^s of the sun, and passed much 
of hit time in it. He refused medical advice, 
and is said to have threatened to disinherit 
his a»bew if he called in a doctor during 
one Of his fits. He understood grazing both 
in theovT and practice, and hadmost of his 
land laid down in grass with a view to keep- 
ing live stock on it. He was an excellent 
landlord, ' generous but whimsical.' He took 
long walks, * such as would tire a quadru- 
ped.' A poETtrait and also a miniature of 
Kokeby were engraved by Heath. 

Matthew's nephew, Mobris HoBiirsoir- 
MoBBU id. 1829), son of his brother Morris, 
sneeeeded to the Irish peerage asthird baron 
Rokeby. He published in 1811, under the 
psendmym of 'A Briton ' ^Cushiko, IniUah 
and p9eMdonyms\ an ammated 'Essay on 
Bank Tokens, Bullion,' &c., attacking the pre- 
dominant financial policy. To him also, in 
view of the poetical tastes attributed to him, is 
pTobablT to be assigned the tra^y of ' The 
Fall of Mortimer ' (1806), which is said in the 
' Biagraphia Bramatica ' to be the posthumous 
work of his uncle, the second lord Rokeby. 
Morris died nnmairied on 19 April 1829, and 
was succeeded hv his brother Matthew Ro- 
binson, fimrth lord (176^1831), who was 
ad^iced fay his aunt, Mrs. Montagu, and took 
her name [see under MoNTAev, Eijzabbth]. 

Montsga's third son, Heitbt RoBiirsoN- 
MoffTAGV, sixth Babon RoKEBT(1798-188d), 
was bom in London on 2 Feb. 1798, and 
entered the axmy in 1814. He served with 
the Sid lifeguards at Quatre Bras and 
Waterloo, attained the rank of colonel in 
ISM, miyorf^eneral in 1854,lietttenant-gene- 
nl and coloaeL of the 77th foot in 1861, and 
ieaead in 1869, bt^Ttng succeeded to the 

peerage on 7 April 1847. In 1876 he was 
named honorary colonel of the Scots fusilier 

Siards, and retired from the service in 1877. 
e commanded a division in the Crimea, was 
created K.C.B. in 1856 and G.G.B. in 1875,. 
as well as a commander of the legion of 
honour of France and knightof the Medjidieh. 
He died on 25 Mav 1883, and, his only son 
having predeceased him, the title became ex* 
tinct. He married, on 18 Dec. 1826, Magdalen 
(d. 1868), eldest daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Thomas Huxley, and widow of Frede- 
rick Croft, and left four daughters. 

[Biogr. Peerage of Ireland (1817); Gent. Mag. 
1800 ii. 1219-20, 1847 i. 110; Harted's Kent, 
2nd ed. viii. 84, 56-8; Brief Character of Mat- 
thewy Lord Bokeby, by Sir S. E^enon Brydges, 
privately pinted(18l7); Public Characters, 8rd 
ed. vol. i (art. signed 8. [Alex. Stephens?) 
describing a visit to Monk's Horton in 1796); 
Rich's Bibliotheca Americana Nova, i. 203, 237, 
259; Allibone'sDict. Engl Lit. ii. 1139 ; Evans's 
C!at. Ensr. Portraits. See also Biogr. BramHtica 
(1812),!. 604,ii.216-17; Bnrke'8Peerage(1894); 
Times, 26 May, 21 Jnne 1888; lU. Lond. News, 
2 Jnne 1883, with portrait of the sixth Lord 
Rokeby.] G. Ln G-. N. 

KOBISON, JOHN (173&-180o), soientifie 
writer (described by Sir James Mackintosh 
as 'one of the greatest mathematical phi- 
losophers of his age*), son of John Robison, 
merchant in Qlas^w, was bom at Boghall, 
Baldemock, Stirlmffshire, in 1739. He was 
educated at the Glasgow grammar school 
and at the university, where he graduated in 
arts in 1756. In 1768 he went to London, 
with a recommendation to Dr. Blair, pre* 
bendary of Westminster, and in 1769 became 
tutor to the son of Admiral Knowles, who, 
as midshipman, was about to accompany 
General Wolfe to Quebec. In Canada Kobi- 
son saw much active service, and was em- 
ploved in nuking surveys of the St. Lawrence 
and adjacent country. He was with Wolfe 
the night before his death, when he visited 
the posts on the river. Returning to Eng- 
lana in 1762, Robison was appointed by the 
board of longitude to proceea to Jamaica on 
a trial voyage, to take charge of the chrono- 
meter conipleted by John Harrison the horo- 
logist a698-1776) [q. v.] On his return he 
proceeded to Glasgow, where he confirmed 
an earlv acquaintance as a student with 
James Watt, the engineer, then mathema- 
tical-instrument maker to the university. 
Watt afterwards wrote that his attention 
was first directed by Robison to the subject 
of steam-engines while both were students 
at Glasgow. Robison threw out an idea of 
applying the power of the steam-engine to 
the moving of wheel carriages and to other 




punKwes, but tlie scheme was not matured, 
a&a was soon abandoned on his goin^ abroad 
(RoBlBOHf Meehankal Philosaphy, ii.) But 
Watt kept Robison infonned of all his later 
tuTentionSy and Robison's evidence proTed 
4^erwards of great service in defending W att'a 

eitent against infringement before a court of 
w in 1796. Bobison described that trial as 
being 'not more the cause of Watt vernu 
Homblower than of science against igno- 

Meanwhile, on the recommendation of Dr. 
Black, Robison was elected in 1766 to succeed 
him as lecturer on chemistry in Glasgow 
University. In 1769 Robison anticipated 
Mayer in the important electrical discovery 
that the law of force is very nearly or ex- 
actly in inverse square ( Whbwsll, Jn- 
duciwe SoienosSf iii. 80). In 1770, on Ad- 
miral Knowles being appointed president of 
the Russian board of admiralty, Robison 
went with him to St. Petersburg as private 
secretary. In 1772 he accepted the mathe- 
matical chair attached to tne imnerial sea- 
cadet corps of nobles at St. Petersburg, with 
the rank of colonel ; he acted also for some 
time as inspector-general of the corps. In 
1778 he became professor of natural philo- 
sophy in Edinburgh University. ' The sciences 
of mechanics,' wrote Professor Playfair, his 
auccessor, 'hydrodvnamicS) astronomy, and 
optics, together with electricity and mag- 
netism, were the subjects which his lectures 
embraced. These were given with great 
fluency and precision of lanffuaffe.' In 1783, 
when the Ro^al Society 01 Edinburgh was 
founded and incorporated by royal charter, 
he was elected the general secretary, and 
lie dischaxved the duties till within a few 
years of his death. He also contributed to 
its ' Transactions.* 

In 1787, when the northern lighthouse 
board resolved to substitute reflectors for the 
open coal fires then in use, the plans of the 
apparatus were submitted to Robison {Blaeh' 
wood^s Mag, xxxiv. 866). In 1798 he re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from the uni- 
versity of New Jersey, and in 1799 the 
university of Glasgow conferred on him a 
similar honour. In 1799 he prepared for the 
press and published the lectures of Dr. Black, 
the great chemical discoverer. Robison also 
contributed articles on seamanship, the tele- 
scope, optics, waterworks, resistance of fluids, 
electricity, ma^etism, music, and other sub- 
jects to the third edition of the ' Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica.' He died on 80 Jan. 1806, 
After two days' iUness. He was survived by 
his wife, Rachel Wright (1769-1852 P), whom 
tie had married in 1777, and by four children : 
John (see below) ; Euphemiai who married 

Lord Einnedder, Sir Walter Scott's friMid, 
and died in September 1819; Hugh (<2. 1849) 
captain in the nisam's service ; and Charies 
{d, 1846^. There are two portraits of Robi- 
son by Sir Henry Raebum — one the property 
of the Royal Society of Edinbui^h, tne other 
in the university of Bdinbttrgh. An engraving 
of one of these appears in maUeB's ' Lives <^ 
Boulton and Watt.' 

On Robison's death Watt wrote of him : 
' He was a man of the clearest head and the 
most science of anybody I have ever known.* 
In addition to great scientific abilities, Robi- 
son possessed no little skill and taste in 
music. He was a performer on several in* 
struments. But his musical lucubrations in 
the * Encyclopiedia Britannica 'proved as use- 
less to the musician as they were valuable to 
the natural philosopher (s9. xxvii. 472). He 
was also an excellent draughtsman and a &cile 
versifier. Hallam, in his Hijiterary History of 
Europe,* says that ' Robison was one of those 
who fed the wa^r in turning the blind venera- 
tion of Bacon into a rational worship' (iii. 
! 227). Lord Oockbum givea an amusing de- 
scription of Robison's personal appearance 
I in his ^ MemcMnals.' Altnough he was a free- 
! mason, Robison published in 1797 a curious 
work — 'a lasting monument of fatuous cre<- 
dulity * — to prove that the fraternity of 'lUu- 
minati ' was concerned in a plot to overthrow 
reliffion and ^vemment throughout the 
world. The title ran: <Proo& of a Con- 
spiracy against all the Religions and Gknrem- 
ments of Europe, carried on in the secret 
Meetings of lireemasonsi lUuminati, and 
Reading Societies,' 1797, Edinbuivh, Svo 
(2nd edit, with postscript, Edinburgh, 1707 ; 
8rd edit. Dublin, 1798; 4th edit. London, 
1798, and New Yorir, 1798). 
Robison's scientifio publications were: 

1. ' Outlines of a Course of Lectures on Me- 
chanical Philosophy,' 1797, Edinburgh, 8vo. 

2. ' Elements of Medianical Philosophy . . . 
vol. i.' (all published), 1804, Edinbuigh, 8to, 

3. 'A System of Mechanical Philosophy, with 
Notes by David Brewster, LL.D.,' 4 vola. 
1822, Edinburgh, 8vo. These y^umes com- 
prised reprints of his ' Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica' and papers read before the Royal 
Society. Robison's article on the steam- 
engine in vol. ii. was revised and augmented 
by Watt. 

Sib Johv Robisok (1778-1843), son of 
Professor Robison, was bom in Edinburgh 
on 11 June 1778. He was educated at tne 
high school of Edinbunrh and the uniyersity 
there. On leaving ooUege he went to Mr. 
Houston of Johnston, near Pttidey, who was 
erecting cotton-spinning milla with Ark- 
wright^ machinery; Sbortly affcervrards h» 




zenoved to Msnchester, whenoe he paid a 

visit to his iathei^a M &iend| James. Watt, 

ai S<^ near Birmingham, and made the 

MquaiataDoe of young Watt, who became 

hi lifeioi^ friend In 1802 he obtained a 

meiciiirile attoation in Madras, and aube»- 

qicntlf entei«d the tervioe of the nixam of 

Hydenbad aa contractor for the eatabliah- 

aeat tad maintenance of the artillery aervioe, 

indw&ig the famishing of guns and am- 

BOBQan. He waa also appointed command- 

jajpofficer of the corps. For the nixam ha 

Ji^ oat giounda on the English model. 

H&noff acquired a conaide^ble fortune, he 

left India in 1815, and settled in the west 

of Scotland, &t the Qrove, near Hamilton. 

After ume Teaia be removed to Edinburgh. 

Od '22 Jsn. 1816 he was elected a fellow of 

the BoTsl Society of Edinbunrh ; in 1823 

naetirj of ^e physical class of the society ; 

md in 182S, in succession to Sir Dayid Brew- 

iter, general aecretary to the society. The 

Isfit offee^ which his father had previously 

hdd^be filled till 1840 with great ahiUty. On 

RsigBingthe post the society voted the sum 

of SXU. to Roblaon * in acknowledgment of 

iu< long servioea.' In 1831 he contributed 

to the 'Transactions ' of the socie^ a ' Notice 

Rguding a Timekeeper in the Hall of the 

Boral Society of Edmburgh,' the pendulum 

of vliich had heen constructed by Robison 

of Btfble, aa bein«[ less subject to variations 

ia tempentuxe than metal. This clock, 

the ▼cork of Whitelaw, still keeps accurate 

tiiDe in the lecture-hall of the society. Bobi- 

na &lso contributed the article on ' Turning' 

to the ' Encyclopaedia Britanniea,' and pub- 

Jfihed a description in English and French 

twJudi he wrote and spoke fluently) of a 

Itfgte pomping 8team*«ngine, and an account 

of the failure of a suspension bridge at Paris. 

In 1621 he was one of the fbunoers of the 

&ottiah Society of Arts, of which he was 

sfCTEUry from 1822 to 1824, twice vice-pre- 

adat, and finally president, 1841-2, the first 

Joir of its incorporation. Upwards of sixty 

•Ttieles firam his pen were communicated to 

tbii lociety. He received its Keith prize for 

his impiovementa in the art of cutting accu- 

XiU metal screws, a silver medal for nis de> 

•Qxpcion and drawing of a cheap and easily 

■Md camera lncida,uid a medal for a notice 

^ operimenta on the Forth and Clyde Canal 

OB the reaistanoe to vessels moving with dif- 

^mt velocities. Kobison was for many 

jm a member of the Highland Society, and 

minnan of its coounittee on agricultural 

ia^enents and machinery. He acted as 

ml aeeratsrj to the British AjBsociation for 

the Advanoement of Science in 1884, when 

M.Anigo was hia gnesL Ha was also a 

commissioner of police. In 1837 he received 
the Quelphio order from William IV, and 
was knignted by Queen Victoria in 1838. 
His inventions were numerous and ingenious. 
He made a particular study of the applica- 
tion of hot air to wanning houses, and of 
f^ to the purposes of illumination and heat- 
ing. In his own kitchen the chief combus- 
tible was gas. 'From boring a cannon,' wrote 
Professor Forbes,. * to drilling a needle's eye, 
nothing was strange to him. Masonrj^cax-* 
pentiy, and manufactures in metals were 
almost equally familiar to him. His house 
in Randolph Crescent was built entirely ixom 
his own plans, and nothing, from the cellar 
to the roof, in construction or in furniture, 
but bore testimony to his minute and elabo- 
rate invention.' He evinced great energy in 
making known merit among talented arti- 
ficers. His house was always open to. dis- 
tinguished forei^ers. He died on 7 JSdazch 
1&&. He married first, in 1816, Jean Gra- 
hame (d. 1824) of Whitehill, near Glasgow; 
and, secondly. Miss Benson {d, 1837)^ He 
left two daughters by his fixst wife.. The 
elder daughter, Euphemia Erskine, bom in 
1818, married in 1839 Archibald Gerard of 
Bochsoles, Airdrie, and died at Salzburg in 
1870, leaving three sons and four daughters^ 
two of whom (Emily, wife of General de 
Laszowska, and Dorothea, wife of Mi^or do 
Lonfi^^de) won repute as the novelista K 
and D, Gerard. The former died 11 Jan. 1905, 

[For the elder Robison see Ogilvie's Imp. Diet* 
of Biogc,; ChalmeD's Biogr. Diet.; AlliboaVi 
Diet. ; Chambers's aad Thomsoa's Eminent Soots- 
men; Andezsoa's Scottish Nation; Brevstei's 
PreSiu^ to Bobison's System; John Piayfair^s 
obit, notice in Trans. Boyal Soc. of Edinbuigh, 
vol vii. (reprinted in Playfeir's Works, toI. iv.); 
Dr. Thomas Toung's Works, vol. ii.; PhU. Mag. 
1802; Cockbarn's Memorials, chap. i. ; SiAiles's 
Lives of Boalton and Watt. For the younger 
Robison see Edinburgh Couiant, 9 March 1843; 
Ann. Register, 1848; Trans, of the Royal Soc. 
of Edinbnigh, xv. 680-1 ; Obit, notice by Prof. 
Forbes in Proe. of uune society, ii. 68-78 ; Trans, 
of Royal Scottish 8oe. of Arts, 1848, pp. 48-4; 
information supplied by Miss Gathrie Wright, 
Edinburgh.] G. S-h, 

BOBOTHOM, JOHN (n. 1664), divine, 
possibly descended from the Kobothoms of St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire (see Ubwick, Noncor^f. 
in HertfordMrty pp. 149, 180; HarL 8oc. 
xvii. 208, zxii.87). may have been of Trinity 
College, Oxford. In 1647 he applied for ordh- 
nation to the ministers of the fourth presby- 
terian classis in London. There were several 
exceptions agmnst him, and the manistero, 
not having leisure to examine them, turned 
him over to the next classis meeting fo« 

Rob Roy 



ordination. He must almost immediately 
have proceeded to Sussex in some minis- 
terial capacity (see dedication to No. 2, 
infra), in 1d48 he was minister of Rum- 
bold's Wyke, Sussex, and received an order 
from the committee for componndinff for 20/. 
a year out of the composition of Jonn Ash- 
bumham of Ashbumham {Calendar of the 
Committee/or Compounding , p. 1868, 20 May 
1648). He continued in Sussex till 1651. 
In 1654 he was preacher of the gospel in 
Dover. He subsequently became minister of 
CJpminster in Essex, but was dispossessed in 
I06O (David, Noneoirforndty in Emcx, p. 502; 
Calamt, Aeeountf p. 318, and Continuation^ 
p. 490). 

He published: 1. 'The Preciousnesse of 
Christ unto Believers,' London, 1647 
(7 Sept.) and 1669; the first edition is 
dedicated to Colonel Stapely and William 
Cawlev, deputy -lieutenant of Sussex, 
* benefactores mei.' 2. ' Little Benjamin, or 
Truth discovering Error : being a Clear and 
Full Answer unto the Letter subscribed by 
forty-seven Ministers of the Province of 
London, and presented to his Excellency, 
Jan. 18j 1648,^London, 1648, 4to. 8. 'An 
Exposition on the whole Book of Solomon's 
Song, commonly called the Canticles,' Lon- 
don, 18 Aug. 1651 ; dedicated to Colonel 
Downes, M.F., deputy-lieutenant of Sussex. 
4. ' The Mjrstery of the Two Witnesses un- 
vailed . . . together with the Seaventh Trum- 
pet and the Kingdom of Christ explained,' 
London, 3 May 1654 ; dedicated to Cromwell. 

Kobothom saw through the press Walter 
Cradock's 'Qospel Holinesse,' Jjondon, 1651 ; 
and he is doubtfully credited with 'Janua 
linguarum reserata sive omnium scientiarum 
et linguarum seminarium. The Gate of 
Languages unlocked . . . formerly translated 
by Tho. Horn, and afterwards much corrected 
and amended by John Robotham, now care- 
fully reviewed, &c., 6th ed. 1643 (see Wood, 
Athena Oxon, iii. 366), and ' Disquisitio in 
Hypothesim Baxterianam deFoedere Gratis 
ab mitio et deinceps semper et ubiaue omni- 
bus induto,' London, 1694, 1689 (Wait). 

[Authorities in text ; Brit. Mas. Cat.; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.; MS. minutes of Fourth London 
Classis, in writer's possession ; Notes and Queries, 
8th 8er.zii.42; private information.] W. A. S. 

ROB ROY. [See MacGbbqob.] 

BOBSART, AMY (<f. 1660). [See under 


ROBSON, CHARLES (1698-1636), first 
chaplain at Aleppo, of CumbBrland parentage, 
was the son of Thomas Robson, master of 
the Free School of Carlisle (Wood, Athenm 

Oxon, iii. 427). Bom in 1696, havinff en- 
tered Queen's CoUe^, Oxford, as batler at 
Easter 1613, he matriculated thence on 6 May 
1616, aged 17. He graduated B.A. ^ Oct. 
1616, M.A. 21 June 1619, and B.D. 10 July 
1629 (Clabk, Oxf. J?^.; Fobtbb, Alumn$ 
Oxon.) He was elected fellow of Queen's, 
26 Oct. 1620 {College Regiet.), but his habits 
were lax, and in February 1623 the college 
gladly gave him three years' leaye of absence 
that he might become chaplain at Aleppo, 
He went out thither in 1624 upon the advice 
of one Fetiplace, a member of the Levant 
Company, who with some difficulty secured 
his formal appointment as preacher to the 
colony of English merchants at a salary of 
60/. per annum. His leave was extended for 
another three years in October 1627, and 
Robson returned in 1630, Edward Pocock 
being appointed to succeed him in March. 
In the loUowin^ year Robson was deprived 
of his fellowship at Queen's on account of 
his dissolute haunting of taverns and ' in- 
honesta loca,' and his neglect of study and 
divine worship. He was appointed by the 
university of Oxford in 1632 to the vicarage 
of Holme-Cultram, Cumberland, where he 
died in 1638. 

Robson wrote: 'Newes from Aleppo, a 
Letter written to T. Vricarsl, B.D., Vicar of 
Cokfield in Southsex (Cuckneld, Sussex) . • . 
containing many remarkeable Occurrences' 
observed by Robson in his journey, London, 
1628, 4to. Vicars was Robson*s brother^fellow 
at Queen's. Upon his return to Oxford 
Robson presented some Oriental manuscripts 
to the Bodleian. 

Wood is probably wrong when he identi- 
fies the chaplain of Aleppo with Charles 
Robson, prebendary of Stratford in Salisbury- 
Cathedral in 1634. The latter was apparently 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, and in* 
cumbent successively of Weare, Somerset 
(1617), Buckland l4wton, Dorset (1624>, 
and Ba^endon, Gloucestershire (1644). He 
was livmg at Salisbury in 1662, when his 
resistance to the order for the suppression of 
the prayer-book caused him to be stigmatised 
by the puritans as a ' canonical creature,' in* 
famous ' for his scale to corrupt.' He may- 
have died in 1660, when the Stratford stall 
was filled by another (cf. Gbet, Examination 
of Neal, iv. App. p. 24 ; State Papers, Dom. 
Charles I, ccccvi. 97; Hist, MSS. Comm. 
13th Rep. app. i. 669). 

[J, B. Pearson's Chaplains to the Lerant 
Company, Cambridge, 1883, pp. 19, 26-7, 64 ; 
Micolson and Burn's Westmoreland And Oumbei^ 
land, ii. 180 ; Wood's Fisti (Bliss), i. 452 ; notes 
supplied by W. A. Shaw, esq., and (from the 
college archives) by the f^vost of Queen's.] 




1833), wmtereoloarpainter, one of the twenty- 
three ehildren of John Robrnm (1789-1824) 
by lua leeond 'wife, Oharlottey eldest daugh* 
ter of Qeorae FenneU, R.N., was bom at 
Bazbam in 1788. Hia fiither, a wine mer* 
chant, was of an old family of Etterby, near 
OsrVidtt,aini his mother was descended from 
Iridi pnteatanta who fled from Kilkenny at 
the tiatef the 'Iiieh massacre 'in 1641. Hia 
&ther sBeonratfed his inclination for art, 
whk^ was earfy ahown by his copying the 
cits in Bewick^s * QoadrupNods,' and he re- 
oeiTed hia first instruction in drawing from 
s Mr. Harle of Durham. In 1806 he went to 
hmdaa with 5iL in his pocket, and succeeded 
00 well that he returned the money to his 
&ther in Ums than a year. 

He began to exhibit at the Hoyal Academy 
ia ld07, and published in 1808 a print of 
Dniham, the profits of which enabled him 
to visit Scotland, where he wandered over 
tW okonntains, dressed as a shepherd, with 
Scou*» ' Lay of the Last Minstrel * in his 
pocket. In 1810 he began to exhibit land- 
acapea in the Bond Street gallery of the 
Asiociated Painters, of which short-lived 
society he was a member. The fruits of his 
Tonxney north, which inspired him with the 
oeanty of mountain scenery, were first shown 
at tlue exhibition of 1811, to which, and to 
that of the following year, he sent drawiiufs 
of the Trossachs and Loch Katrine, in 

1813 he began to exhibit with the Society of 
Painters in Oil and Watercolours, and in 

1814 published ' Scenery of the Grampians,' 
which contained forty outlines of mountain 
landscape, etched on soft ground by Henry 
3£orton after his drawings. The volume 
was published by himself at 13 Caroline 
^i^treet, Bedford Square, and was dedicated 
to the Duke of Atholl (acoloured reprint was 
paUished in 1819). From 1813 to 1820 he 
eontributed, on the average, twenty drawings 
annually to the Oil and Watercolour Society's 
exhibition, mostly of the Perthshire high- 
lands, hut comprising scenes from Durham, 
t he I«le of Wight,and Wales. At the anniver- 
sary meetinff on 30 Nov. 1819 he was elected 
preasident of the society for the ensuiiu^ year. 

When the society (now the Royal Society 
of Painters in Watercolours) in 1821 again 
excluded oil-paintings, he was one of the 
members by whose extraordinarv efforts the 
exhibitions were maintained, and contributed 
twenty-six drawings to the exhibition of that 
Tear. His devotion to the society did not cease 
till his death. Between 1821 and 1833 he ex- 
hibited 484 worhs, or mora than thirty-seven 
on the avenge sonually. His drawings, be- 
sides those ^ the Scottish highlands and of 

English cities, included views of the English 
lakes and Lake Killamey, Hastings, the Isle of 
Wight, and other pkoes, princip^ly in Berk- 
shire and Somerset. Of the 'Picturesque 
Views of the Oities of England,' published by 
John Britlon [q. v.] in 1828, thirty-two are by 
Robson. In this year he bought a drawing, 
by Joshua Cristall [q^v.], from ' A Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream, cut oat the groups, laid 
them down on separate sheets of paper, and 
got other artists, including Qeorge Barret the 
younger [^q. v.], to paint backgrounds to them. 
Me exhibited two of these ' compositions ' as 
the joint work of Cristall and Barret, which 
naturally offended Cristall and caused a tem- 
porary estrangement between him and Rob- 
son. Froml829tol833heworkedwithHills, 
the animal painter, occasionally giving a re- 
ference from Shakespeare in the catabgue* 
but he had no dramatic power. His special 
gift lay in the poetical treatment of moun- 
tain (especially Scottish) scenery under broad 
effects oflight and shade. Into tfaiese he infused 
a romantic spirit akin to that of Sir Walter 
Scott. Amonghismost successful drawings 
were * Solitude, on the Banks of Loch Avon ' 
(1823), and a * Twilight View of the Thames 
from WestminsterBridge' (1832). The chief 
defect of his work is monotony of texture. 
A drawing by him of ' Durham, Evening/ 
sold at the Allnutt sale in 1886 for 288/. 10s. 

Robson was an honorary member of the 
Sketching Society, but a weakness of si^ht 
prevented him from drawing at their evening 
meetings. A meeting of the society to say 
farewell to Charles Robert Leslie [q. v.] on his 
departure for America was held at his house, 
17 Golden Square, on Thursday, 22 Aug. 1838. 
On the following Wednesday he embarked on 
the S.S. James Watt, to visit his friends in the 
north, and was at Stockton-on-Tees on the 
31st, suffering from inflammation, caused, it 
is supposed, by the food on board. He died 
at his home in London, on 8 Sept., and was 
buried in the churchyard of ot. Mary-Ie- 
Bow in his native city of Durham. 

A portrait of Robson, after a drawing by 
J. T. Smith, will be found in Arnold^ 
'Magasine of the Fine Arts' (iii. 194). 
There are several of his drawings at the 
South Kensington Museum. 

[Roget's * Old ' Watercolour Society, which con- 
tains list of eagravings after Robson's dmwing ; 
Memoirs of Uwins ; Mag. of Fino Aits, iii. 104, 
306; Bryan's Diet. (Graves and Annstcong); 
Graves's (Algernon) Diet; Bedgmve's Diet.; 
Redgrave's Cat. of Wateroolour Paintings in the 
NaUonal GaUeiy.] C. M. 

ROBSON, JAMES (1733r.l806), book- 
seller, the son of a yeonum, was born at 
Sebeegham, Cumberland, in 1788. He came 




to London at the age of sixteony and entered 
%e shop of hia relatiTe, J. Brindley, of New 
fiond Street, knoiwn aa the publisher of a 
serieB of editions of lAie Latin dafieiee. Bob- 
0on aneoeeded Brindley in 1759, and carried 
on the hnainees for nearly forty Taara with 
oredit and saooees. Between 1765 and 1791 
he iflsned many catalogues, some of auction 
sales, includinflr the liDraries of Dr. Mead, 
Martin Folkes, Edward Spelmaa, Prebendary 
Bhmd, Joseph Smith, consul at Venice, and 
othera. He collected thepapers contributed by 
Geoive Ed^t^rdsfq.T.], the naturalist, to the 
' Philosophical Transactions,' and published 
them with the Linnean 'Index' ana a life of 
the author in 1776. In 1788 he acoompanied 
Jamas Edwards [q. t.} end Peter Molini to 
Veiuoein order to examine the Pinelli library, 
which Bobson end Edwards purchased for 
iteut 7,000/., and sold bv auction in 1789 and 
1790 for 9,866/. Alter the death of his eldest 
mm Bobsongradiiallywithdrew from business. 
About 1797 he was appointed high bailiff of 
Westminster. He rebuilt, snd was the sole 
nroprietor of, Trinity Ohapel in Conduit 
Street, a chapel of ease to St. Martin's, first 
erected by Archbishop Tenison. 

Robeon was an enthusiastic angler, and 
was nearly the last sorvivor of the monthly 
dining club at the Shakspeare taTom, among 
whose membera were Oadell, Dodsley, Long* 
man, Lockyer Davis, Tom Paine, Thomas 
Evans, and other well-known booksellers. 
It was under their auspices that Tliomas 
Davies brought out his ^Dramatic Miscel- 
lanies' and ' Life of Ganrick,' and amone 
them was first started the proposal which 
led to Johnson's * Lives of the Poets.' Bob- 
son died at his house in Conduit Street on 
35 Aug. 1806, aged 78 years. His wife was 
a Miss Perrot, by whom he had James (1766- 
1785) and (George (who took orders, and 
became in 1808 a prebendary of St. Asaph), 
odier sons, sad five daughtere. 

fO^ut. Mag. 1806, ii. 78S, 871 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Aneed. iii. 634, 681-8, v. 822.8, vi. 434-43; 
Nichols's Illustrations, iv. 881, vi. 678 ; Clarke's 
Bflpartorium KUaographicam, 1819, p. 499; 
TiBiperlej'a Encyobpedia, 1842, p. 826.] 

H. R. T. 

BOBSON, STEPHEN (1741-1779), 
botanisty second son of Thomas Robson, linen 
manufacturer, of Darlington, Durham, sad 
Marj^ Hedley, his third wMe, was bom at 
DsrliBffton on 24 June 1741. He succeeded 
to his father's business on the death of the 
latter in 1771, together with the freehold of 
the house and shop in Northgate, Darlington, 
wiwve he also cairied on a grocery. Tlrau^h 
entirely self-taught, he became a good Latin, 
(jhnek, and Fnttich saholar, and was espe- 

cially interested in botany, astronomy, a&d 
heraldry. Among his intimate firiends waa 
Robert flarruKm (1716-1802) [q. v.], of Daiw 
ham, the orientalieit, and he corresponded 
with William Curtis (1746-1799) (q. v.], 
the botanist. He printed privatelr ' Ftantn 
rariores agro Dunelmensi indigen» '^(Dawsoit 
TmBNBB and L. W. DltLWTir, Th^ Botmisfa 
Quide, 1805, i. 247), which is now very searoe, 
and he wrote some poems, all of which he 
burnt. His chief book was 'The British Flora 
... to which are mrefixed the Principles of 
Botany' (York, 1777, 8vo, with three indexes 
and five plates illustratinp^ structure). This 
work, which is in English and evinces a 
thorough knowledse* of botanical literature^ 
coming as it does between the two editions 
of the 'Flora Anglica' of William Hudson 

il780P-1798) [q. v.], and arranged upon the 
jinnsMin system, is of great merit and con- 
siderable historical interest. The orinnsl 
manuscript, together with the author's *Hor- 
tus Siccus,' in three folio volumes, is still 
jveserved by his descendants. He died at 
Islington on 16 May 1779 of pulmonary- 
consumption, induced oy his sedentary life. 
Robson married, on 10 May 1771, Ann, 
daughter of William Awmack, who survived 
him, dyinflp on 20 July 1792 ; by her he had 
one son, Thomas, and two daughters, Hann&h 
and Mary. 

Edwabd RoBSOir (1763-1818'), eldest son 
of Stephen Robson's elder brotner Thomas, 
and his wife Margaret Pease, was bom al; 
Darlington on 17 Oct. 1768. He is described 
as ' an accomplished botanist and draughts- 
man ' (Htlton LoiresTAJTB, History of Uar^ 
Imffton, p. 369) ; he was a correspondent of 
William Withering and of Sir James Edward 
Smith; contribute various descriptions to 
the latter's 'English Botany,' the lists ol 
plants in Brewst^s ' Stockton ' and Hutchin- 
son's ' Durham,' the description and figure ot 
an earth'^tar ( Geetster) in the ' Gentleman's 
Maguine ' fbr February 1792, and the descrip- 
tion of MAe$ tpicatmm in the 'Transactions 
of the Linnean Society' (iii. 240). He was 
elected one of the first associates of that; 
society in 1789. He died at Tottenham, 
Middlesex, on 21 May 1813, and was buried 
at Bunhill Fields. He married, on 4 July 
1788, Elisabeth Dearmsn {d, 8 Jan. 1852), by 
whom he had two sons and a daughter. 

[Information furnished by the great-grand- 
danghters ofStephen RobeoD ; Backhouae^s Fami ly 
Memoirs, privately printed ; Smith's Annals of 
Smith of Otutly, privately printed ; Green's 
Cyclostyle Pedigrees, 1891 ; Longstsiib's History 
of Darlington ; Britten and Boulger^s Biogra* 
phieal Index of British Botanists.] G. 8. B. 




(182^ Y-i8b4i}, actor, whose leal name was 
TsoMAf BoBaour Bnowsniis^ was bom at 
Margate, aooordiag to his own assertion, on 22 
Febwl822. Appreatieedinld3atoaMr.Sma* 
lie, a eopperplalia engraTor in Bedfordburj, 
Cofeal Qaxaen, he amosed hie fellow-work- 
■fliiby kaitatioiie and histrionicdisplaja, and, 
finding las oceupation distastefttl and, as he 
oomplsiaed, hurtful to his sight, he turned 
his tttirntifff* to the amateur stage. After 
the i^ura of hia master, who removed to 
SeatlandyHEOwnhill carried on business as a 
msster engraTetr in Brydces Street, Govent 
Gsideo. At the end of twelve months he gave 
npboainees and accepted a theatrical engage- 
ineaL When, and where he made his first 
effort aa an am&teur cannot be traced. His 
first recorded appearance as such wasinaonee 
weU'known little theatre in Catherine Street^ 
Stnnd, where he placed Simon Mealbag in 
% plaj called ^ Grace Huntley.' Other parts 
wen taken, and he obtained reputation with 
the United pubHc that follows such enter- 
taimnaits by hia singing of the w^l-known ! 
song 'Lord LiOveL' ms first pofessional 
mgagement "was as ' second utilitv man ' in ] 
a small t heatr e on the first floor of a private ! 
house in Whitstable. After acting in the ' 
eountrj at Uxbridge, Northampton, ^Totting- 
ham, Whitehaven, Chester, and elsewhere, i 
he came to Xiondon, and played a three 
months' miproeperous engagement at the 
Standard. This was followed by an engage- 
ment onder Kouse at the Chrecian Saloon, 
where his reputation was to some extent 
made. Thcsre he stayed five years. He is 
said l^ Mr. HoUinj^ead (My Lifetime, i. 
27} to have made his first appearance there 
as John Lump in the ' Wags of Windsor.* 
This was probahlT about 1845— certainly not 
in 1839, aa Mr. Hollingrfiead states. At the 
Grecian, beaides appearing in accepted ch&- 
raeteia in comedy, such as Mawworm, Zekiel 
Homeipnny Justice Shallow, and Fnnk Oat- 
land, he waa fixat heard in many comic pacts, 
aad sang aongs, by which his fame was sub- 
aeooent^ eetablislied at the west end. In 
18o0 he waa engaged for theQueen's theatre, 
Dublin, to Pwy leading comic business. 
Hese or at toe Theatre Koyal he remained 
three yeaiB. On 8 Nov. 1851, at the Theatre 
Boyal in Dublin, he was Bottom in a revival 
of tiba'MidanmmerNighfs Dream.' Engaged 
by W. Fanen to repuce, at the Olympic in 
London, Heniy Gompton (1605-1877) [q. v.], 
he appeared for the fitst tune at that house on 
28 l&eh 1858 as Tom Twig in the farce of 
< Catdimg an Heixess.' In Frank Talfourd's 
tcavestT of ' Macbeth/ produced on 25 April, 
hedkpuQred for ibe finit tine his marvellous 

gifts in burlesque. These he revealed to even 
greater advantage in the ' Shy look ' of the same 
author in the following July. During* the 
same season he showed his power in serious 
parts, as the original Desmarets in Tom Tay- 
lor's 'Hot and Passion.' He played also 
in the ' Camp ' of Planch^ at the Olympic, and 
carried away the town by his performance of 
Jem Bags in Henry May hew s 'Wandering 
Minstrel,' in whidi character he sang ' ViUi- 
kins and lus Dinah,' by £. L. Blanchud. 

At the close of 1858 the Olympic, which 
had passed under the management of Alfred 
Wigan, was at the height of its popularity, 
Robson was regularly engaged there, and was 
recognised as the greatest comic actor of 
his day. In June 1854 in 'Hush Money,' a 
revived fiirce by Dance, he played Jaspar 
Touchwood; and in Palgrave Simpson's 
' Heads or Tails' he was the first Quaile. On 
17 Oct. he was the first Job Wort in Tom 
Taylor's 'Blighted Being,' and at Christmas 
obtained one of his most conspicuous successes 
in Planoh6's ' Yellow Dwarf' In Janiilary 
1855 he was Sowerby in ' Tit for Tat,' an adap- 
tation by F. Talfburd of ' Les maris me font 
rire.' Among other performances may be 
mentioned the ' Discreet Princess,' April 
1856, in which Bobson's IVince Bichcraft was 
painful in intensity, and Gustavus Adolphus 
Fitzmortimer, in ' A Fascinating IndivLaual,' 
11 June. In Brough's ' Medea,' 14 July, Bob* 
son's Medea was one of his finest burlesque 
creations* His Jones, in Tslfourd's ' Jones 
the Avenger' ('Le Massacre d'un Innooent'), 
was seen on 24 Nov. Zephyr, in ' Young and 
Handsonxe/ followed in Januaiv 1857. His 
Dadcfy Hardacre, in an adaptation so named 
of 'La FiUe de TAvare,' 26 March 1857, was 
one of his earliest essays in domestic drama. 
On 2 July he was Massaniello in Brongh's 
burlesque of that name. 

In August 1857, in partnership with Em- 
den, he undertoc^ the management of the 
Olympic, speaking, on the opening night, 
an address written by Bobert Brough, and 
appearing both as Aaron Qumock in Wilkie 
Collins's ' Lighthouse,' and as Massaniello. 
On the first production of the ' Lighthouse ^ 
by amateurs, at Tavistock House, Bobson's 
part had been played by Charles Dickens. 
'The Subterfuppe,' an adaptation of 'Livre 
troisidme ohapitre premier,' was also given. 
After playing a country engagement he re- 
appeared at tiie Olympic in Uie 'Lighthouse,' 
and vras seen in Brough's ' Doge of Duralto, 
or the Enchanted Isle? In June 1858 he waa 
the first Peter Potts in Tom Taylor's ' Ooing 
to the Bad,' and on 13 Oct. the first Haoa 
Grimm in Wilkie Collins's ' Bed Vial.' On 
2 Oct. he created one of hisfpseatest ehaeactens 




as Sampson Burr in the ' Porter's Knot.' This 
piece by Oxenford was founded to some extent 
on ' Les Crochets du pdre Martin' of Cannon 
and Grang6. At Christmas he played Maseppa 
in an extra vaganxaso named. Fawkins, in Ox- 
enford's < Refined for the Defence ' (L'ayocat 
d'nn Grec), was seen on 35 May 1869, and 
Beuben Ooldsched in Tom Taylor's 'Pttyable 
on Demand' on 11 July. Zacnary Clench in 
Oxenford's ' Uncle Zachary ' (L*Oncle Bap- 
tiste) was given on 8 March 1860, and Hugh 
de Brass in Morton's' Regular Fix 'on 11 Oct. 
On 21 Feb. 1861 there was produced H. T. 
Orayen's * Chimney Comer/ m which Rob- 
son's Peter Probity was another triumnh in 
domestic drama. Dogbriar in Watts Phillijis*s 
'Camilla's Husband was given on 14 ^ov. 
1862. This was the last play in which Rob- 
son appeared. 

In addition to the parts named the follow- 
ing deserve mention: Boots in 'Boots at the 
Swan/ Poor Pillicoddy, Mr. Griflgs in Mor- 
ton's 'Ticklish Times/ Alfred the Great in 
Robert Brough's burlesque so named, B. B. 
in a farce so called, Timour the Tartar in a 
burlesque by Oxenford and Shirley Brooks, 
Wormwood in the ' Lottery Ticket,' and 
Christopher Croke in ' Sporting Events.' At 
the close of 1862 Robscm's health failed, in 
part owing to irregular living. Although 
ceasing to act, he remained a lessee of the 
Olympic until his death, which took place 
unexpectedly on 12 Aug. 1864. He was 
mamed, and two sons beoime actors. 

During his short career Robson held a 
position almost if not auite unique. With 
flo much passion and intensity did he 
charge burlesque that the conviction was 
widespread that he would prove a tragedian 
of hignest mark. A report prevails that he 
once, in the country, played Shylock in the 
' Merchant of Venice ' without success, but 
this wants confirmation. A statement made 
in print that he played it in London is inao- 
xsurate. It is none the less true that he con- 
yeyed in burlesque the best idea of the elec- 
trical flashes of Keaii in traoedy, and that 
there were moments in his Macbeth and his 
"Shylock when the absolute sense of terror 
— the feeling of blood-curdling — seemed at 
hand, if not present. He may almost have 
been said to have brought pathos and drollery 
into associaticm closer than had ever been 
witnessed on the stage. Nor in parts such 
as Peter Probity, Sampson Burr, and the like 
belonging to domestic drama, has he known 
en equal. In farce, too, lie was unsurpass- 
able. It is impossible to imagine anything 
more risible than was, for instance, his Slush 
in Oxenford's 'A Legal Impediment.' In 
this he played a lawyer's bemused outdoor 

clerk, who, visiting a gelitleman, is mistaken 
for an unknown son-in-law-elect exited to 
srrive in disguise; and the manner in which 
he 'introdu<^ into the drawing-room of his 
astonished host all the amenities,refinement8, 
and social customs of the private parlonr of 
the Swan with Two Necks ' will not be for- 
jpotten b^thosefortunate enough to have seen 
It. In his later days, however, in fkrce and 
burlesque, he took, under various influences, 
serious liberties with his audience and his 
fellow-actors. So great a favourite was he with 
the public that proceedings were condoned 
whicn in the case of any other actor would 
have incurred severe and well-merited con- 
demnation. Robson was small in flg^re, al- 
most to insignificance, and was, it is said, of 
a singularly retiring disposition. In yol. y. 
of the ' Extravaganzas or J. R. Planch6 ' are 
two lithograph^ portraits of Robson, one 
after a photograph by W. Keith, and the 
other after a grotesque statuette of Robson 
as the Yellow Dwarf. The cover of Sala's 
scarce memoir (1864) had a design of Rob- 
son as Jem Bsfls in the ' Wandering Minstrel' 
of Henry Mayhew. 

[Personal recollections ; Robson, a Sketch by 
G. A. Sala, 1864, reprinted from the Atlantic 
Monthly, with an unsigned preface by the pub- 
lisher, John Camden Hotten ; Sunday Times, 
21 Aug. 1864 and various years; Era Newspaper 
and Almanac, various years ; Theatrical Times, 
iii. 366; Hollingshesd's My Lifetime; Scott and 
Hovard's £. L. Blanehard ; History of the Theatre 
Royal, Dublin, 1870; Morley's Journal of a Lon- 
don Playgoer; Clark Russell's Representative 
Actors ; Daily News, 26 Dec 1892.] J. K. 

ROBSON, WILLIAM (1785-1863), 
author and translator, was bom in 1785. In 
early life he was a schoolmaster, but, when 
he was over fifty years of age, he devoted 
himself to literature. His earliest work, 
'The Walk, or the Pleasures of Literary 
Associations,' London, 12mo, appeared in 
1887, and was followed in 1846 by « The Old 
Playgoer/ London, 12mo. This volume con- 
sists of a series of letters describings the Bri- 
tish stage at the be^nningof the nineteenth 
century. His criticisms are scholarly and his 
recollections are always interesting. His 
later works are of little value. Besides 
writing original books, Bobson also trans- 
lated, without much skill, many French 
works, including Michaud*s ' History of the 
Crusades,' 1852, 8vo ; Dumas's < Three Mus- 
keteers,' 1853, 8vo ; and Balzac's < Balthazar,' 
1859, 8vo. In later life Robson fell into 
poverty. Boutledge the publisher raiaedy by 
public subscription, a fund to purchase an 
annuity for him, but before Robson could reap 
the benefit he died on 17 Nov. 186a. 




He wtt the Author of : 1. 'John Bailtoiii 
« Beid tod Think/ London, 1854, 16mo. 
1 ' Tbe life of Caidinal Richelieu/ London, 
1654,8ra & 'The Great Sieges of History/ 

[Tb Render, 1863, ii. 688.] E. I. 0. 

B0B7, JOHN (1793-1850), author of 
*Tbe IVaditions of Lancashire/ son of Nehe* 
niih Boby and Maiy Aspull, his wife, was 
bom It Wigaikf Lanouhire, on 5 Jan. 1703. 
Bi kAa was for many years master of the 
pamir sehool at Haigh, near Wigan, and 
ais eldest brother, twentT-seyen years his 
'i WIS William Roby [q. y.] John was 

edaatd chiefly at home, and in a desultory 
vty. His natural tastes were for music, 
piiiuiiig; poetiy, and the drama. While yet 
i child he played the organ at the Countess 
(tfHontiii^bn's chapel at Wigan, and afber- 
virii for fifteen yean acted as organist at 
theindnendenteliapelatllochdale. Jordan, 
who wits other literary men found in him a 
paenug benefiM^tor, states that he had the 
best ev for music that he ever met. 

Is 1^19 he joined at Rochdale as managing 
puterthe ^*«^"g firm of Fenton, Eccles, 
vBsliiie, ft Roby. For this position he 
bd, asKNig other qualifications, that of a 
iwtfbUy clear head for arithmetical cal* 
eohtMHiB. He retired in 1847, through fail- 
Of Uth, and removed to Malvern. Roby 
vii dnmned in the wreck of the Orion, near 
Pvtpitriok, Wigtonehire, on 18 June 1850, 
v^ oa hiB way from Liverpool to GlasgDW, 
od wu buried at Providence Chapel, High 
Sueet, Boehdale. He married, in 1816, the 
.^sgMt daughter of James Bealey of Ber- 
(Kheu, aesr Blackburn, by whom he had 
BseehiUien. She died on S Jan. 1848, and 
ia the foDowing year he married Eliiabeth 
^jjud Dent, wmo survived. There is a por- 
tnitof Roby in the Rochdale Free Library; 
■■flte is engraved in the third edition of 
tb 'TnditioBS,' and a third in the « Remains.' 

So^i first acknowledged publication was 
'Sr Bertnm, a Poem in Six Cantos,' Black- 
>B^^1815, but two anonymous parodies on 
S«t, *Jdkeby, a Burlesque on " Rokeby,"' 
maud 'The Lay of the Poor Fiddler, a 
FMj ou " The Lay of the Last Minstrel," ' 
^H ire sscribed to him (Abees ami Q»erte«, 
«*•». TL 267). The work by which he is 
.^ bovB, ' Traditions of Lancashire/ was 
snedat London in 1829, 2 vols. A second 
•MfoOowedin 1881,2 vols. Later editions 
«««ianed ml840, 1848, 1687, and mbse- 
{^y. The eady editions were beautifully 
jya ted by E. Finden, after drawings by 
«JppPichCTingJ[q.v.] CrofionCrokercon- 
^'*»ed OM of the pieces, the ' Bargaist or 

HL xm. 

Boggart.' The tales are rather inflated and 
overwrought, but are valuable for the local 
traditions which they embodv, though some 
of the narratives are mainly drawn m>m the 
author's fancy. Sir W. ocott had a good 
opinion of them. Roby also wrote : 1. 'Lo- 
renxo, or a Tale of Redemption,' Rochdale, 
1820 ; of this volume of heavy verse tiiree edi- 
tions came out in the same year. 2. * The 
Duke of Mantua, a Tragedy,' 1828. 8. < Seven 
Weeks in Belgium, Switserland, Piedmont, 
Lombard^,' &c, 1888, 2 vols. 4. 'Legendary 
and Poetical Remains,' including some of hia 
contributions to * Blackwood ' and ' Frasor, 
posthumously published in 1854, with a me*- 
moir by his widow. 

[Memoir in Legendary and Poetical Remains ; 
Robertson's Old and r(ew Rochdale, p, 21S; 
Jerdan's Antobio^. 1858, ii. 24; FiehwicVs Lan- 
cashire labrary, 1875, p. 271 ; AUibone's Diet, 
of Authors ; Lancashire Funeral Certificates 
(Chetham Soc.), p. 96, being oorreetion of an 
error in the legend of Father Arrowsmith; 
letters of Mrs. Trestrail (Roby*s widow) in 
Athensenm, 14 Oct. 1882, and Manchester City 
News, 1 April 1898.] C. W. S* 

BOBT, WILLIAM (1766-1880), con- 
gregational divine, bom at Haiffh, near 
Wigan, on 28 Maroh 1766, was eldest bro- 
ther of John Roby fa* v.] His parents be- 
longed to the established churcn. He was 
educated at the Wigan granunar school, of 
which his father was master; he himself be- 
came classical master at the grammar school 
of Bretherton, Lancashire. He owed his 
change of religious conviction to the preach- 
ing of Jdin Johnson (d, 1804) [q. v.] Having 
begun to preach in viUages round Bretherton, 
Roby resigned his mastership to enter as a 
student in Lady Huntingdon^ college at Tre- 
vecca, Brecknockshire. There he only re- 
mained six weeks. Alter preaching at Wor- 
cester, Reading, and Ashby-de-lsrZouch, ho 
became John«>n*s assistant at St. Paul'a 
Chapel, Wigan, and on Johnson's removal 
(1789) he b^me sole pastpr, being ordained 
in London on 20 Sept. 1789. In 1795 ho, 
undertook the charge of the congregational 
church in Cannon Street, Manchester, ^e 
began with an attendance of one hundred and 
fifty, but raised a large congregation, and made 
his influence felt throughout the county. * To 
no man,'says Halle^, 'more than to Mr. Roby 
was nonconformity mdebted for its revival and 
rapid growth in Lancashire.' In Nightin- 
gsle's volumes his name constantlv appears as 
a planter of new churches. On 27 June 1797 
he went to Scotland to conduct a mission in 
conjunction with James Alexander Haldane 
[q. v.] On 8 Dec. 1807 a new chapel was 
opened for him in Qrosvenor Street, Man- 




ehesteTi where he laboured till his death. 
He trained some fifteen students for the 
ministry at the cost of his friend Robert 
Spear ; this effort led the way to the pre* 
sent Lancashire Independent College [see 
RaffIiES, ThoxasI. Koby was a man of 
simple and informalmannersy of great earnest- 
ness, but without polemical tone ; his preach- 
ing was valued by evangelical churchmen, as 
well as by dissenters. He died on 11 Jan. 
1890, and was buried in his chapel-yard. 
His widow, Sarah Roby, died in 1836. The 
Robv schools at Manchester were erected in 
1844 as a memorial of him. He published a 
number of sermons (^m 1798) and pamph- 
lets, including: 1. *The Tendency of Sooi- 
nianism,' Wifan, 1791, 8vo. 2. 'A Defence 
of Oalvinism,^&c., 1810, 12mo. 3. ' Lectures 
on . . . Revealed Reli^on/ &c., 1818, 8vo. 

4. 'Anti-Swedenborgianism,'&c., Manchester, 
1819, 8vo (letters to John Clowes [q. v.]) 

5. ' Protestantism,' &c.. Manchester, 1821-2, 
8vo, two parts. 6. * Missionary Portraits/ 
Manchester, 1826^ 12mo. 7. A selection of 
hymns (2nd edit., Wigan, 1799, 12mo). 

[Funeral Sermons by Kly and Clunie, 1830; 
Memoir and Funeral Sermon byMcCall, 1838; 
Halle/s Lancashire, 1869. ii. 450 eq. ; Nightin- 
gale's Nonconformity in Lancashire, 1802 iy. 
76 sq., 1898 v. 121 sq. ISSsq.] A. Q. 

1872), miniature • painter, son of Hend 
Hochard, b^ his wife, Marie Madeleine Talon, 
was bom m Paris on 28 Dec. 1788. He 
showed precocious talent, and, when his 
mother was left a widow with twelve 
children, became her chief support by draw- 
ing portraits in crayons at five francs each. 
Kocnard studied under Aubry and at the 
£cole des Beaux- Arts, having received his 
first lessons in miniature - painting from 
Mademoiselle Bounien. At the age of 
twenty he ]^ainted a portrait of the Empress 
Josepnine tor the emperor. Being included 
in the military levv ordered by Napoleon on 
his return from Elba, he accompanied his re- 
f giment to Belgium, but on crossing the fron- 
tier escaped to Brussels. There he was intro- 
duced at court, and, after painting portraits 
of Baron Falk and others, was commissioned 
by the Spanish minister, a few days before the 
battle 01 Waterloo, to execute a miniature 
of the Duke of Wellington for the king of 
Spain. Being unable to obtain a regular 
sitting, he ma^le a watercolour sketch of the 
duke while he was engaged with his aides- 
de-camp, aud this was the prototype of the 
many miniatures of Wellington that he after- 
wards painted. Rochard was also largely 
employed by the English officers and other 
members ox the cosmopolitan society then 

gathered at Brussels, and in November 1815 
was summoned to Bpa to paint a portrait of 
the Prince of Orange for hu bride. Boon after 
he came to London, and at once commenced 
a highly lucrative practice among the aristo- 
cracy. Princess Cliarlotte, the Duchees of 
York, the Duke of Cambridge, and the Duke 
of Devonshire sat to him ; and for many years 
he was a favourite court painter. He ex- 
hibited largely at the Royal Academy from 
1816 to 1846. In 1884 he twice painted the 
Queen of Portugal, and in 1889, when the 
czar of Russia visited England, he painted six 
miniatures of the czarevttch for snuff-boxes 
to be presented to the English noblemen 
attached to the czar's person. Though French 
by birth and training, Rochard was t£oroughly 
Gnglish in his art, being mainly influenced by 
the works of Reynold and Lawrence ; in 
breadth of treatment and beauty of colour 
his miniatures are equal to those of the 
best of his contemporaries, though his repu- 
tation has declined. Li 1846 he retired to 
Brussels, and in 1847 printed a catalogue of 
the collection of pictures by the old masters 
which he had formed in England. In 1852 
he exhibited three miniatures at the Paris 
salon. He died at Brussels on 10 June 1872, 
his end being hastened by the failure of a 
business house to which he had entrusted tha 
bulk of his savings. By his first marriage, 
which was not a happy one, Rochard had one 
daughter, who married an English officer ; at 
the age of eighty he took a second wife, 
Henriette Pilton, by whom he had one son. 
Fkan^is Th^odobb Rochabb {d, 1858), 
youn^r brother of Simon Jacques, after 
workmg for a time in Paris, followed his 
brother to London, where he became a 
fashionable portrait-painter, practising both, 
in miniature aild watercolours. In the latter 
medium he also painted many fancy figures 
and subjects from the poets, and in 1885 waa 
elected a member of the New Watercolour 
Society. Rochard exhibited resularly at the 
Royal Academir from 1820 to 1855, and also 
with the Society of British Artists. He died 
at Netting Hill, London, in 1858- A few of 
his works have been engraved as book illus* 

[(razette des Beaux- Arts, December 1891 and. 
January 1892; Ked grave's Diet, of Artiste ; Ot- 
tley's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 
17^60-1898 ; Cbavig:nerie'8 Diet, des Artistes d« 
V£ooleFran^t8e; Yearns Art, 1886; Royal Acar- 
demy Catalogues.] F. M. O'B. 

BOOHi; 8» BOYLE (1748-1807), Irist 
politician, the scion of an ancient and re- 
spectable family, said to be a junior brand 
of the ancient baronial house of Roche 
viscount Fermoy [see under RooHi:, I>avii>] 




was bom in 1743. Enterinff the military pro- 
feaeioa at an earljr age, he served in the 
American war, distinkaishing himself at the 
capture of the Moro lort at Havannah. Re- 
tizisg from the army, he obtained an office in 
the Irish revenue department about 1775, and 
subeequently entered the Irish parliament as 
member for Tralee, in the place of James Agar, 
created Lord Clifden. He represented 6ow- 
ran from 1777 to 178S, Portarlin^on from 
1783 to 1790, Tralee (a second time) from 
I7d0 to 1797, and Old Leig him from 1798 to 
the onion with England. From the beginning 
of his parliamentary career he ranged nimsefi 
on the aide of govemment, and for his seryioes 
msgranted a penaion, appointed chamberlain 
to the Ticer^ral court, and on 30. Nov. 1782 
was created a coronet. For hia office of cham- 
berlain he ^was, Bays ^ills (Irish Nation^ 
iiL ^00), who collected much curious in- 
fonaation about him, 'eminently qualified 
bj bis handsome figure, graceful address, 
and ready wit, qualities which were set ofi 
by a Brank, open, and manly disposition . . . 
bat it is not ^renerally known that it was 
ujaal ior members of the cabinet to write 
apeedies for him, which he committed to 
memocT, and, while mastering the substancet, 
genezauy contrived to travesty into language 
and ornament with peculiar graces of his 
own.* He gained his lasting reputation as 
an invetente perpetrator of * bulls.* 

Ihe chief eervice he rendered government 
was in connection with the volunteer con- 
vention of X783. The question of admitting 
the Boman catholics to the firanchise was at 
the time being agitated, and found many 
warm supporters in the convention. The pro- 
posal waa extremely obnoxious to the Irish 
government^ and on the second day of the 
meeting (11 Nov.^ Mr. Ogle, secretary of state, 
uuKwnced that the Boman catholics, in the 
person of Lord Kenmare, had relinquished 
the idea of making any claim further than 
the reiiflnooB liberty they then enjoyed, and 
gave as his authority for this extraordinary 
statement Sir Boyle Boche, by whom it was 
eonfirmed. Ten days later Lord Kenmare, 
who happened not to be in Dublin at the time, 
wrote, denying that he had given the least 
aotboritj to any person to make any such 
rtat.«Btmt in his name; but the disavowal 
came too late, for in the meanwhile the anti- 
eatholie part;^ in the convention had found 
time to otgawae themselves, and when the in- 
tended Befbrm Bill took shape, it was known 
that the admiaaion of the Boman catholics to 
the franchise was not to form part of the 
idieme. On 14 Feb. 1784 Six Boyle Boche 
explained in a public letter that, hearing that 
Pnderick August us Hervey [q. v.], bishop of 

Perrj, and his associates were bent on ex- 
tending the legislative privilege, ' I thought 
a crisis was arrived in which Ix)rd Kenmare 
and the heads of that body should step forth 
to disavow those wild projects, and to profess 
their attachment to the lawful powers. Un- 
fbrtunatelv his lordship was at a ffieat dis- 
tance, and most of my other nobte friends 
were out of the way. I therefore resolved 
on a bold stroke, and authorised only by a 
knowledge of the sentiments of the persons 
in question,' he took action. He naiv^y 
added that while he regretted that his mes- 
sage had been disowned by Lord Kenmare, 
that was of less consequence, since his ma- 
noeuvre had suQceeded to admiration. Speak- 
ing against Flood's Beform Bill, he quoted 
Junius as 'a certain anonymous author called 
Junius,' and declared that it was wrong to do 
away with boroughs. 'For, sir,' said he, 'it 
boroughs had been abolished, we never should 
haveheardof the great Lord Chatham' (Pari, 
jRegister, iii.54). He spoke strongly in opposi- 
tion to the catholic petition m February 
1792, and amused the house by bis witty if 
somewhat scurrilous comments on the signa- 
tures to it (lb, xii. 18&-6). He fought hard 
for the union. ' Gentlemen,' he said, ' may 
tither, and tither, and tither, and may thin& 
it a bad measure ; but their heads at present 
are hot, and will so remain till they grow 
cool again, and so they can't decide right 
now, but when the day of judgment comes 
then honourable gentlemen wiU be satisfied 
with this most excellent union ' (Barbikotoit, 
Personal Sketches, i. 117). For himself, he 
declared that his love for England and Ire- 
land was so great, ' he would have the two 
sisters embrace lilce one brother' (cf. Pari, 
Register, xi. 294^. Many other good stories 
are related of hmi ; but it may be doubted 
whether he was really the author of all the 
extraordinary ' bulls' attributed to him. The 
above, however, rest on good authority. Sir 
Boyle Boche died at his house in Eccle 
Street, Dublin, on 5 June 1807. He married 
Mary,elde8t daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland of Great Thirkleby Hall, York- 
shire, by whom he had no iasue, and with 
whom he lived a life of uninterrupted hap- 
piness. In his public caj^ity, as master of 
the ceremooies at the Irish viceregal court, 
he was beloved and admired for his polite- 
ness and urbanity, and in private life there 
waa no more honourable gentleman. 

[<3«nt. Blag. 1807, i. 696; Hist, of the IVo- 
dsediBga of the Volaateer Delegatas, pp, 42 
•eq. ; Grattan'a Life of Henry Qrattan, iii. 116 
seq.; Plowden's Hist. Review, ii..834; Wills s 
Irish I^&tion, iii. 200 ; H'Doqgairs Sketches of 
Irish Political Character, Londoo, 1799, pp. 174- 





176; Irish Pftrliainentary BegiBUr, passim ; Fer- 
raris Hist, of Limerick, pp. 138, 352 ; Barring- 
ton's Personal Sketches, i. 115-18; Barbehailrs 
Members of Pari, for Kilkenny ; Cal. Charle- 
mont MSd. ii. 265 ; Notes and Qaeries, 4th ser. 
iz. X. passim, zi. 208 ; Fitspatrick'H Secret S<>r- 
Tice, 283 s«q. ; Fronde's English in Ir^nd, ad. 
1881, ii. 882, 418, 484, iii. 60 ; Leck^s Hist, of 
inland, Ti. 867 ; Addit. KSS. (B. M.) 83090 ff. 
253, 259, 264. 83107 C 161, 246.] B. D. 

BOCBDB, DAVID, Viscouin? Febvoy 
(1573P-1636), bom about 1578, waa the 
son and heir of Maurice, Tiscount Fermoy, 
described by Carew (MacCaktht, L\fe of 
Florence MaeCarthy, p. 367) as 'a brain 
sick foole,* but by the 'Four Masters' 
(8.a. 1600) as 'a mild and comely man, 
learned in the Latin, Irish, and English 
languages.' David succeeded to the title on 
his father's death in June 1600. His mother 
was Eleanor, d&ughter of Maurice Fitzjohn 
Fitzgerald, brother of James, fourteenth earl 
of Desmond, and sister of James Fitzmaurice 
Fitzgerald [q*v>1t ' the arch traitor.' During 
the rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, second earl of 
Tyrone [q. v.], Ro(£e signalised himself by 
his loyalty, and in consequence his property 
of Castletown Koche suffered greatly from 
the rebels. When the mayor of Cork mused 
to proclaim James I, Roche, though a zealous 
Boman catholi^ took that duty on himself. 
His services QiA not pass unrewarded. 
On 20 Dec. 1605 he petitioned the privy 
council, in consequence of his losses during 
the rebellion, to accept a surrender of his 
lands, and to make him a regrant of the 
same at the former rents and services (Cal, 
State FaperSy Ireland, James I, i. 876). Sub- 
sequently he went to England, and return- 
ing to Ireland in the summer of 1608, the 
lord deputy was authorised ' for his encou- 
xmgement and comfort ' to assign him * a band 
ofl50 foot soldiers under his command,' ' and 
because he is one who has reason to doubt 
that for doing the king service he has raised 
to himself many adversaries, to g^ve him 
efiectuid aid and encouragement on all occar 
sions' (t5. ii. 558). He was accepted as one 
of Florence MacCarthy's sureties, and sat 
in the parliament which assembled at Dublin 
in May 1618. He supported the action of 
the recusant lords, and signed the petition 
protesting against the new ooroughs recentlv 
created, the course pursued by the sheriffs 
at the elections, ana the place of holding 
parliament {ib. iv. 343). His behaviour on 
this occasion was condoned, and on 8 July 
1614 Chichester was authorised to grant him 
lands to the annual value of 60/. (jb, iv. 487). 
He died in the odour of loyalty at Cftstle- 
town Kodie on 22 March 1686, and was 

buried on 12 April at the Abbey, Bridgetown. 
Boche married Joan, daughter of James 
FitzRichard Barry, viscount Buttevant, and 
was succeeded by his son 


(1595P-1660.P), at that time about fortv 

Sears of age. Already during his father'i^ 
fetime Maurice had incurred the suspicion 
of g|ovemment as ' a popular man among th^ 

Sapists of Munster, and one of whom some 
oubts were conceived of his aptness to b» 
incited into any tumultuous action' {ib. v. 
634), and had in consequence been for some 
time in 1624 incarcerated in Dublin Castle. 
He took his seat bv proxy in the House of 
Lords on 26 Oct. 1640, but was an active 
insurgent in the rebellion, for which he wa» 
outlawed on. 23 Oct. 1643. He was excepted 
from purdon by act of parliament on 12 Aug. 
1652, and his vast estates in co. Cork seques- 
trated. Eventually he succeeded in obtain- 
ing an order from the commissioners at 
Loughrea for 2,600 acres of miserable land 
in the Owles in Connaught, formerly be- 
longing to the O'Malleys, but of these he- 
seems never to have got possession. He died 
about 1660. A certain ^Lord Roche,' whcr 
had a pension from government of lOOf* 
a vear in 1687, and who is said to have been 
killed fighting for James II, at the battle or 
Aughrim, on 12 July 1691, was probably^ 
a younger brother or a nephew. Maurice 
Roche married, about 1625, Catherine [or^ 
Ellen], daughter of John Power; she, after 
gallantly defending Castletown Itoche in 
1649 against the forces of the narliament^ 
was condemned, on the evidence of a strumpet; 

ipRENDEBGAST, CromweUion Setilementf p» 
84), for shooting a man unknown with a 
nistol, and subsequently hanged. She lef^ 
tour daughters utterly unprovided for. Th» 
manor of Castletown Itoche and lands at^ 
tached j»assed into the possession of Roger- 
Boyle, nrst earl Orrery [q. v.] The title ib pre- 
sumed to have become extinct in 1733,thougla 
it is said (BABHUreTOir, Penanal Sketehe9^ L 
115) that Sir Boyle Roche fq* v.] possessed & 
claim to it, which, however, ne never pursaed. 
[Complete Peerage of England, &c. by Qt. K. C. 
(Fermoy) ; Batke's Extinct Peerage ; Oal. Stato 
Papers, Ireland, James I ; Prendergsist's Orom- 
weliian Settlement, pp. 188-4 , and atithoritie» 
quoted.] B. D. 

ROCHE, EUGENIUS (1786-1829), 
journalist, was bom on 23 Ireb. 1786 \rx 
raris. His father, a distant relative of EUl— 
mund Burke Boche, first baron Fermoj, was 
professor of modem languages in Li £oole 
MUitaire, Paris, and survived his son. EiU^e-> 
nius was educated by his father in Paris, and 
at the age of eighteen came to London, "vrhera 




he coanmeed writinff for the press. In 1607 

he Bfarted a periodiciu called ' Literary He- 

creataoDSy' which was not financially bucces»- 

idL Bui in it Byron, Allan Cunningham^ 

and otlwr poeta of note made their fint ap- 

peaisnoe in print. In ISOBEoche hemn, the 

pnMicatiMi of ^The Dramatic Afgemxkt,' a 

^aaiteiiy joaxnaly whoae object waa to print 

m each namber three of the rejected plajrs 

of ths penod. In it will be found two of 

BocM own ocntributions to the drama, 

'WiBiain Tell' and <The Invasion.' The 

finaer was being rehearsed when Drury Lane 

neatie was destroyed by fire on 24 Feb. 

1809. The * Dramatic Appellant ' was not 

a eooapicuoiia sucoeas, and in 1809 Bpche 

became parliamentary reporter of the * Day/ 

an advanced liberal newspaper, of which he 

was appointed editor about 1810. Its name 

was anerwazds changed to the ' New Times ' 

tad then to the ' Morning Journal.' While 

e£tiagit lie waa imprisoned for a year for an 

attack on the gOTemment in reference to the 

case of Sir franeis Burdett [a. v.] On his 

rateaae he became editor of tne ' National 

Segisfier/ a weekly paper. In August 1818 

be aeeenited an engagement on the * Morning 

Poety' becoming one of its editors shortly 

aftervraida. fie waa also associated with the 

* Coorier/ for a time an influential organ of 

liberal ooinioiL. He was recognised as one 

of the afeaeat journalists of his o^. He died 

OB 9 Nov; 1829 in Hart Street, Bloomsbury. 

A laige snm waa subscribed for his second 

wi^ and &mily, and his poems were collected 

and pnUiahed, with a memoir and portrait, 

&r their benefit, with a very distinguished 

, nnder the title of ' London 

subscribers, nnder 
in • Thonaand Years,' in 1880. 

ra«Bi. Ka^. 1829, ii. 640; Memoir prefixed 
to Oifuidoa in a Tbouand Years ; Byron's Life 
smI CoETTi^ondence^ ed. Moore; Fox-Bourne's 
Hiatary of £ngliah Journalism; Giant's News> 

D. J. 0*D. 

BOCHE, JAMES (1770-1853), styled by 
Father Front 'the Koscoe of Cork,' was 
the eon of Stephen Roche, and a descen- 
dant of John lloche of Castle Boche, a 
delegate at the federation of Kilkenny in 
1641. His mother, Sarah, was daughter of 
John C/Brien of Moyranine and Clounties, 
Tiii^»^ir Bom at Cork, 80 Dec. 1770, 
he was sent at fifteen yeara of age to the 
eoQ^ of Saintea, near AngouliSme, where 
he spent two years. After a short Tisit 
home he returned to France and became 
partner with his brother George, a wine 
merehant at Bordeaux* There he made 
the ^^mffn tMvt/^ of Vergniaud and Guillo- 
^slIBb ahared in the enthusiasm for the 
levolntioiiy and paid frequent yisitsto Pari^, 

associating with the leading Girondins. 
While in fans in 1798 he was arrested under 
the decree lor the detention of British sub- 
jects, and spent six months in prison. He 
believed himself to have been in imminent 
danger of inclusion in the monster Luxem- 
bburg batch of victims, and attributed his 
escape to Brune, afterwards one of Napo* 
leon 8 marshals. On his release he returned 
to the south of France, endeavouring to 
recover his confiscated property. In 1797 
he quitted France, livinff alternately at Lon- 
don and Cork. In 1800, with his brother 
Stephen, he established a bank at Cork, 
which fiourished until the monetary crisis 
oi 1819, when it suspended payment. Iloche's 
valuable library was sold in London, the 
creditors having invited him to select and 
retain the books that he most prized. He 
spent the next seven years in London as com- 
mercial and parliamentary agent for the 
counties of Cork, Youghal, and Limerick. 
BetiriDg from business with a competency, 
he resided from 1829 to 1832 in Pans. The 
remainder of his life was passed at Cork as 
local director of the National Bank of Ire- 
land, a poet which allowed him leisure for 
the indulgence of his literary tastes. He 
was well read in the ancient and the prin- 
cipal modem lanffuaj^, and his historical 
knowledge enabled him to assist inquirers on 
obflcure and debatable points^ and to detect 
and expose errors. He contributed largely, 
mostly under his initials, to the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' ' Notes and Queries,' the 'Dublin 
Beview,' and the ' Cork Magazine.' In 1851, 
under the title of ' Critical and Miscellaneous 
Essays, by an Octogenarian,' he reprinted 
for private circulation about forty of these 
arti^es. He also took an active part in lite- 
rary, philanthropic, and mercantile move- 
ments in Cork. He died there, 1 Anril 1853, 
leaving two daughters by his wife Anne, 
daughter of John Moylan of Cork. 

[Gent. Miig. June and July 1858 ; Atheneum, 
6 April 1858; Notes and Queries, 16 April 
1858; Dublin Review, September 1851 and 
April 1890.] J. a. A. 

BOCHE, MICHAEL db la (^. 1710^ 
1781), French protestaut refugee and author, 
was threatened while young with perso'* 
cution in France — probably on the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Kantes. He was in 
' continual fear/ for a whole year, of being 
imprisoned, and forced ^ to abjure the Pro- 
testant religion.' He escaped to England 
with great difficulty. Unlike the great ma- 
jority of his fellow refugees, he became almost 
immediately a member of the church of 




DelaBoche bad been a student of literature 
from youth, and when he settled in London 
obtained employment from the booksellers^ 
mainly devoting himself to literary criticism. 
Imitating some similar ventures that bad 
been made in Holland, be commenced in 
1710 to issue in folio a periodical which he 
entitled 'Memoirs of Literature.' After- 
wards, ' for the convenience* of readers,' be 
continued it in quarto, but it was brought 
to an end in September 1714, when, he says, 
' Mr. Roberts^ his printer,' advised him • to 
leave off wntingr these papers two months 
earlier than he designed.' The ' Memoirs ' were 
beffun again in January 1717, and continued 
tiU at least April 1717. De la Roche, accord- 
ing to his own account, was a friend of Bayle, 
aim doubtless paid frequent visits to Holland. 
Early in 171/ he arranged to edit a new 
periodical, ' Bibliothdque Angloise, ou His- 
toire litt^raire de la Grande Bretagne,' which 
was written in French and published at 
Amsterdam. De la Roche apologised for the 
ineleffancies cf his French' style. He was 
still living for the most part in London. The 
fifth volume of the ' Biblioth^ue Angloise,' 
dated 1719, was the last edited by De la 
Roche. The publisher transferred the editor- 
ship in that year to De la Ohapelle, giving as 
i, pretext that De la Roche's foreign readers 
accused him of anti-Calvinism, hostility to 
the Reformation, and a too ^at partiality 
to Anglicanism (see Averttssement, dated 
January 1720, to vol. i. of MSnunrM Litt^ 
retires). Shortly afterwards De la Roche 
began to edit yet another periodical, the 
' M^moiree Littlraires,' which was published 
at The Haflrue at intervals till 1724. In 1726 
he started 'New Memoirs of Literature,' 
which ran till December 1727, and finally, 
in 1730, ' ALiterary Journal, or a continua- 
tion of the Memoirs of Literature/ which 
came to an end in 1731. 

These various publications appeared at 
monthly or Quarterly intervals, xhe prices 
for those puolished in England varied from 
\b. to 6c?. for each part, but they apparently 
brought little profit to the editor. They 
were the prototypes of literacy magazines and 

SSee Avertissemcnt tx> M^moires Litt^iairesy 
[ vol. iiL of a Literary Journal, dated 1781 j 
AgneVs Protestant Exiles from France, ii. 150- 
154, and ill. 166; Smiles's Rngnenote ; Kichols's 
Lit. Aneod. lii. 507, iv. 04, tx. 385.] F. T. M. 

ROCHE, PHILIP (rf. 1798), Irish rebel, 
A Roman catholic pnest attached to the 
parish of Poulpearsay, co. Wexford, and 
rormerly of Qorey, appears to have joined 
the rebels encamped at the jfoot of Corngma 
Hill, under the command of Father Joka 

Murphy (1768 P-1798) [^. v.], shortiy belbre 
the battle of Tifbbemeermg, on 4 June 1798 
(TAYZAB,^t9^.ofeA«JZ^/lt<m,p.73; Bthke, 
Memoirs, i. 86). It was mamly in conse- 
quence of information furnished to himtliAt 
tne rebels were enabled to anticipate s(nd so 
to frustrate the attack cf Major-general 
Loft as and Colonel Walpole. His prieetly 
character and personal bravery at Tabbeiv 
neering won him mitt reputation with 'the 
insurgents, and when Beauchamp Bagenal 
Harvey [q. v.] was three or four days later 
deposed from his command, in consequence 
of his repugnance at such atrocities as the 
massacre at Scnllabogfue, Roch6 was elected 
commander of the rebels encamped at 
Slyeeve-Keelter, near New Ross. After 
several tmsuccessfiil attempts to intercept 
the navigation of the river, Roche moved 
his camp to Lacken Hill, where he remained 
for some days unmolested and almost in- 
active ; but it was noted to his credit that 
during that time no such atrocities as were 
only too common among the rebels at Vine- 
ffar Hill were permitted by him (Gobbon, 
ItehelHon, App. p. 85). On 19 June he was 
surprised, and compelled to retreat from 
Lacken Hill to Three Rocks, near Wex- 
ford (cf. OLo"iTBY, Narrative^ pp. 54-60); On 
the following day he intercepted a detach- 
ment under Sir John Moore, who was moving' 
up to join in the attack on Vinegar Hill, at* 
a place called Goffsbridge, or Foulkes Mill» 
near the church of Horetown. He is said to 
have displayed great military skill in the 
disposition of his forces, but after a fierce 
engagement, which lasted four hotirs, was 
compelled to fall back on Three Rocks, eject- 
ing the retreat in good order (Btbhb, Me» 
frwirSj i. l©7-8). After the battle of Vine»ir 
Hill and the surrender of Wexford, Rocne^ 
seeing that further resistance was hopeless, 
determined to capitulate, and with this ob- 
ject went alone and unarmed to Wexford. 
On entering the town he was seized, dragged 
from his horse, and so kidked and bufreted 
that he is said to have been scarcely rteOg- 
nisable (jb, L 204-5 ; Hat, Iruurreetiony p. 
245). He was tried by court-martial, and 
hanged off Wexford bridge on 25 June 1798^ 
along with Matthew Keugh[q^.y.] and seven 
others, and his body thrown into the river 
(Ti.XLOK,J5rw<.p.l81). According to Gordon, 
who knew him personally, he was ' a man of 
large stature and boisterous manners, not ill 
adapted to direct by influence the disorderly 
bands among whom he acted* .but for a 
charffe of cruelty agunst him I can find no 
foundation. On the contrary, I have heard, 
from indubitable authority, many instances 
of hia active Enmanity . • .his beharrionr in 




the Mbelliaa has oonTinoed me that he poe* 
eened a J&amane end generous heart, with 
an inionmmoii share ai pereonal courage' 
(iiflM&M,TO.148,399). He displayed can- 
sidsrabie mifitaTy ability, and was probahLy 
ike most formidable of all the rebel leadecs, 

[JoMS QotdoD'a HM. of the Bebellion ill Ii^ 
boiin. 1S7, 148, 166^, I7d, 188, 219, 899; 
Miki Syzne'a Kemoin, i. 86, 1«7, 204-^ ; Ed. 
Hs/i Iflsamelaon of Wex£>rd»pp« 186; 201, 206, 
24A, 391 ; MnflipraTe's BebeUioiis in IroJand, i. 
4Si, ttS, 636, ii. 43 ; CIoDeVs Personal Narra- 
ar\ {^ M-6, 81 ; TayWs Hist, of the Be- 
bdiuB in Wexford, pp. 73, 131 ; Narrative of 
the Snffenngs and Escape of Charles Jackson, 
pp. 89, 70 ; Plowden's jEist. Beview, ii. 735, 
7«2, 767; Jjecky'B Hist, of England, yiii. 136, 
158, 164 ; Fronde's English in Ireland.] 

B. D. 

l&4!5)ynoTeliat, bom about 1764 in the south 
of Irdaod, nvas daughter of parents named 
BsItQB. In 17d3 appeared her first novel, 
' Tim Yiear of Lansdowne,* by Regina Maria 
lialtooy sad it was at once follow^ by ' The 
Maid of the Hamlet/ in 2 vols. She soon 
afterwards married a gentleman named 
Boche. In 1798 she sprang into fitime on 
the paUi^Udon of her ' Children of the 
Abbey' (4 Tola.), a story abounding in senti- 
mentality y and almost rivalling in popularity 
Mn. Baddifie's ' M;^steries of Udolpho,' 
vhieh was pablished m 1797. Many editions 
of it were called for, and until her death 
ihe iadostriously worked at a similar style 
of ficdoB. She died, aged SI, at her reai- 
denee on the Mall, Waterford, 17 May 1845. 

Her works are: 1. 'The Vicar of Lans- 
downe,' 2nd ed., 2 yols., London, 1793L 
1 ' The Maid of the Hamlet,' 12mo, 8 vols., 
1793. 3. ' The ChUdien of the Abbey,' 4 
TsSa. 1796 (numerous other editions). 
4. * Clermont/ 12mo, 4 vols. Iiondon, 1798» 
5w 'Ike Noctttmal Visit/ 4 vols. 12mo, 1600 
( a Ficneh TSEFsion appeared in 1801 in 5 yoIs.) 
a 'Tha Discarded Son, or the Haunt of the 
Banditti/ 6 yoIs. 13mo, 1807. 7. 'The 
TTcisses of Osma and Almeria, or the Convent 
of Si. Bdefionso,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1810. 

try of St. Colomba,' 5 vols. 

Una, 1812. 9. * Trecothiek Bower/ 8 vols, 
liaso, 18ia 10. 'London Tales' (anony- 
mcmiy), 2 toIs., 1814. 11. ' The Munster 
CottsgeBoy/ 4 yola. 1819. 12. 'The Bridal 
of DaaamorB' and 'Lost and Won/ two 
tales 3 vvAm, 12mo, London, 1828. 18. ' The 
Castk Ohapel,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1825. 
(a Fmeh yersion appeared the same year) 

14. 'CoBtrasty' 8 vola, London, 1828. 

15. 'TheNun^s Picture/ 3 yols. 12m(vl834. 
H *Tim IVadition of ib^ Castle, or Scenes 

in the Emerald Isle/ 4 yols. 12mo, London* 

[Gent. Mag. 1846, ii. 86 (reprmting^ the 
Literaiy Qasette) ; Notes and Qneries, 63i ser. 
iz. 609, z. 36, U9; AUibone's Diet, of Bag], 
lit. vol. iii. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Diet, of Xavijig 
Authors, 1816.] D. J. O'D. . 

ROCHE, BOBERT(1676-162€0, poetaster, 
bom about 1576, a natiye of Somerset oi 
lowly origin, was admitted of Magdalen HaB, 
Oxford, in November 1594, being then aged 
18^ and graduated B.A. 9 June 1599. He 
was presented to the yicarage of Hilton in 
Dorset in 1617, and held the benefice until 
his death on 12 May 1629. A Latin inscrip- 
tion in the aisle of Hilton church marks the 
common grave of Boche and a successor 
in the yicariate, John Antram ,* an English 
quatrain is appended. Boche's son Bobert 

fraduated B.A. from Magdalen HTall, 28 Jan. 
630, and became vicar of East CameL 
Boche was author of ' Eustathia, or the 
Constancie of Susanna, containing the 
Preservation of the Godly, Subversion of the 
Wicked, Plrecepts for the Aged, Instructions 
for Youth, Pleasure with Profitte . . . l)omt- 
nus mea rupee. Printed at Oxford by 
Joseph Barnes, and are to be sold in Paules 
Churchyard at the Sign of the Bible/ 1599, 
b.L 8vo. It contains seventy-four pages of 
didactic doggerel, of which a long spoBimen 
is given in Dr. Bliss's edition of Wood's 
'AtkensB/ on the ground of its extreme 
rarity. The only copy known is in the 
Bodleian ; it once beloziged to Bobert Burton. 

[Univ. Beg. Oxft Hist. Soc. ii. 206, iii. 216 ; 
Foster's Alnmni Ozon. ; Wood's Athense, ed. 
Bliss,!. 682; Bibl. Bodleiana, 1848; Haslitt's 
Handbook, p. 616; Hutcbins's Dorset, iv. 367^ 
869 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum (Add. MS. 24491» 
f. 194) ; Madan's Early Oxford Press, p. 47.] 


1878), architect, son of John Bochead, char- 
tered accountant, was bom in Edinburgh oa 
28 March 1814. He was educated in George 
Heriot's hospit-al, and at the age of sixteen 
entered the office of David Bryoe, anshitect* 
Afb^ seven years' apprenticeship there he 
became principal draughtsman in Harst ^ 
Moffatt's office, Doncaster, where he re- 
mained for two years. In 1840, among 150 
competitors, he gained the first premium 
for a proposed Braian catholic cathedral in 
Belfast. In 1841 he started as an architect 
in Glasgow, where he resided till 1870. He 
soon became recognised as an architect <^ 
ffreat ability and originality. He was a skil- 
ful draughtsman, and his designs, to theifl 
laost minute detailsi were done by his owa 




hand. After the ' duraption' he designed 
many free churches in Scotland. His know- 
ledge of Gothic avt is well dimlayed in the 
Tm church and St. John's fVee Church, 
hoth in Olasgowy the parish churches of 
Rcmfrewand Ahenoyle, and St. Mary's Free 
Churchy Edinhur^h. His able treatment of 
Italian and classic architecture was shown 
in the Bank of Scotland, John Street United 
Flresbyterian Church, the Unitarian Chapel^ 
and his design for building the Univer- 
sity — all in Glasgow. In 1857 he won a 
SOOL prijee in the competition for designs for 
the war office in London, and in two keen 
competitions his designs for the Wallace 
monument, Stirling, were successful Roc- 
head was the architect of Queen Margaret 
College, Glasgow^ and he designed man^ 
private mansions m Scotland, including Mi- 
nard Castle, Knock Castle, West Shandon, 
Bhiir Yaddoch, and Sillerbut Hall. In 1S70, 
owinff to impaired health, he retired to Edin- 
burgh, where he died suddenly on 7 April 
1878. He was survived by his widow (Cathe- 
rine Calder, whom he married in 1843), a 
son, and four daughters. 

[Scotsman, 1 April 187S, and Builder, 20 April 
1878; Diet, of Architecture, rii. 64; informa- 
tion supplied by the family.] G. S-h. 

BOGHES» PETER dbs {d. 1238), bishop 
of Winchester. [See Pbtbb.] 

BOCHESTEB, Eabls of. [See Wn> 
XOT, Hbitbt, first earl, 1612 P>16lS8 ; Wil- 
XOT, JoHH,. second earl, 1647-1880 ; Htdb, 
Laubekcb, first earl of the Hyde family, 

ROCHESTER, Couittess of (d. 1725). 
[See Htdb, Jakb.j 

ROCHESTER, Vibooukt. [See Cabb, 
BoBEBT, d, 1645, afterwards Eabl of So- 

1557), comptroller of the household to Queen 
Mary, bom about 1494, was eldest of the 
three sons of John Rochester, by his wife 
Grissell, daughter and coheir of Walter 
Writtle of fiobbingworth, Essex. His grand- 
ftkther, Robert Rodiester, was yeoman of the 
pantry to Henry YIII, and bailiff of the ma- 
nor of Syleham, Suffolk, and outlived his son 
John, who died on 10 Jan. 1507-8. (Morant 
erroneously states that Robert died in 1606; 
cf . Letters and JPapen of Henry VIII, voL 
i. passim.) Probably through his grand* 
father, Rochester became known at court, 
and was attached to the Princess Mary's 
household. In 1547 he was managing her 
inanoesy and before 1561 was appointed 

comptroller of her household. On 22 March 
of that year he was examined by the council 
as to the number of Mary's chaplains. On 
14 Auff. he was again summoned before the 
council, and ordend, in spite of his protests, 
not merely to carry the council's directions to 
the princess, but personally to take measures 
that no one should say or hear mass in her 
household. Rochester returned to Copped 
Hall, but could not bring himself to carry 
out these commands, and on the 2drd again 
appeared before the council. He bluntly re- 
fused to carry any more such messages to 
his mistress, professing his readiness to go 
to nrison instead. Finally Rich, Win^eld, 
and Petre had to undertake the mission. 
Rochester was sent to the Fleet on 24 Aug., 
and to the Tower a week later. On 18 March 
1552 he was allowed 'for his weakness of 
body' to retire to his country hpuse, and on 
14 April, on Mary's request, was permitted 
to resume his functions as comptroller. 

Rochester's fidelity was rewarded on Maiys 
accession. He was made comptroller of the 
royal household, created a knight of the Bath 
at the queen's coronation, and sworn of the 
privy counciL Chi 26 Sept. 1663 he was 
returned to parliament as knight of the shire 
for Essex, being re-elected for the same con- 
stituencv on 13 March 1553-4, 28 Oct. 1554, 
and 24 Sept. 1555. He became one of Mary's 
most intimate and trusted counsellors. On 
28 Jan. 1654 he was sent to Wyatt to inquire 
into his intentions. In the same vear he was 
made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 
placed on a commission to examine Sir 
Thomas Gresham's accounts, and suggested 
as one of the six advisers to whom the active 
work of the privy council was to be entrusted, 
while the other members were to be employed 
in the provinces. This scheme came to 
nothing, but Rochester remained one of the 
inner nng of councillors who rarely missed 
a meeting, and had most weight in the 
council's decisions. He was one of the com- 
missioners who drew up the treaty of marriage 
between Mary and Philip, and in 1655 was 

f laced on commissions appointed to try Bishop 
Looper, and to consider the restoration of 
the monasteries and the church property 
vested in the crown. In the same year he 
was one of Gkirdiner's executors, and was 
present at the martyrdom of Jonn Rogers 
(1509P-1555) [q. v.] He was nevertheless a 
staunch friend of the Princess Elizabeth and 
Edward Courtenay, earl of Devonshire [q. v.l, 
whose union he is said to have advocated, 
and it was in some degree due to his in<* 
fluence with Mary that the princess's life 
was spared. 
In 1566 Rochester was one of the select 




appointed hj Philip to look after 
bis aibin doling his absence ; he was also 
plaeed on a commisuon to inqoiie into the 
piflts against the queen. In September there 
waa eome popular discontent because the 
loan was oroe r ed to be paid through his 
baada, ' the people beinsr of the opinion that 
thia vaa done in order that the crown might 
lem aennnloosly avail itself of the money 
tbromh the hands of so very confidential a 
naiwMJMw uid creature of her majesty, than 
thRMgh tboae of the treasurer' (Cai, State 
iVpera, Venetian, tL 688). On 28 April 
1557 Boeheater was elected K.G., but was 
Berer faimally installed at Windsor. On 
4 May he was placed on a commission to 
take the aimender of indentures, patents, 
ke^ aadgraat renewal of them for adequate 
finea. iEb didd^ unmarried, on 28 Nov. fol- 
lowiagv and waa buried at the Oharterhouse 
at Shaen on 4 Dec He was succeeded as 
chaaedlor of the du^gr of Lancaster bj his 
nephew. Sir Edward Waldegrave [q. t J, son 
of Edward Waldegrave (d. 1643]) and Ro- 
chester's abter I^ra. The substance of 
Bodwster^a will is printed in Gollins's ' Peer* 

[CtL at State Papen, Dom., Venetian, and 
Fofcign Sear. ; Acts of the PriTy Ckrancil, ed. 
SuAt ; Ofllcial Befcom of MemberB of Pari. i. 
381, )M» S89, 893 ; Ducatns Laneastrin, Reeord 
id.iil76; VialUtions of Essex, 1668 and 1613 
(EuL See.) : Morant's Eiaex, ii. 127, 891 ; lit. 
Bcaainaof £dwaxd VI(BoxbiagheGlnb) ; Traos. 
Sojal Hist. See. iii 810, 811 ; Ashmde's Older 
of the Garter, p. 716; Metcalfe's Book of 
Kiugjbts; Stiypes £eeL Mem. passim; Pose's 
Actas and Honnmeots; Bnmets Hist, of Re- 
&nBatio«i» ed. Pooodc ; Dixon's Hist of Church 
of England; Cbestei^s John Bogers, pp. 173, 
104. 308; Strickland's Lives of the Queens of 
ia^Mod ; '^tier's Bngland under Edward VI 
sad Marr; Proude's and Lingard's Histories of 

A. P. P. 

BOOHESIEB, SOLOMON ns {d. 1294), 
|adffe^ waa a natiye of Rochester, whence he 
tow hia name. His brother Gilbert held tiie 
liriag of Tong in Kent. Solomon took 
ordersy and was apparently employed by 
Henry III in a le^ capacity* La 1274 he 
was sppointed justice in eyre for Middlesex, 
ud m the following year for Woroester- 
•bire. From thia time forward he was con- 
itantly em^oyed in this capacity, and 
smov the counties included in his circnits 
venEssez, Suffolk, Norfolk, Berkshire, Ox- 
fiffdaiufa, and CamwaU. Hewasfinequently 
placed en eonunisaions of oyer and terminer, 
sad for other business, suck as taking quo 
wturmUo pleas, and inquiring into the con- 
oeaiaseitafgoodafMfettedbythe Jews. In 

1276 he was present at council when the 
king gave ludgment against GKlbert de Clare, 
earl of Gloucester, and he was also sum- 
moned to councils held in Noyember 1288 
and October 1288. In the following year 
he was, like all the other judges except two, 
dismissed for maladministration of justice 
and corruption. He was probably one of 
the worst offenders, as he was fined four 
thousand marks, a sum much larger than 
that extorted from seyeral of the other 
judges (OxEKEBEs, p. 276). On 4 Jan. 1290 
nis name appears on a commission of oyer 
and terminer, but he does not appear to have 
had any further employment. In the parlia- 
ment of 1290, as a consequence of Koches- 
ter*s&ll, numerous complamts were preferred 
against his conduct as a judge, one of them 
beingfrom the abl)eyofAbingaon,&om which 
he had extorted a considerate sum of money 
to give to his brother Gilbert. 

Rochester now aimed at ecclesiastical 
preferment. He already held the prebend 
of Chamberlain Wood in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and on the death of Thomas Inglethoru, 
bishop of Rochester, in May 1291, ne maae 
fruitless efforts to induce the monks to 
elect him to that see. Their refusal deeply 
offended him, and in a suit between the 
monks and the bishop of Rochester in 1294 
Solomon persuaded the judp^ in eyre at 
Canterbury to giye a decision adverse to 
the monks. According to Matthew of West- 
minster, the monks were aven^[ed by the 
sudden death of their chief enenues, and the 
judges in terror sought their pardon, alleg- 
ing that they had been ' wickedly deceived 
by the wisdom of Solomon.* Solomon him- 
self was one of the victims; on 14 Aug. 
1294 one Guvnand or Wynand, parson of 
Snodland in Kent, entered Solomon's house, 
ate with him, and put poison into his food 
and drink, so that he died fifteen days after- 
wards (Fiacit. Abbreviation p. 290). Accord- 
ing to Matthew of Westminster, Guynand 
omv made Solomon druiJc. He was charged 
witn the murder, but pleaded his orders, and 
was successfully claimed as a clerk by the 
bishop of Rochester. Finallj^ he purged him- 
self at Greenwich, and was liberated. Solo- 
mon de Rochester had a house at Snodland, 
and another in Rochester, which in 1284 he 
was licensed to extend to the city walls and 
even to build on them. 

[Matthew of Westminster, iiL 82-8, Beg. 
Epistol. Johannis Peckham, iii. 1009, 1041, 
CartnL de Bameseia, ii« 292, Bartholomew OoU 
ton's Hist. Anglicans, pp. 166, 173, Aoaales de 
Dunstaplia, de Oseneia, de Wigonua, and John 
de Ozenedes (all in Bolls Ser.) ; Plaotta de Quo 
Wancanto, passim, Cal, Bot, Pat. p. 62 6, Placi- 




tonun Abbrefv. p. 290 (Reoord ed.) ; Pari. Writs 
aod Rolls of FarL passim; Gal. of Patent Rolls* 
Edw. I, ed. 1898-5, toIs. i. and u. ; Dugdale's 
Qrig. Jnrid. and Chronioa Series; La Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Haidj, ii. 875 ; ArchsBoL Cantiana, v. 
26 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] A. F. P. 

ROGHFOED, Eabls of. [See Zutlb- 
BiEiHy WnjjAX Hbhbt, first earl, 1645- 


earl, 1717-1781.] 

ROOHFOKD, Viscotnrp. [See BoLBrBr> 
GEOBes, d. 1686.] 

ROCHFORD, Sir JOHN db (Jl. 1890- 
1410), mediaeval writer, was apparently son of 
Saer de Rochford of Holland in Lincolnshire, 
and, actsordingto Pits, after receiving a good 
education in England, stadied in France and 
Italy. In 1881 he served on a commission 
to inquire into certain disturbances at 
Boston (^CaL Patent Rolls ^ Richard II, 
ed. 1896, p. 421). Before 1886 he was 
knighted, and in that year was placed on 
commissions in the same coimty to raise 
sums lent to the king, and to supervise 
the purchase of arms and horses. In the 
following vear he was sworn to support the 
lords appellants. On 26 Sept. 1406 he was 
summoned to meet Henry I V at Coventry, 
and accompany him on his expedition to 
Wales. But his interests lay chiefly in 
literaiT work. In 1406 lie completedf his 
* Notabilia extracta per Johannem de Roche- 
fort, militem, de viginti uno libris Flavii 
Joseph! antiquitatis Judaice ; ' it is extant 
in AJl Souls' College MS. xxxvii. ff. 206 et 
seqq. He also compiled a 'Tabula super 
Flores Storiarum facta per Johannem 
Rochefort, militem, distincta per folia,' con- 
tained in All Souls' College MS. xxxvii. ff. 
167 et seqq. It was also- extant, with an 
'Extractum Chronicarum Cestrensis Ec- 
clesi® per Johannem Rocheford, a Christo 
nato ad annum 1410/ in Cotton MS. Vitel- 
lius D. xii. 1, which is now lost. The 
' Tabula ' is merely an index of the * Flores 
•Historiarum ' of Matthew of Westminster 
[q. v.], the authorship of which has been 
erroneously ascribed to Rochford. Pits also 
attributes to Rochford ' Ex RaniQphi Chro- 
nico librum unum,' and says that ne trans- 
lated many works, but he does not specify 

[Rymer's Fcsdera, original edition, vii. 644» 
647, viii. 413 ; Rolls of Pari. iii. 401 a ; Hard/s 
Deser. Oat. of Materials, iii. 316; Matthew of 
Westminster's Flores Hist. (ed. Loard, in the 
Rolls Ser.), Pref. pp. zziz, xxx, zlii; Bale's 
Seript. vii. 4 ; Pits, ed. 1619, p. 581 ; Fabrictns's 
Bibl. Med. ^vi Latinitatis, iv. 863; Oudin's 
Oomment. de Script, iii. 2227; Thomas James's 
Beloga Oxonio-Oantabr. 1600, p. 45; Vossius's 

Hist. Lat. ed. 1651, pp. 545-6; Taoncv^a BibL 
Brik-Hib. ; Ooxe's Cwt. MSS. in ColL Aolisqua 
Qjcon. ; Chevaliei^s Repertoire.] A. F. P. 

ROOHFQBT, ROBERT a662-1727), 
Lnsh jud^, bom on 9 Dec. 1652, was second 
son of Laeutenant-colonel Prhnairon Rodi* 
fort, who was shot on 14 May 1662, after 
trial by court-martial at Cork Hoose, Dub- 
lin, for having killed Major Turner. By 
his wife, Thomazine Pigott, the colonel left 
two sons, the yonnger of whom, Robert, ' he 
begot the very night he received his sentence 
of death,' 9 March 1661-2. The Rochfort 
family was settled in co. Kildare as early aa 
1248, and to it belonged Sir Maarice Roeh-> 
fort, lord-deputy in 1802, and Maurice Roch<* 
fort, bishop of Limerick, and lord-deputy in 

Robert was ' bred to the law,' his mother 
having received a gratuity and pension. He 
became recorder of Londonderry on 18 July 
1660, and acted as counsel to the cbmmia* 
sioners of the revenue in May 1686 (^Claren- 
don to Rochester, Cim'Mpmdmoe, i. 896). 
His name appears in the first division of the 
list in James H's act of attainder in 1689, 
and his estate in co. Westmeadi was aequefr- 
tered. In 1690, however, either on .26 May 
(IjTTTTBEll, IL 47), before the arrival of 
WiUlam III, or on 1 Aujgr. rLoDOB ; Stobt's 
Continuation, p. 86), on his aeparture for the 
siege of Limerick, Rochfort was made com- 
missioner of the great seal with Richard Pyne 
and Sir Richard Ryves ; and they held the 
post till the appointment of Sir Charles 
Porter to the chancellorship on 8 Dec. On 
6 June 1696 he was made attorney-general 
of Ireland, vice Sir John Temple, and, having 
been elected member for co. Westmeath on 
27 Aug., was chosen speaker of the Irish 
House of Commons on the 29th (Bubnet ; 
TiNDALL, iii. 287). He took a prominent 
part in the attack on the chancellor, Sir 
Charles Porter [q. v.] He was continued 
as attomey-genend on the accession of Anne, 
but refused re-election as speaker in Septen» 
ber 1708 (Luttbbll^ v. 844). On 80 Jui^ 
1707 he succeeded Richard Freeman as chiet 
baron of the exchequer, which poet he held 
tin removed hj the whigs in Oijtober 1714, 
after the accession of George I, when he re- 
sumed practice at the bar. During this 
period he had acquired considerable property 
m Westmeath (see Lodgb, p. 21 n.), and on 
21 May 1704 had been daiigerously wounded 
in St. Andrew's Church, Dublin, by a * dis- 

Sisted suitor,' one l^Vands Cresswick, of 
annams Court, Gloucestershire. In Octo- 
ber 1722 Swift writes that 'old Rochfort 
has got a dead palsy;' he died at his fine 
house of Garolitowni on Lough finaal, «kear 




ICoIiiiigBr, Wwlmeath, on 10 Oct. 1727, and 
WM bvied there, H« left 1001. to the school, 
ind endowed a ehnrch he had boilt at Gauls* 
town with the tithes of Killnegenahan. A 
portnit of hiu is pieserred' at Middleton 
nAf GO. Westmeath. 

Kochfort married Hannah (d. 3 July 1732), 
daughter of William fiandcock of Twyfora, 
Westaeaih, aaoeator of the earls of CJastle- 
mibie. Bj her he left two sons, Qeorge and 
Joha. Their names occur frequently in 
Sw^s eorzespondenoei and after visits to 
Ganlstown in 1731 and 1722, Swift wrote 
two poems on their home there ; one he en« 
titled 'Oountij Life' (Swift, Works, 2nd 
edit. (Seott) xi7« 163 aqq.) It was doubtless 
to Joba Rodifort'a wife that Swift addressed 
Ids letter of 'Advice to a very Young Lady 
oaiwrMairiaM* (ib. iz. 202 sqq.) 

George Bochfbrt (d. 1730); long M.P. for 
Westmeath, married Lady Betty, daughter 
of Heniy Moore, third earl of Drogheda ; his 
•on Robert (1708-1774) represented West- 
raeftth till 1787, when he was created an 
Iiish peer, with the title of Baron Bellfield, 
isd sabeequently Viscoant Bellfield (1751) 
ud Etfl of Belvedere (1757). The title 
bectme extinct on the death of the first earl's 
KHk Geom (178&-1814), who sold Gaulstown 
to& Jc^ Browne, first lord Kilmaine, and 
left dl his unentailed estates to his widow, 
Juke, daughter of the Rev. James Mackay ; 
Alt bequeathed them to George Augustus 
fioefafQrt>Boyd, her son hy her second 
bubiod, Abraham Boyd, and thev now be- 
loag to hb descendant, G^rge Arthur Boyd- 
Bodif<Ht of Middleton Park, co. Westmeath. 
Utt entailed estate of Belvedere passed to 
Ujiase, only daughter of the fint earl of 
Belvedere, who mamed Brinsley Butler, se- 
nnd eari of Laneaborough ; it subsequently 
pMaed to (%arlea Brinsley Marlay,, esq. 

From Bohert Bbchfort's younger son John, 
U.ibrBallyshaimon in 1716, whp married 
Deborth, daughter of Thomas Staunton, re- 
corder of Oalwirr, descend the Rodiforts of 
Ckttrenane, co. Garlow, among whom Anne 
Bochfort (6. at Duhlm in 1761, d. at Tor- 
qosyia 18d2), wife of Sir Matthew Blakiston, 
Kond htxonet, la a well-authenticated in- 
ttttiee of eentenarianism. 

[Lwic^stBsh Peerage, ed. Archdalljii. 18-30; 
ovift't Woib^ paashn ; Kiag^s 9UU of the Pro- 
^^; Svyth't Law OfBoers in Ireland; in- 
'natimtnuL Lady Daav^a [nie Rochfoit).] 

H. £. D. B. 

BOOHFQRT, 8IMON (d. 1224), bishop 
•f Heath, was the firit Bnglishman who held 
^ Me, to which he wae consecrated in 1194 
^Conoir, 1:^1 £)e/:0#.iri^m.iu. 111). He 
im eae of the judges appointed by Lino- 

cent III in the famous suit for possession of 
the body of Hugh de Lacy, fifth baron Lacy 
and first lord of Meath [q. v.], between the 
monks of Bective in Meath and the canons 
of St. Thomas's, Dublin. He j?ave sentdnoe 
in favour of the latter in 1205 {JRe^: St, 
Thomas^ Dublin, pp. 848-50, Bolls Ser.) 
Bishop Simon founded a house 'of- regular 
canons at l^ewtown, near Trim, in 1206, 
and ultimately erected the church into tkMi 
cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, forsak- 
ing the old cathedral of Olonard {AwndU o^ 
Clcnard ap. CooAir, Diocese of Msath^ i. 
20, 71). At Newtown he held a synod in 
1216, of which an account is extant (Wil- 
XI5B, Concilia Magna Brit, i. 547, ed. 17d7). 
He alloted vicair's portions to the chur(jhes 
in his diocese, in which his work was valu** 
able (Wars, Works on Ireland^ i. 141, ed. 
1739). He died in 1224 ( Chartuiaries, ^e:, 
of St Mary's Abbey, Dublin, ii. 288, Rolls 
Ser.), and was lyiried in the ehuidi at New- 

[Authorities cited in the text.] A. M. 0-s. 

ROOK, DANIEL, D.D. (1799-1871), 
ecclesiologist, bom at Liverpool on 81 Aug. 
1799, was entered as a founaation scholar- at 
St. Edmund's Oollege, near Ware, Hertford- 
shire! in 1813. In December of the same 
year he was one of six students who went 
from England to Rome on the reopening of 
the Enffush Oollege in that city. He was 
ordained subdeacon on 21 Dec. 1822, deacon 
on 20 May 1823, and priest on 13 March 

1824. He returned to England in April 

1825, and it is thought that his degree of 
D.D. was obtained before leaving Rome. He 
was engaged on the ' London mission ' from 
1825 to 1827, when he became a domestic 
chaplain to the Earl of SbrewBhury. About 
1838-45 he was a psominent member of a 
club of priests calling themselves the 
' Adelphi, formed for promoting the resto- 
ration of the Roman catholic hierarchy in 
this country. In 1840 he was appointed 
priest of the Roman catholic congregation 
of Buckland, near Faringdon, Berkshire, and 
in 1852 was elected one of the first canons 
of Southwark Oathedral. TWo vears later 
he resigned his country charge and took tip 
his residence in London. In 1862 he served 
as a member of the committee appointed to 
carry out the objecta of the special exhibi- 
tion at the South Kensington Museum of 
works chiefly of the mediffival period. He 
died at his residence, Kensington, on 28 Nov. 
1871, and was buried ut Kensal Qieen 6eme^ 

He wrote: 1. 'Hierurgia, or the Holv 
Sacrifice of the Mass expounded/ 1883, 




2 Tob. ; 2nd edit. 1851 ; 3rd edit., reirised 
by W. H. J. Weale, 18dS ; illuBtrated from 
paintings, sculptoreB, and inscriptions be- 
longing to the earliest ages of the church. 
2. <l)id the Early Ohiiroh in Ireland ao- 
Imowledge the Pope's SuprenuunrP An- 
ewered in a Letter to Lord John Manners/ 
1844. 8. ' The Church of our Fathers, as 
seen in St. Osmund's Bite for the Cathedral 
of Salisbury; with Dissertations on the 
Belief and Bitual in England before the 
Coming of the Normans/ 1849-54, 3 vols, 
in four parts ; a new edition, by the Bene- 
dictines of Downside, is in preparation (1896). 

4. < The Mystic Crown of Mary the Holy 
Maiden, Mother of God,' &c.y in verse, 1857. 

5. * Textile Fabrics, a Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Collection of Church Vestments, 
Dresses, Silk StufiEs, Needlework, and Tapes- 
tries, forming that Section of the (South 
Kensington) Museum,' 1870. The introduc- 
tion to this volume was reiyued as No. 1 of 
the ' South Kensington Handbooks,' 1876. 
Aock contributed to Manning's * Essays in 
Religion/ &c., 1865, a paper <0n the In- 
iluence of the Church on Art in the Dark 
Ages/ also three papers to the <Arch«so- 
logical Journal ' (vols. xxv. zxvi. xxviL), and 
many communications to ' Notes and Queries.' 
He also wrote an article on the ' Fallacious 
Evidence of the Senses ' in the ' Dublin Re- 
view ' for October 1837. 

[English Cyclopedia, SuppL to Biography, 
1872, col. 1047; Omphie, 80 Dee. 1871 (por- 
trait); Brady's Episcopal Sooeessioii in England, 
iii. 850 ; priTata information.] G. W. S. 

EOCKINQHAM, second Mabquis of. 
[See Watson- Wbntwobth, Cuablbs, 17S0- 

ROCKINGHAM, first Babok. [See 
Watsov, Sib Lbwib, 1684-1663.] 

BOOKKAY, EDMUND {d. 1697\ pun- 
tan divine, matriculated as a sizar of Queens' 
College^ Cambridge, in November 1668, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1660-1, M.A. in 1664, B.D. 
in 1670, and became fellow of his college and 
bursar shortly after 1660, and proctor of the 
university in 1668. Rockray was a zealous 
puritan. In 1670 he openly avowed his 
sympathy with Thomas Uartwright (1686- 
1603) [q. v.] (JState Paper9j Dom. £liz. IxxiL 
11 ; Stbxpe, Annals, i. iL 376, XL IL 416-16). 
For attacking the new statutes imposed by 
the government on the university he was sum- 
moned before Whitgift, then vice-chancellor 
of the university, declined to recant, and was 
ordered to keep his rooms (Heywood and 
"WBieHT, Cambridge Transactions during the 
Puritan Period^ L 69; Nbal^ Puritans, i. 

806 ; Baker MSS. iii. 882-4). In May 1672 
he signed the new statutes of the university 
{ib, L 62 ; Lamb, Cambridge Documents), but 
about the same time he was ejected lirom his 
fellowship by order of the pnvy council for 
scruples as to the vestments, but was read- 
mitted bv Burghley's influence. He still 
continued obstinate as to the ecclesiastical 
and academic vestments (Sxbipb, Asmais, 
IL iL 68), but he retainecl his fellowship 
until January 1678-8, In 1677 he had been 
made canon of Rochester, but, owing to his 
persistence in nonconformist practices, was 
suspended from the ministerial functions 
from 1684 till 1688. In 1687 he vacated his 
canonry, and, after continuing under ecde- 
siasticfu censure for many yearsy died in 

[Authorities as in text; NeaTs Foritaos; 
Cooper^s Athenas Oantabr.; 'seoond part of a 
register/ manuscript at Dr. Williams's Libmiy, 
pp. 286. 586 ; Urwickt Nonconformity in Hvnt- 
ingdonshire, p. 803 ; information kindly sent by 
F. G-. Plaistowe, librarian of Queens' CoU. Gam- 
bridge.] W. A. 8. 

18d6), musical composer and theoristy was 
bom on 6 Jan. 1823 at North Gheam, Surrey, 
and baptised at Morden church in the name 
of Rackstraw. Rockstro was an older form 
of thesumame^hich the composer resumed 
in early life. His first professional teacher 
was John Purkis, the blind organist, and his 
firet recorded composition brought forward 
publicly was a song, ' Soon shall shilling fear 
assail thee,' which Staudigl sang at F. Cra- 
mer's farewell concert on 27 June 1844. 
About the same time he officiated as organist 
in a dis8entin|[ chapel in London, and re- 
ceived instruction from Stemdale Bennett. 
Apparentlv on Bennett's recomm^idation, 
he studied at the Leipng Conservatorium 
from 20 May 1846 until 24 June 1846. He 
was one of seven specially selected pianoforte 
pupils of Mendelssohn, with whom he also 
studied coinposition, and whose intimacy he 
enjoyed. His studies with Hauptmann laid 
the foundation of his great theoretical know- 
ledffe, and from Plaidy he received the finest 
traditions of pianoforte technique. 

On his return to England he lived for some 
time with his mother in London, and was 
successful as a pianist and teacher. In con- 
nection with a series of ' W ednesday concerts ' 
he came into contact with Braham and other 
famous singers, from whom he aoqmired the 
best vocal traditions of that day. He wrote 
at the period a number of beautiful songs, 
some of which, such as ' Queen and Hun- 
tress ' and ' A jewel for m v lad^s ear,' be- 
came in a sort dassicaL He edited for the 




finn of Boosej & Co. a series of operas in 
Toctl 9Con, under tlie title of 'The Standard 
Lnie Drama,' which were the earliest to be 
poblnhed at moderate price, and which con- 
ttioedtheTaluable innovation of noting pro- 
minent orchestFal effects abore the pianoforte 
urt. For many years Rockstro was chiefly 
EDowB to the musical world as the composer 
of pianoforte fantasias, transcriptions, and 
dnwiD^room pieces, which he continued to 
prodooe after tie left London for Torquay, 
a cbm made on account of his own and 
his mother^s health. He also enjoyed a hiirh 

waooforte, and firom 1867 was organist and 
hoBomy precentor at All Saints Church, 
Babbaeombe. On the death of his mother in 
1876, he openly joined the church of Rome. 

On musical aich»ology Rockstro ulti- 
matelj eonoentrated most of his attention , 
tad in tliat branch of the art he soon had no 
mil aaoBg his contemporaries. His ' Fes- 
tiTal Mter adapted to the Ghregorian Tones,' 
with T. F. Rayenshaw (1863), and ' Accom- 
paajing Harmonies to the Ferial Psalter' 
(IM), did much to promote the intelligent 
atad? of ancient church music. Two ex- 
laipfea mar be giyen of his insight into 
the oiethods and style of the great Italian 
eonti^aiiitists, and more especially of Pales- 
tnaa. A composition which he sent in 
uMBjBoosly to a competition held by the 
Midnf^l Sdoety about 1883 was so closely 
noddled upon Flalestrina's work that the 
prendingjudfle rejected it on the ground 
that it most hare been literally copied. It 
is the beautiful madriffal 'O too cruel fair.' 
peihapB the best example of Rockstro's wora 
u a eofmpoaer. On another occasion, in 
icmnga sacred work by Palestrina, an hiatus 
rfeon S d e rable length was discovered in one 
of the only set ik parts then known to exist 
m Sngltiid. Tfa» mis^g portion was con- 
JNtatally restored by Rockstro, and on the 
diKovBiy of a complete copy the restoration 
vu foand to represent the original exactly. 

Bat Rockstro 8 deep and practical know- 
kdgeof the ancient methods of composition, 
of nodal oounteipoint, and of the artistic 
conditions of du tunes, was only imperfectly 
tvned to aeoonnt — ^in some usenil little 
naaoals on harmony (1881) and counter- 
Pjnit (1882) — until the publication of Sir 
^^oijgB Grorre's ' Dictionaiy of Music and 
Motieians,' to which he contributed many 
ntidM on saljects conneeted with eode- 
aaAieal music and the archaoloffical side of 
nanc In 1886 Roekitvo vnblished a valu- 
tUe'Geneial History of Music,' and mno- 
^ved with little sneoess an oratorio, 'The 
Good Shepherd,' at the Qloucester Festivali 

under his own direction. His literary work 
increased as years went on, and he finally 
settled in London in 1891, where, in spiUt 
of failing health, he achieved not only much 
work as a teacher, but delivered lectures 
at the Roval Academy of Music and the 
Royal College, and was appointed at the 
latter institution teacher of a class for coun- 
terpoint and plain-song. He died in London 
on 2 July 1895. 

Besides the writings already enumerated, 
and a few short stories published in 1866-8^ 
Rockstro's chief works were: 1. 'A History 
of Music for Young Students ' (1879). 
2. 'The Life of George Frederick Handel' 
(1883). 3. * Mendelssohn' (Qieat Musicians 
Series, 1884). 4. ' Jenny Lind the Artist ' 

Sin collaboration with Canon Scott Holland^ 
891; abridged edition, 1893). 6. 'Jenny 
Lind, her Vocal Art and Culture ' (partly 
reprinted from the biography, 1894). 

[Parish Registers, Morden, Surrey; Register 
of the Leipzig Gonservatorium, oommimicated 
by Herr G. Schreek ; Musical Herald, August 
1896; privata information; personid know- 
ledge.] J. A. F. M. 

1880), omitholoffist, bom at the vicarage of 
St. Just-in-Rosefand, Cornwall, on 17 l£urch 
1810, was third son of Edward Rodd, D.D. 
Q768-1842^, b^ his wife Hariet, daughter of 
Charles Rashleigh, esq., of Duporth, Cmnwall. 
He was educated at Otterv St. Mary school^ 
and trained for the law, being admitted to 
mactise as a solicitor in Trinity term 1832. 
Early in the following vear he settled at Pen- 
sance, where he entered into partnership with 
G^rge Dennis John. On Jonn's death Rodd 
was joined bv one Drake, and after the latter*s 
death the firm became Rodd & Cornish. 
Rodd retired about 1878. He had also held 
many official posts in the town. He was 
town clerk from 1847, clerk to the local board 
from 1849, derk to the board of guardians 
from the passing of the Poor Law Act, and 
superintendent registrar, besides being head 
distributor of stamps in Cornwall from 1844 
to 1867. He died unmarried at Penxance on 
25 Jan. 1880, and was buried in the cemetery 

Rodd was an ardent ornithologist, and 
especially interested in the question of mi- 
gration. He studied minutely the avifauna 
of his county, and it was ^itirely due to his 
exertion that many a rare bird was rescued 
from oblivion, while several species were 
added by him to the list of British birds. 

Besides upwards of twenty papers on omt- 
thologicsl matters contributed to the 'Zoo- 
logist,' iJiie 'Ibis,' and the 'Journal of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall' from 1848 




onwajdsi Itodd was author of: 1. * A List of 
British Birds as a Guide to the Omitholo^ 
of Cornwall/ Svo, London, 1864 ; 2nd edit. 
1869. 2. < The Birds of Cornwall and the 
Scilly Islands . . . Edited by J. E. Harting/ 
8vO| London, 1880. His collection passed 
to his nephew, F. B. Rodd, esq., at Tre- 
bartha Hall, Liaunceston. 

[Meoioir by J. £. Harting, prefixed to Birds 
of Cornwall ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornnb. 
ii. 680, and SuppL p. 1327 ; information kindly 
supplied by his nephew, F. B. Rodd, esq., of 
Trebartha Hall, Laanceston , Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Boyal 80c. CaL] B. B. W. 

* EODD,THOMAS,the elder (1763-1822), 
bookseller, bom in Bow Street, Covent 
Garden, London, 17 Feb. 1763, was the son 
of Charles Rodd of Liverpool and Alicante in 
Spain. He was educated at the Charter- 
house and afterwards in France. For three 
years he was in his fatjbier's counting-office 
.at Alicante, where he acquired a taste^ for 
Spanish literature. Li 1794 he received 
from the Society of Arts their first premium 
of 20/. for oaier-plantine {TranMotiona, idi. 
136^2). He sold a small property at Walt- 
ham St. Lawrence, Berkshire, and started 
a manufactory of imitation precious stones 
at Sheffiehl in 18(^-5, and about 1809 
opened a bookseller's shop in Great Newport 
Street, London. The excise officials inter- 
fered with the working of his glass furnaces. 
He subsequently gave up the mfuaufactozy and 
^confined himself to booKsellin^ and amateur 
autiiorship. He was a facile writer of sermons. 
Charles Iknight acknowledged obligation to 
his wide acquaintance with early English 
literature {Tictoriai Shaketpeare, 1867, iv. 
812), and J. P. Collier refers to him ' as cele- 
brated for his knowledge of books as for his 
fairness in dealing with them ' {BibL Aeoountf 
1866, YoL i, pref. p. x). He retired from- busi- 
ness in 1821. 

He died at ClothaU End, near Baldock, on 
27 Nov. 1822, aged 59, He was twice mar- 
ried, first to Elizabeth Inskip, by whom he 
had two sons, Thomas (1796-1849), who 
.aueceeded in the business ; and Horatio (see 
below). By a second wife, who survived 
him, he had three children. A portrait from 
a pencil sketch by A. Wivell is remroduoed 
by Nichols {lUtutratioiu of I*t, Mist, viii. 

He wrote: L 'The Theriad, an heroic 
comic Poem,' London, 1790, sm. 8vo. 2. ' The 
Battle of Copenhagen, a Poem,' 1798, 6m.8vo. 
8. 'Zuma, a Tragedy translated from the 
French of Le F^vre,' 1800, 8vo. 4. ' Ancient 
ballads from the Civil Wars of Granada and 
the twelve Peers of France,' 1801, 8vo (also 
with new title, 1803). 5. 'Elegy on Francis, 

Duke of Bedford,' 1802, 4to. 6. <The Civil 
Wars of Granada, by G. Perez de Hitft,' 1803, 
8vo (only the first volume published). 
7. ' Elegiac Stanzas on C. J.Fox,^1806, 4to. 
8. * Translation of W. Bowles's *' Treatise on 
Merino Sheep," ' 1811, 4to. 9. ' Sonnets, 
Odes, Songs, and Ballads,' 1814, 8vo. 
10. ' Ode on the Bones of T. Paine,' 1819, 
8vo. 11. 'Original Letters from Lord 
Charlemont, &c,' 1820, 4to. 12. < Defence 
of the Veracity of Moses by Philobiblos,' 
1820, 8vo. 13. < Sermon on the Holy 
Trinity,' 1822, 4to. 

Thomas Bopd, the younger (1796-1849), 
eldest son of the above^ was bom on 9 Oct. 
1796, at Waltham St. Lawrence, Berkshire. 
At an early age he received an injury to his 
knee in his father's manufactory^ and after- 
wards helped in the bookselling business in 
Great Newport Street, London, which he 
took over in 182L In 1832 he circulated a 
'Statement' with reference to a brawl in 
Piccadilly in which he was involved. He 
wrote 'Traditionary Anecdotes of Shake- 
speare ' (1833, 8vo), and printed in 1845 a 
'Narrative of the Proceedings instittuted in 
the Court of Common Pleas against Mr. T. 
Rodd for the purpose of wresting from him a 
certain manuscript roll under pretence of its 
beinff a document of the court. His memory 
and Knowledge of books were remarkable, 
and hiS' catalogues, especially those of 
Americana^ are still sougnt after. He was 
much esteemed by Grenville. Douce left 
him a legacy in toKen of regard, and Camp- 
bell specially complimented him in the 
' Lives of the Chancellors.' He was married, 
but left no children, and died at Great 
Newport Street on 23 April, in his fifty- 
third year. 

HoBATio BoDD (Ji, 1859), second son of 
Thomas Bodd, the elder, after helping his 
father, went into the bookselling business 
with his brother, but on a dissolution of 

Sartnership was for ma^ years a picture- 
ealer ana nrintseller in London. He after- 
wards Uvea in Philadelphia. He wrote: 
1. ' Opinions of Learned Men on the Bible,' 
London, 1839, sm* 8vo. 2. ' Bemarks on the 
Chandos Portrait of Shakespeare,' 1849, 8vo. 
3. 'Catalogue of rare Books and Prints illua- 
trative of Shakespeare,' 1850, 8vo. 4 ' Cata- 
logue of all the Pictures of J. M. W Turner/ 
1^7, 8vo. 6. ' Letters between P. Cunningu 
ham and H. Bodd on the Chandos Portrait,' 
1858, 8vo, and various catalogues of portraite 
(1824, 1827, 1831). 

[Oent. Mag. 1849 i. 658-^ (memoir by Horatio 
Bodd) ; Nichols's lUvstratiom of Lit Hist. viii. 
846, 678-80 ; Alltbone's Dictionary, ii. 1846-6.1 





BOPDAM, BOBERT (1719-1808), ad- 
mizajlf bom Ia 1719, was second son of Edward 
Boddam of Roddam, near Alnwick, where 
the fimify waa long settled. Bobert entered 
the navy in 1735 on board the Lowestoft, 
stfring on the West India station for five 
years. He was afterwards for short periods 
m Uke Buflselly Cumberland, and Boyne, was 
at the attack on Carta^na in March- April 
1741, sad the occupation of Guatanamo or 
Cumberland harbour. On 3 Nor. 1741 he 
vas momoted lieutenant of the Superbe, 
with Captain William Harvey, who, on the 
ship's retom to England in Aug. 1742, was, 
mamly on Boddun^ evidence, cashiered for 
cruelty and neglect of duty. Boddam was 
then appointed to the Monmouth, with Cap- 
tain Cfharlea Wyndham, and for the next 
four years was engaged in active cruising on 
the eoaat of France, and as far south as the 
Canazy Islands. On 7 June 1746 he was 
promoted to command the Viper sloop, then 
building at Poole. She was launched on 
11 Jane, and on 26 July she joined the fleet 
at Spithead. Boddam*s enexgy and seaman- 
ship attracted the notice of Anson, then in 
ooaiBiand of the Channel fleet, with whom, 
and afterwards with Sir Peter Warren [q. v.], 
he continofid till 9 July 1747. He was then 
advamosd to post raiut in consequence of 
Wanen*s hi^pi commendation of the gal- 
lantry and slall with which he had gone into 
Cedeuo Bay, near Cape Ortegal, stormed a 
battery, destroyed the guns, burnt twenty- 
eight merchant ships, and brought away five 
toff^her with a Spaiush privateer. 

He waa then appointed to the Ghrey hound, 

emplojed in the iXorth Sea till the peace, and 

aftennirda at New York tiU 1751. In 1763 

be conmandad the Bristol guardship at Plv- 

mooA, and in 1756 was appointea to the 

Gieemwieh of 60 guns for service in the 

Weet Indies, where, off Cape Cabron, on 

16 March 1767, the ship was captured h^ a 

squadron of eifht French ships, includmg 

two shipe of the line and a laige frigate. 

Roddam was sent to Cape Fran^ais, but in 

July was sent to Jamaica on parole. On 

being tried by court-martial for the loss of 

hia ship he was honourably acquitted, and 

rctomed to England in a packet. When at 

list exchanged, he was appointed to the 60- 

guB riiip C^lehestsr, attached to the fleet 

with Ebwke en the coast of France. He 

joined her on 7 Dec. 1760. In 1760 he went 

to St. Helena in charge of oonvov, and on 

his retam the Colchester was paid off. In 

l>eceBBber 1770 he waa appointed to the 

LeDnoQc, which, after the dispute with Spain 

iboat the Falkland ^f^^^-n^ was happily ar- 

nagsd, lie commanded, as a goaroship at 

Portsmouth, till the end of 1773. In 1776> 
on the death of his elder brother Edward, he 
succeeded to the Boddam estates. In 1777 
he commanded the Comwsll at Portsmouth. 
On 23 Jan. 1778 he became rear-admiral of 
the white, afterwards commander-in-chief at 
the Nore till the end of the war, and on 
19 March 1779 vice-admiral of the hlue. 
During the Spanish armament in 1790 his 
flag flew at Spithead on board the Boyal 
William. He had no further employment. 
He became admiral of the blue on 1 Feb. 
1798. He died at Morpeth on 31 March 1808, 
being then senior admiral of the red. He 
was three times married, but left no issue, 
and the estates went by his will to William 
Spencer Stanhope, great-grandson of his first 
cousin Mar^, wife of Edmrard CoUingwood. 
His portrait was engraved in 1789 hy H. 
Hudson after L. F. Abbot (Bboklst). 

[Naval GhroDide, is. 263, six. 470 ; Cbar- 
nock*s Bio|r. Nav. vi. 6a ; Ofi&cial lettan. &&, 
in the Pablie Record Ofllce. Tha psiuted minutss 
of the coart«mftrtial are searee. GeoU Mjig. 
1808, i. 371; European Mag. 1808, i. 314; 
Burke's Commoners, i. 675.] J. K. L. 

BODEN, Eabls of. [See JooxtTir, Bo- 
BBBT, first eari, 1781-1797; Jogbltn, 
BoBBBT, third earl, 178^-1870.] 

1892), portrait-painter, was bom in Bradford 
Street} Birmingham, in 1817, and appren- 
ticed to Mr. Tye, an engraver, who married 
an elder sister. Subsequently, on Tje's re- 
commendation, he removed to London to 
become apprentice to George Thomas DoOy 
B.A. He continued to practise engraving 
for about ten years — his most important w;orE 
being after Bubens's portrait of himself — and 
then wholly abandoned it for portrait-paint- 
ing. ' He soon returned to Birminffham, 
which he thenceforth rarely left. As he 
succeeded in producing very good likenoBes, 
Bodeii obtained plenty of employment thefp. 
In the Birmingham council house, among 
other portraits ^7 Boden, there is one of 
W. £. Oladstone ; in the Art QaUery por- 
traits of Cardinal John Henry Newman 
[q. v.], Samuel Lines [q. v.], the painter sad 
engraver, Peter HoUins [see under Hoxlikb, 
WiLuaH], the sculptori and John Henry 
Ghamberlaini the architect; and at Aston 
HaU portraits of Dr. Lloyd and Sir John 
Batdiff. Other portraits sre in the General 
Hospital^ and for Sakley College he painted 
a portrait of George William, fourth lord 
Lyttelton [q. v.] He also painted two por- 
traits of Lord Palmerston mm life. Boden's 
work was chiefly confined to his native town 
and its neighbourhood. He died on Christ- 




mas day 1892yat the house of his sister, Mrs. 
Tje, in Handsworth , after a long illness. He 
married twice, and left children W hoth 
wiyes. He rarely exhibited at the London 

[Birmineham Post, 12 Dee. 1892; Grayes's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1893 ; information from 
Whitworth Wsllis, esq., F.S.A.] L. C. 

EODERIO THB Gbeat (<f. 877), Welsh 
Isin^^. [See Rhodri Mawr.] 

RODERIC O'CONNOR (1116-11©8), 
king of Ireland. [See O'Conkob.] 

RODERICK,RIOHARD (rf. 1756), critic 
and versifier, a native of Cambridgeshire, was 
admitted pensioner of Queens* College, Cam- 
bridge, on 20 Dec. 1728, and graduated B. A. 
in 1732. He subsequently became a fellow 
commoner of the college, and a grace was 
granted by the president and fellows for him 
to proceed to the degree of M. A. on 6 June 
1736. On 19 Jan. 1742-3 he was admitted 
to a fellowship at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, probably through the influence of 
Edward Abbot, the master (1740-6), who 
was his cousin. Roderick was elected F.R.S. 
on 21 June 1750, and F.S.A. on 6 Feb. 1752. 
He died on 20 July 1756. 

Roderick was the intimate Mend and 
coadjutor of Thomas Edwards [q. ▼.] in the 
laytter*s ' Canons of Criticism.' The ' Shep- 
herd's Farewell to his Love,' from Metas- 
tasio, and the riddles that follow, which are 
inserted in Dodsley's 'Collection of Poetry' 
(ed. 1766, ii. 809-21), are hj Roderick, and 
his translation of K'o. 18 in the Odes of 
Horace, book iv., is inserted in Duncombe's 
versions of Horace (ii. 248-9). Edwards de- 
dicated No. zxzix. of his sonnets to Roderick. 

[Nichols's IllMtr. of Lit. Hist. i. 17-18, 24; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 200 ; Gent. Mag. 1766 
p. 412, 1780 p. 123, informatioii from Queens' 
and Magdalene Colleges.] W. P. 0. 

RODES, FRANCIS (1580 P-1588), judge, 
bora about 1530, was son of John Rodes of 
Staveley Woodthorpe, Derbyshire, by his first 
wife, Attelina, daughter of Thomas Hewett 
of Wales in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
The family traced its descent from Gerard 
de Rodes, a prominent baron in the v^igi^ 
of Henry II. Francis was educated at St. 
John's (College, Cambridge, bat did not gra- 
duate. In 1649 he was entered at Onjfa 
Inn, and in 1552 was called to the bar. He 
was Lent reader at his inn in 1566, and 
double reader in 1576, and seems to have 
derived a considerable fortune from his prac- 
tice. In 1578 he was raised to the degree 
of the coif, and on 21 Aug. 1582 he was 
made queen's serjeant. On 29 June 1585 he 
was raised to the bench as juttioe of the 

common pleas, and in October 1586 he took 

fart in the trial of Mary Queen of Soots at 
'otheringay. He died towards the end of 
1588 at Staveley Woodthorpe. His will, 
dated 7 June 1687, was proved on 28 April 
1591; among numerous other benefactions 
he made bequests to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and the newly founded grammar 
school at Staveley Netherthorpe. His * Re- 
ports' were among the manuscript coUectiona 
of Sir John Majiiard (1602-1690) [q. t.], 
and are now in Lincoln's Inn library (Hxnr- 
TJSRfCat of LinooMs Inn MS8.)iLia prin- 
cipal seat was at Barlborough, Derbysliire, 
where he built the hall which is still stand* 
ing ; he also purchased extensive estates 
— %iUingsley, Durfield, Great and Little 
Houghton, all in Yorkshire. 

Rodes married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Brian Sandford of Thorpe Salvine, York- 
shire ; and, secondly, Mary, eldest daughter 
of Francis Charlton of Appley in Shiopwire. 
Her sister Elizabeth married John Manners, 
fourth earl of Rutland, who appointed Rodes 
one of his executors. Rodes was succeeded 
in the Barlborough estates by his eldest soa 
by his first wife. Sir John Rodes n.562- 
lo39), whose son Francis (d. 1646) was 
created a baronet on 14 Aug. 1641. The 
title became extinct on the death of Sir John 
Rodes, fourth baronet, in 1748. Darfield 
and Great Houghton passed to the Judge's 
eldest son by his second wife, Sir Grodney 
Rodes {d, 1634), whose son, Sir Edwarcl 
Rodes (1599-1666), served as sheriff of York- 
shire and colonel of horse under Cromwell ; 
he was also a member of Cromwell's privy 
council, sheriff of Perthshire, and represented^ 
Perth in the parliaments of 1656-8 and 1659- 
1660. Sir Edward's sister Elisabeth was 
third wife of Thomas Wentworth, eari oi 
Strafford. Her portrait, by an unknown 
hand, belongs to the Earl of Crewe, who 
also possesses a portrait of her father, Six 
Qodhej Rodes. 

[Cooper's AthefueCantabr. i. 36 ; Foss's Judges 
of England ; Dngdale's Orig. Jorid. and Chron. 
Ser. ; CoUins's Peerage, i. 478 ; AVotton's Baro- 
netage, ed. Kimber and Johnson, ii. 266 ; Barke's 
Extinct Baronets and Landed Gentiy, ed. 1871 ; 
Lysons's Derbyshire ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, 
ii. 129, 180; Strype's Annals, iii. 864; Foster*^ 
Giay's Inn Register, pp. z, 20, and Members of 
Pari, of Scotland ; Familitt Minorom Gentium 
(Harl. Soc.), pp. 88-9, 683-7 } Genealogist, new 
ser. X. 246-8.] A. F. P. 

RODGER, ALEXANDER (1784-1846), 
minor poet, son of a farmer, was bom at 
Mid-Calder, Midlothian, on 16 July 1784. 
Owing to hit mother's weak health he was 
boarded ont till he was seven years of age. 

Rodger 8i 

when his fkther, who had become an inn- 
keeper in Mid-Galder, took him home and 
pat him to aehooL Preaently the family 
reoMyved to Edinboighy where Kodser for a 
jearwasMijirontieed toaoilyenmitn. Busi- 
nem difieultiee then ocmstrained the father 
to go to Himlnizg, and Rodger settled with 
Tmtma of his mother in the east end of 
Glasgow. Here he began handloom wear* 
ing in 1 797. In 1803 he joined the Glasgow 
l>;giiUii«i Tolunteers, with which regiment, 
ai^ SDOCher formed from it, he was asso- 
eaated fer nine years. After his mamage 
in 1806 he lived in Bridgeton, then a suburb 
of Glaigowy wbera he prosecuted his trade, 
tad aJso composed and taught music. For- 
saking his loom in 1819, he joined the staff 
ofaGlainow weekly news^per, * The Spirit 
of thsl&<m.' The seditious temper of the 
pablicatian soon iny^^yed it in ruin, and the 
editor was tnmsported for life. Returning to 
his trsde, Rodger was shortly afterwards im- 
pxisQoed as a auspected person ; during his 
confiiMaent he continued to compose and 
sing leyolotionary lyrics. 

Li 1821 Rodger became inspector of the 
cloths used fat printing and dyeinj^ in Bar* 
lowfield nnnt-works, Glasffow. This post he 
retuned inreJeyen years. During this period 
he canapleted some of his best literary work, 
and manifested a useful public spirit, 
secuiiag in one instance the permanence of 
an important rudit of way on the Clyde 
near GJasgow. designing his inspectorship 
in 1832, he was for a few months manager 
of a fineod's pawnbroldng business. Then 
lor aboat a year he was reader and local re« 
porter for the 'Glasgow Chronicle,' after 
vhieh he had a short engagement on a 
vcekly radical paper. FinaUy he obtained 
t stnation- on tke 'Reformer's Gazette' 
vhich he held tiU his death. In 1836, at a 
public dinner in his honour, under the pre- 
cideney of Frotesor Wilson, admirers of 
widdy different political yiews presented 
him with a ailyer box filled with soyeieigns. 
He died <m 36 Sept. 1846, and was buried 
m Glai^w secropons. A handsome menu* 
meat at his graye has an appropriate inscrip- 
oonby WillMun Keonedy (1799-1871) [q.y.1 
In 1806 Rodger married Agnes Turner, and 
sereial meoibers of their large family emi- 
grated to America. 

Hkeoonectioii with the highland yolun- 
teen gaye Rodger opportunities of obserying 
C^tie diaraetery and prompted witty yerses 
rt the expense of comrades. One of his 
eadiest sesioos poems is deyoted to Boliyar 
ca the Geeasion of the slaye emancipation in 
1816. CoUeetiaBS of Rodger's lyrics ap- 
petRd in 1821 ('Scotch I'oetry: Songs, 
T<iL xyn. 


Odes, Anthems, and Epigrams,' London, 
8yo), in 1827 (' Peter Comclips, with other 
Poems and Songs,' Glasgow, 12mo), and 
1888 ('Poems and Songs, Humorous and 
Satirical,' Glasgow,^ IsSio), and a small 
yolume of his political effusions was pub- 
lished later, under the title of Stray Leayes 
from the Portfolios of Alisimder the Seer, 
Andrew Whaup, and Humphrey Henkeckle ' 
(Glasgow, 1842,8yo). Somewhat uaijolished, 
Rodger's yerses, humorous or sentimental, 
are always easy and yifiorous. He is at his 
best in the humorous aescriptiye lyric, and 
in his 'Robin Tamson's Smiddy^ he has 
made a permanent contribution to Scottish 
song. One of his pieces, ' Behaye yourself 
before Folk,' was quoted with approyal in 
one of the uncollected ' Noctes Ambrosianis.' 
Rodger assisted the publisher, Dayid Robert- 
son kL y.], in editing some of the early series 
of 'Whistle Binkie' (1889-46), a Gla^w 
anthology of contemporary Scottish lyrics. 

[Whistle Btnkio, yol. i. ed. 1878; Rogers's 
Modem Scottish Minstrel ; MsekAy's Throegfi 
the Long Day ; Heddenrick's Backward Olanoes.] 


RODINGTON, JOHN (d. 1348), Fran- 
ciscan, was probably a natiye of Rudding- 
ton, Nottinghamshire. He was educated at 
Oxford, where he graduated D.D., and at 
Paris (BuDiNszxr, Die Univernt&t Paris 
und die Fremden an derselben im Mittelalter, 
1876, p. 92). Entering the Franciscan order, 
he was attached to the conyent of Stamford, 
and subseq^uently became nineteenth pro- 
yincial minister of the order in England. He 
died in 1848, probably of the plague, at Bed- 
ford, where he was buried. He was author 
of: 1. 'Joannes Rodinchon in librum i. 
Sententiarum;' the manuscript is not known 
to be extant, but it was printed by Joannes 
Picardus in his 'Thesaurus Theologorum,'^ 
160S. 2. ' Johannis de Rodynton Determi- 
nationes Theologies,' extant at Munich in 
Bibl. Regis, Cod. Lat. 22023, which also^ 
contains S. ' Quiestiones super (^uartum li- 
brum Sententiarum.' 4. 'Qujestiones super 
Quodlibeta,' extant in Bruges MS. No. 6(&. 

[MoQumenta Franciscana, i. 638, 554, 660;: 
Wadding, p. 163, and Sbaralea, j>. 468; Pits,p^ 
462; Bale, yi. 27; Fabricius^s Bibl. Med. JRvi 
Latinitatis, iy. 864; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib.; 
Little's Qrey Friars in Oxford, pp. 171, 174.1 

A. F. P. 

Babok Rodnst (171^1792), admiral, second 
son of Henry Rodney, was baptised in the 
church of St. Giles-in-the Fields, London, on 
13 Feb. 1718-19. His grandfather. Anthony 
Rpdney, son of George, youngest brother of 




Sir Edward Rodney of Stoke Rodney in So- 
menet, after servmg through the wan of 
William III aa captain in Oolonel Leigh's 
recriment of dragoons, was in 17021ietttenant- 
colond of Holt's regiment of marines, and 
was Ulled in a duel at Barcelona in 1706. 
Anthony's brother Qeorge served during the 
reign of William III as a captain of marines, 
and died in 1700. Henry Rodney (1681- 
1737), son of Anthony, served with his father 
as a comet in Leigh's draffoons, and after- 
wards as a captain m Holt^ marines. The 
regiment was disbanded in 1718^ and Henry 
settled down at Walton-on-Thames and mar- 
ried Mary, elder daughter and ccdiairess of Sir 
Henry iJewton ri651- 1716) [a. v.] (Mttndt j 
iniormationkindlysupplied by Colonel Edye). 
The stoxy that he was captam of the king s 
^aoht is unsupported by evidence, and is in 
Itself improbable. That the king was god- 
father to young Rodney is possible, but George 
was already a &mily name; Brydges, lus 
second christian name, commemorated the 
relationship of his family with that of James 
Brydges (arterwards duke of Chandos) [q. v.]» 
to whom the Stoke Rodney estates naa de- 
scended by the marriage of Sir Edward 
Rodney's aaughter and heiress. 

George Brydges Rodney is said (Ooluns, 
Peerage^ ed. brydges, vii. 561) to have been 
brought up as a chUd by George Brydffes 
of Ayingtbn and Eeynsham. He was also 
for a short time at Harrow, and entered 
the navy in July 1782 as a volunteer per 
order, or kind's letter-boy, on board the 
Sunderland ox 60 ffuns, with Cantain Ro- 
bert Man. In May 1788 he joined the Dread- 
nought with Captain Alexander Geddes, who, 
in December Iv 84, was superseded by Cap- 
tain Henry Medley [q. v.] In July 1789 he 
joined the Somerset of 80 ffuns, flagship of 
Rear-admiral Nicholas Haddock [q.v.], by 
whom, on 29 Oct., he was promoted to be 
lieutenant of the Dolphin mfate, with his 
uncle, Lord Aubrey J3eaucle& [q*v>] In 
1741 he was lieutenant of the Essex, one of 
the fleet in the Channel, under Sir John 
Norris (1660-1749) [q. v.], and in 1742 went 
out to the Mediterranean with Admiral 
Mathews, by whom, on 9 Nov., he was pro- 
moted to be captain of the Plymouth of CK) 
ffuns, then under orders for England. On 
nis arrival his commission as captain was 
confirmed without his passing through the 
intermediate grade of commander. 

In SeptemMr 1748 Rodney was appointed 
to the Sheemees, a 24-ffun frigate, from 
which, in October 1744, he was moved to 
the Ludlow Castle, employed during the 
following year in the North Sea under the 
otden 0? Admiral Edward Vernon [q* v.] 

In Deoombsr 1745 he was appointed to the 
new 60-gun ship Eagle. During 1746 he 
was for we most part employed m cnusing 
off the south coast of Ir^and for the pro- 
tection of trade ; in 1747 he was with Com- 
modore Fox in a successful and lucrative 
cruise to the westward, and had a brilliant 
share in the defeat of the French fleet under 
L'Etendudre on 14 Oct. [see Hawkb, Ed- 
WABD, Lord]. He afterwards complained 
that at a critical period in the action he had 
not been properly supported b^ Fox, who, 
on his representations, was tned for mis- 
conduct and dismissed from Ids command* 
After the peace in 1748 Rodney was ap- 
pointed to the 40-gun . ship Rainbow as 
governor of Newfoundland, and with secret 
orders to support the colonists against the 
encroachments of the French in Nova Scotia. 
The Rainbow was paid off in the autumn of 
1762, and during the followiiu^ years Rodney 
successively commanded the I^t, Fougueux, 
Prince George, and Mbnarque, as guardships 
at Portsmouth. In December 17o6 he was 
in London on leave, and although he was 
ordered to return to sit on the court-martial 
on Admiral John Byng [q. v.], his attendance 
was excused on the score of ' a violent biUous 
colic' With equal good fortune he was 
moved to the Dublin in Fdmiary 1757, a 
very few weeks before Byng was shot. In 
the autumn of 1767 the l^ublin was one of 
the fleet with Hawke in the abortive expe- 
dition to the Basque Roads, and in 1768 was 
with Boscawen on the coast of Nortii Ame- 
rica, but, being very sickly, she was left at 
HaHfax when the fleet sailed fur tihe redao 
tion of Louisbourff. 

On 19 May 1759 Rodney was promoted to 
the rank of rear*admiral, and at once ap- 
pointed, with lus flag in the Achilles, to the 
command of a squadron including several 
bomb-ketches, with which, on 4, 5, and 
6 July, he bombarded Havre, destroyinff the 
stores and flat-bottomed boats prepared for 
the contemplated invasion of England. He 
continued off Havre during the rest of the 
year, and again during 1760,' and in 1701 
went out to the West indies as commandeir- 
in-chief on the Leeward Islands station,wlien. 
in concert with a large land force, he reduoed 
Martinique in February 1762, and took pos- 
session of St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. V in- 
cent. On 21 Oct. 1762 he was advanced to 
the rank of vioe-admirai In August 1763 
he returned to Enffland, and on 21 Jan. 

1764 was created a oatonet. In November 

1765 he was appointed ^[ovemor of Green* 
wieh Hospital, and during the Ave years 
that he held this appointment is said to haxe 
suggested and insisted on several measures 




coadaei^ to th» fioaifort ftxkd weU-beiog of 
the peoskmeta. 

Suiee 1761 he had had a seat in the House 
of Ooamona as a nominee of the sovem* 
meat or the Duke of Newcastle for Saltash, 
nkehaaptoiit or Peoryn. At the election 
of 1768 ne was thrown on his own resources, 
iad imeenting his election for Northampton 
14 said to have expended 30,0002. He was 
not A irealthy man, and this, added to social 
eitiBTigince, completed his pecuniary ruin. 
Karij in 1771, dierefore, on the prospect of 
t wir with Spain, ha rery readily accepted 
the coounand at Jamaica, hoping that he 
aigfat also retain his appointment at Green^* 
vieh, as had, indeed, heen usual. Lord 
Siadwich, howerer, refused to allow this, and 
M the difference with Spain was peaceably 
inaaged, Rodney retiurned to England in the 
ionuDer of 1774 no richer than when he 
went OQt, and milch disffusted with the 
■iiuatry whieh had refused to appoint him 
gorernor of Jamaica. He had been nomi* 
natednaiHuhairal of Great Britain in Aug^t 
ir71, hat for some reason the emoluments 
of the office had not been paid to him. He 
Bov foaad himself so pressed by his liabilities 
m Eogjbad that he retired to France in 
the beginning of 1776, and for the next 
&«t jean or more lived in Paris ; but, £ar 
froa eewiomifring, he increased his indebted- 
Bos, tsd, when the war with England was 
on the point of breaking out, he was unable 
to leafe France. There was more due to 
^ as leamadmiral of Great Britain than 
would have cleared him twice over ; but, in 
hii thnaos, the navy board refused to pay 
it, aod he was only relieved fiom his em* 
bunaoDeBt by the friendly interposition of 
tk Martchal de Biron, who advanced him 
ne tiKNuand looia, and thus enabled him to 
Rtam to England in May 1778 (Mondt, i. 
IdO). The often repeated but incredible and 
^Apported story that Biron was commis* 
M»d b J the French kinff to offer him a high 
^(ttnand in the French fleet is contradicted 
by fiodney's letter to his wife of 6 May (ib,) 

Bodn^ Ktumed full of bitterness against 
^wich, who, as first lord of the admi- 
nlty, abodd, he thought, have ordered the 
v^ boaid to satisfy his just claims. Sand- 
« an equal resentment against 


^<^. The latter ^ been promotedto the 
nak of admiral on 29 Jan. 1778, but it was 
^ till towards the close of 1779, when no 
^^ officer of standing and repute wouhi ac* 
ttpt a eoounand under his government, that 
^^>^wh offered Bodney the command of 
^fiect OB the Leeward Islands station; 
^ Bothiflj believed that even then it was 
«t tU direet desire of the king. It appears 

certain that at the time and afterwards he 
considered himself in a peculiar degree the 
servant of the king. On his wuy to the 
West Indies he was to relieve Gibraltar, 
then closely blockaded by the Spaniards, 
and for this purpose took command of a fleet 
of twenty-<me sail of the line, which, with 
frigates and some three hundred storeships 
and transports, sailed from Plymouth Sound 
on 29 Dec. On Id Jan. 1760, to the south- 
ward of Cape St. Vincent, he caught the 
Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lan* 
^ara, makm^ its way towards Cadiz with a . 
fresh westerly gale. It was of very inferior . 
force, consisting of only eleven ships of the '* 
line, two of which were nearly out of sight ^ 
ahead. Rodney at ouoe grasped the situa- 
tion and ordered a general chase, the ships 
to get between the enemy and the land and 
to engage as they came up with them. 
Nig^t closed in as the action bc^n, and 
through it a fearful storm was raging, but 
neither darkness nor storm stayed the bril« 
liant rush of tlie English fleet, and the com- 
pleteness of the result was commensurate 
with the vigour of the attack. Of the nine 
Spanish ships engaged, two only escaped: 
one was blown up, six (including Langara's 
flagship) were captured, and Gibraltar was 
relieved without tne possibility of hindrance. 
The disproportion between the forces was so 
^reat as to deprive the action of much of its 
interest, but tne peculiar circumstances of it 
-^the darkness, the storm, and the rocks to 
leeward — enhanced the merit of Rodney's 
prompt decision. At home the victorious 
admiral was the hero of tiie hour, and Sand«- 
wich, with sublime impudence, wrote to him, 
' The worst of my enemies now allow that 
I have pitched upon a man who knows hie 
duty, and is a brave, honest, and able officer.^ 
He was nominated an extra knight of the 
Bath ; the city of London presented him with' 
the freedom of the city in a gold casket. 

From Gibraltar the bulk of the fleet re- 
turned to England. Rodney, with four sail 
of the line, went on to the West Indies, 
and reached St. Lucia on 22 March, five days 
before the Comte de Guichen took command 
of the French fleet at Martinique. On 
18 April Guichen put to sea, and Rodney, 
having early intelligence of his movements,. ■■ 
at once followed. The French fleet was still '^ 
under the lee of Martinique when Rodney 
sighted it on the evening of the 16th. By-, 
the morning of the 17th the two fleets were 
abreast of, and parallel to, each other, though 
heading in opposite directions, the French 
towfurcb the south, the English, some ten or 
twelve miles to windward, towards the 
north. Now, early in the century, it had 





been laid down by the admiralty as a ]^si- 
tive order that when the fleet was to wind- 
ward of the enemy ranged in line of battle, 
the Tan was to engage the van, and so on 
the whole length of the line. For a violap- 
tion of thisorder Mathewshad been cashiered ; 
for not giving eflect to it Byng had been shot ; 
by attempting it in 1761 Graves was de* 
feated and the American colonies were lost. 
Kodney was keenly alive to the absardity of 
it| and risked depa^rture from it. Two davs 
before he had acquainted each captain in the 
fleet that it was his intention to bring the 
whole force of his fleet on a part — ^perhaps 
two-thirds— of the enemy's (Sir Gilbert Blane 
in Athenaunif 1609, a monthly magazine, 
T. 802) ; so that when, early in the morning 
of the 17th, he made the signal that he in- 
tended to attack the enemy's rear, he took 
for granted that his meaning was patent to 
every one. Unfortonatelv several signals 
and manoeuvres intervened, and both fleets 
were on the same tack, heading to the north, 
when, a few minutes before noon, the order 
to engage was finally given. By that time 
the rear-admiral and captains in the van 
had quite forgotten both the earlier signal 
and the communication made two days 
before, which they probably never under- 
stood. The result was a grievous disap- 
pointment. Bodney felt that he had Guichen 
m his grasp. The French fleet was in very 
open order; their line extended to some- 
thing like twelve miles ; and he had thus 
the diance of falling, with his whole force, 
on half of that of the enemy. But Captain 
Bobert Carkett fo* 'V^O* ^^^ commanded the 
leading ship, and Kear-admiral Hyde Parker 
<^1714-1782) [q. v.], who commanded the 
van, could not understand anything beyond 
the fatal ' instruction,' and stretched anead 
to seek the enemy's van. Others followed 
their example ; and others, again, between 
the contradictory signals of Rodney and 
Parker, were completely puzzled, and did 
nothinflf. There followed a partial engage- 
ment, m which several of the ships on either 
side were much shattered, in wnich manv 
men were killed or wounded, but in which 
no advantage was obtained by either part^. 
In his letter to the admiralty Bodney laid 
the blame for the failure on several of the 
captains, and espectaUy on Carkett. But 
the responsibility was largely his in not 
making it clear to at least tlie junior flag^ 
officers that he proposed attemptinff some- 
thing distinctly contrary to the a£niralty 
fighting instructions. Guichen, on his part, 
was quick to realise that, with an enemy 
who refused to be bound by office formule, 
the lee gage might be a position of un* 

wonted danger; and accordin^ljr, a month 
later, when the fleets were agam in presence 
of each other, to windward of Martinique^ 
he obstinately retained the weather-gage 
which fortune gave him ; and thus, though 
on two separate occasions, 16 and 19 Mav^ 
Bodney, aided by a shift of wind, was abW 
to lay up to his rear and bring on a passing 
skirmish, no battle took place. And so the 
campaign ended. A couple of months later 
Guidien returned to Europe, while Bodney,. 
doubtful if he had not gone to the coast of 
North America, went himself to join Vice* 
admiral Arbuthnot at New York. There 
Arbuthnot received him with insolence and 
insubordination. Bodney behaved with mode* 
ration, but as Arbuthnot refused to be con* 
ciliated, he referred the matter to the ad- 
miralty [see Abbuthkot, Mabbiot]; and, 
having satisfied himself that he was no 
longer needed in North American waters, he 
returned to the West Indies, where he ap* 
rived in the beginning of December. 

By the end 01 the month he wasjoined by- 
Sir Samuel (afterwards Viscount) Bu>od[q. v.} 
with a lan;e reinforcement, and a few weeks- 
later, on 27 Jan. 1781, he received news of 
the war with Holland, and a recommenda- 
tion to attack St. Eustatius. This coincided 
with Bodney's own wishes. The contraband 
and partial trade of St. Eustatius had been 
an annoyance and grievance to him during- 
the whole of the past year, and he eagerly 
grasped the opportunity of vengeance. He 
seized theielana and its accumulation of mer* 
chandise, to the value of from two to three 
millions sterling. This enormous mass of 
wealth seems to have intoxicated him. A. 
large proportion of it belonged to English, 
merchants, and against these Bodney was 
especially furious; they were traitors who 
had been gathering riches bv supplying the 
enemies 01 their country with contraband of 
war. * My happiness,' he wrote to Gbrmain, 
* is having been the instrument of my coun* 
try in brmffing this nest of villains to con- 
dign punishment. They deserve scourgringr^ 
and they shall be scourged.' Unfortunately, 
he did not consider that, as the offenders 
claimed to be Englishmen, the scourging- 
must be by legal process. He confiscatecl 
the whole of the property, sold some of it; 
by auction, and sent a large part of the re-> 
mainder for Enffland. But as the convoy- 
approached the snores of Europe it fell int o- 
the hands of a French squadron under 
Lamotte Picquet, who captured a great part; 
of it [see Hothav, Wiluav, Lobd] : and 
St. Eustatius itself, with the rest of the 
booty, including the money realised by the 
sales, was afterwards recaptured by !>• 




ikmSM. Bodoey's dream of wealth thus 
Tiniikid,md all thatrenuuned was a number 
<d foitioiiB and costly lawsuitSy which swal- 
lowed up the greater part of his lawful ^fains. 

Meiawhile he had sent Hood with a 
itrangforse to blockade Fort Royal off Mar- 
daiqne. It was rumoured that a powerful 
Piench fleet was expected, and Kodney's 
post vBs clearly off Martinique. But he 
oodd sot tear himself away firom the fasci- 
nadou of 8l Eustatius, and he refused to 
Mere the rumour* The result was that 
ihB Fieach fleet, when it arrived, forced its 
mj into Mirtinique, and that Hood^haring 
Ml uuUe to preyent it, reioined Bodney 
u Aatigaa. Bodney's iU-health was doubt- 
Jen lamy responsible for his blunder. He 
mioliused to resign the command to Hood, 
ttd oal Aug. he sailed for England. On 
6 5oT. he was appointed Tice-admiral of 

A. few months' rest at home restored his 
2ieakli,aiid on 16 Jan. 1782 he sailed from 
Tcrimr with his flag in the 90-gun ship 
FomiidiUe. On 19 Feb. he rejoined Hood 
«t Baitadofl. The position of affairs was 
cotkaL The French had just captured St. 
Kitta, and were meditating an attack in 
fnee oa Jamaica. Some fourteen Spanish 
«kipB olthe line and dght thousand soldiers 
▼m mumbled at Gape Fran^ais, where 
<V7 TOB to be joined by the Oomte de 
Gam from Martinique, with thirty-fiy e sail 
9f Ue linsi five thousand troops, and a laige 
twny of storeships. But timelv reinforoe- 
neau had brought Bodney's force up to 
(luitj-six sul of the line, with which he 
^ op a positum at St. Lucia, waiting for 
pe Gnase to move. On the morning of 
h April be had the news that the French 
teiras putting to sea. In two hours he 
VII in pmsuit, and the next morning sighted 
the enemy under the lee of Dominica, where 
the tnde wind was cut off by the lugh land 
od Uew in fitful eddies, alternating with 
ttinu and aea breeies. A partial action fol- 
l^}^ without any result, and De Grasse, 
^winff off, attempted to get to windwiurd 
tluQBgC the Saintes Passage. Various acci- 
^^ita piorented his domg so, and, on the 
^oning of the 12th, Sir Charles Douglas 
^•▼.j the captain of the fleet, awakened 
^^j with Ihe glad news that ' Ood had 
^rea him the enemy on the lee bow.' 
, J^BQiieae was tempted stfll further to 
*^<vvd to oover a disabled ^p, and then, 
*^ that he could no longer avoid an 
vtion, he fonned his line of battle and stood 
^^*vda the south, while the English, on the 
^W>t>te tack, adyaneed to meet fim. About 
eight o'doek the battle began, the two lines 

passing each other at very close quarters. 
But as the French line got more to the 
southward, and under the lee of Dominica, 
it was broken by the yaiyins winds, and at 
least two large gaps were made, through one 
of which the Formidable passed, and almost 
at the same moment the Bedford, the lead- 
ing ship of the rear division, passed through 
the other [see Af fleck, Sib EDicnn)]. The 
ships astern followed ; the French line wtia 
pulverised, and endeavoured to run to lee- 
ward to reform. But for this they had no 
time; a rout ensued, and their rearmost ships, 
attacked in detail, were overpowered and 
taken. Just as the sim set, De Grasse's flag- 
ship, theVille de Paris, suirendered to the Bar- 
fleur, and Bodney made the signal to bring to. 
Hood was astounded. Dou^Uis be^ed 
Bodney to continue the chase. He refiiised, 
on the ground that the ships, getting in 
among the enemy in the dark, would run 
great danger, while some of the French ships, 
remaining behind, might do great damage 
among the islands to windwara ; all whicm, 
as Captain Mahan has said, is ' creditable 
to his imagination,' for the French were 
thoroughly beaten and could not have had 
any idea of aggression (Injtuenoe qf Seu" 
Fotoer vpon SUtory^ p. 497). Hood's opinion 
was that at least twenty ships might have 
been captured, and wrote, <Surdy there 
never was an instance before of a great fleet 
being so completely beaten and routed, and 
not pursued.^ The neglect, he thought, was 
'glaring and shameiul,' and he did not 
scruple to attribute it to the admiral's child- 
like vanity in the possession of the Ville de 
Paris, which he could not bring himself to 
part from (LetterB qf Sir Samuel JSbodf Navy 
Becords Society, pp. 129, ISO, lSG-7). It 
is impossible to say that Bodney was not 
influenced by some such motive. Hood fully 
believed it, and his criticisms, though very 
bitter, are generally just. But it is pro- 
bable that a large part of the neglect should 
be ascribed to the physical weakness and 
mental lassitude of a man prematurely old, 
racked by gout and gravel, and worn out with 
a long dav^s battle, following the three days* 
chase. That, having won a glorious and re- 
markable victory, he fiuled to make the most 
of it must be admitted. Still, the victory 
restored the English prestige, which had 
been sorely shaken by the defeat of Graves 
and the surrender of Comwallis; and it 
enabled the government to negotiate on much 
more favourable terms. That the victory was 
Bodney's there can be no reasonable doubt. 
The attempt which was made to assign 
the credit of it to John Clerk (172&-1812) 
[q. v.] of Eldin, or to Sir Charles Douglas^ 




18 supported }>j no satisfactory evidence, and 
on many points is distinctly contradicted. 
It is of course quite probaUle that Douglas 
called his attention to the gap in the French 
line ; but Rodney's whole career shows him 
as a man quick to see an opportunity, prompt 
to seize it, and tenacious to an extreme 
degree of his dignity and authority ; while, 
according to Hood, Douglas-^though un- 
^estionably an able and brave officer — ^had 
neither fortitude nor resolution sufficient to 
open his lips in remonstrance against any 
order which Rodney might give (i6. p. 106 ; 
Mthtot, ii. 803)i. 

When the ships were refitted, Rodney 
proceeded with the fleet to Jamaica, and was 
still there, on 10 July, when he was sum- 
marily superseded by Admiral Hugh Pigot 
[q. V.}, who had sailed from England before 
tne news of the victorv had arrived. That 
the whig government should supersede Rod- 
ney — ^whose conduct at St. Eustatius' Burke 
had denounced — was natural ; but the news 
of the victory showed them that thev had 
made a mistaKe, and they did everythmg in 
their power to remedy it. On 22 May the 
thanks of both houses- of parliament were 
voted to him ; on 19 June he< was created a 
peer by the title of Baron Rodney of Stoke- 
Rodney; and on 27 June the House of 
Commons voted him a pension of 2,000/., 
which in 1708 was settled on the title for 
ever. The committee of inquiry into the St. 
Eustatius prise affiiirs was discharged, and, 
when he arrived in England in September, 
he was received with unmeasured applause* 

Rodney had no further service, and during 
his last years he lived retired from public 
life. He was sorely straitened for monev ; he 
was worried b^ lawsuits arising out of the St. 
Eustatius spod ; and his health was feeble. 
He sufferea much from gout, which, it was 
said, occasionally affected his intellect, 
though it did not prevent his writing very 
clear notes in the margin of his copy of 
Clerk's 'Essay.' He died suddenly on 
28 May 1792, in his house in Hanover Square. 
Rodney was twice martrifed. First, in 1763, 
to Jane (<2.1767), daughter of Charles Comp- 
ton, brother of the sixth earl of Northampton. 
By her he had two sons: George, who suc- 
ceeded as second baron ; and j ames, who 
wa6 lost in command of the Ferret sloop of 
war in 1776. He married secondly, in 1764, 
Henrietta, daughter of JohnClies of Lisbon, 
by whom he had issue three daughters and 
two sons, the elder of whom, John, is noticed 
below : the younger, Edward, bom in 1788, 
died, a captain in the navy, in 1828. Lady 
Rodney survived her husband many years, 
and died in 1829 at the age of ninety. 

Accoidin^ to Wrazall, who claimed ' great 
personal intimacv with him,' Rodner's ^per- 
son was more elegant than seemed to be- 
come his rough profession; there was even 
something that approached to delicacy and 
effeminacy in his ngure.' In society he kid 
himself open to the reproach of * being gh' 
rieuxtt bavardf making himself frequenUy the 
theme of his own discourse. He talked much 
-and freely upon every subject, concealed 
nothing in the course of conversation, regard- 
less who were present, and dealt his censures 
as well as his praises with imprudent libera- 
lity. Throughout his whole life two passions 
-—the love of women and of play— -carried 
him into ' many excesses. It was believed 
that he had been distinguished in his youth 
by the personal attachment of the Princess 
Amelia, daughter of Qeorge II ' (JSHstorieal 
Metiwirs, ed. Wheatley, i. 228-4). 

A portrait of Rodney, by Reynolds, is in 
St. James's Palace ; a copy of it, presented by 
George IV, is in the painted hall at Green- 
wich, and was engraved by W. Dickinson. 
Another small oval portrait by Revnolds was 
engraved by P. Tomkins and J. Watson in 
17o2. Another portrait, by Gainsborough, 
has been engraved by Dupont. Aportrait oy 
H. Baron was engraved by 0. ISLnight and 
Green. A miniature by W. Grimaldi has 
also been engraved (see Bbomlbt). 

Rodney's elder son by his second wife, Johk 
RoDKBY (1765-1847), bom on 27 Feb. 1766, 
affords a striking example of t^e abuse of fa^ 
vouritism. On 18 May 1778, at the request 
of Admiral John Byron \q. v.], he was ad- 
mitted as a scholar in the Royal Academy at 
Portsmouth (Byron to the secretary of the 
admiralty, 20 April 1778, in Admirars Des- 
patches f iforth America, 7 ; secretary of the 
admiralty to Hood, 24 April 1778, in Seen- 
ta7y'sZetter8,177S;Oomfni99umand Warrant 
Book)* On 28 Oct. 1779 he was ordered to be 
discharged from the Academy, at SirQeoige 
Rodney's request, but not to any ship, * as he 
has not gone th«ou^h the plan of learning, or 
been the usual time in the Academy' (Minute 
on SirG.Rodney's letter of 26 Oct. xaAdmiraVs 
DespatchM, Leeward IHandSf 7). He was 
then entered on board the Sandwich, carry- 
ing his father's flag, and in her was present 
at the defeat of Langara, off Cbpe St. \ancent, 
at the relief of Gibraltar, and in the action 
of 17 April 1780. On 27 May his iBther, 
writing to the boy's mother, wrote with a 
customary exaggeration : * John is perfectly 
well, and has had an opportunity of seeing 
more service in the short time he has been 
from England than has fallen to the lot of 
the oldest captain in the navv. . . He is 
now gone tm a cruise in one oi my frigates' 




MwsvT,14fe€fItodney/i.29e). OnSOJolj 
lie wioCe again : ' John is r&ry well, and haa 
lieeB kept oooatantlj at aea to soake him 
zaaater of his profesaion. He is now second 
lieatenant of the Sandwich, having risen to 
ithriolaibon; but sidll I sendhim in frigates; 
he haa aeea enough of great battles. AU he 


mananip, which he must learn. 
'When he is a eeaman he shall be a captain, 
bat B9t till then' (ib. i. 857). By 14 Oct. 
1760^ being then only fifteen, he was able 
to latia^ his £Either*s reauiiements, and was 
pramotod to be conunanderof thePocahontas, 
and the same day to be captain of the Fowey. 
In eompliment to his £Either these very irregu- 
lar promotions mrere confirmed to their original 
date, on 22 May 1782 (Commusioncmd Jrar- 
ramt Bw^y, During 1781 he was captain of 
the Boieaa frigate, and in April 1782 was 
moved to the Anson, in which ne returned to 
EngUnd at the peace. In March 1796 he was 
a^ipointed to the Vengeance, but in August, 
before she was ready for sea, he accidentally 
broite his leg. It nad to be amputated, ana 
he was sapmeded. In June 1796 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners of vic- 
tualling, and in February 1799, on being 
passed over in the flag promotion, his name 
waa removed from the fist of captains. He 
ccntiniwd a commissioner of victualling till 
August 1803, when he was appointed chief 
aeoetazy to the government of Ceylon, in 
which office he remained till 1832 (Order in 
Council, 3 Dec.) He was then, on & memorial 
to the long in council, replaced on the navy 
list as aredred captain, and so continued till 
his daa^ on 9 April 1847. 

[Mandj'sIiifoaiidCorrespondenoei in which last 
the laognage has been altered to suit the taste of 
the editor ; Hajmay's Bodney (English Men of 
Action) ; Bodney and the 'S^vy of the Eighteenth 
Centauj, in Sdinborgh He v., Januacy 1892 ; Offi- 
cial lettezs and other docxunents in the Public 
Beeaid Office ; f^aval Chronicle, i. 354, xxzi. 360, 
S43 ; C9iamock'8 Biogr. Nav. v. 204 ; Beatson's 
Kara] and Military Memoirs; United Service 
Javroal, 1830, vol. li. ; White's Naval Besearches ; 
Vattheiia's Twenty-one Plans of Engagements in 
the West Indies ; Clerk's Essay on Naval Tactics 
(Szd edit.) ; Eldns's Battles of the British Navy ; 
ffir Howud Dooglas's Statement of some Im- 
pcttast Faets, &c. (1829), and Naval Erolntions 
US23); Sir John Barrow's BodneVs Battle of 
12 April, in Qnaiterly Beview, zlii. ; Foeter^s 
Peoage; Chevalier^s Hist, de la Murine Fran- 
^aise pendant la Gnerre de I'lnd^pendance Am4- 
zieaine ; Troode's Batailles narales de la France.] 

BUONAPARTE (1800-1852), author, musi- 
cal diieotor and composar, the brother (not 
them) of Jamee Thomas Gooderham Rod- 

weU, playwright and lessee of the Adelphi 
Theatre (d. 1826), was bom in London, 
16 Nov. 1800. A pupil of Vincent Novello 
[q. v.] and Sir Henry Rowley Bishop [q. v.], 
Rodwell was in 18& professor of harmony 
and composition at the Rojral Academy of 
Music. Upon the death of his brother James 
in 1826, Rodwell snooeeded to ^proprietor- 
ship of the Adelphi Theatre. He mainly 
occupied himself with directing the music at 
the tneatre, and in composition for the stage. 
His opera, ' The Flying Dutchman,' was pro- 
duced at the Adelphi in 1826, and 'The 
Oomish Miners ' at the English Opera House 
in 1827. His marriage with Emma, the 
daughter of John Listen [^. v.], the come- 
dian, improved his theatrical connection, 
though, according to the ' Gentleman^s Maga- 
aiua, the union proved 'very unfortunate.' 
In 1886 he was appointed director of music 
at Covent Gkurden Theatre, where a ftrce by 
him, ' Teddy the Tiler,' from the French, had 
been performed in 1880. The Oovent Garden 
management sought popularity by antici* 
pating the repertory of Drury Lane; and 
Itodwell, though fiaendly with Bunn, tho 
Drury Lane manager, was somewhat unscru- 
pulous in this reg^urd. When Auber's opera, 
' The Bronze Horse,' was announced at Drury 
Lane, he brought out at Oovent Garden «n 
opera on the same theme, with music by him* 
self. In some cases Rodwell wrote the worda 
as well as the music. His principal librettist 
was Fitsball ; but Buckstone, James Kenney, 
and Richard Brinsley Peake also supplied 
him with romances, buriettas, operettas, and 
incidental songs for musical settmg. He was 
fortunate to find exponents of his clever and 
tuneful ballads in artists like Mrs. Keeley. 
Mrs. Waylett, and Mary Anne Paton [q. v.J 
But his eiforts to establish a national opera 
in England had no lasting result. Fot 
many years Rodwell resided at Brompton. 
He died, aged 62, at Upper Ebury Street, 
Pimlico, on 22 Jan. 1862, and was buried at 
Brompton cemetery. 

Rodwell wrote some forty or fifty musica} 
pieces for the stage, besides songs, works on 
musical theory, romances, farces, and novels. 
Among his publications were : 1. ' Scmgs of 
the Burds,' 1827. 2. < First Rudiments of 
Harmony,' 1881. 8. ' Letter to the Musicians 
of Great Britain,' 1888. 4. 'Memoirs of an 
UmbreBa,' a novel, 1846. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 309; Grove's Dictionary, 
iii. 143; Baptie's Band book; Musical Times, 
1862, p. 837; Theatrical Observer, 1825-60, pas- 
sim ; Registers of Wills, P. C. 0., St. Alban's, 4 ; 
FitzbaU's Life, passim ; Bunn's The Stage, ii. 9 ; 
Home's edition of Croker's Walk . . . toFalhara, 
pp. 40, 76; Bodirell's Works.] L. M. M» 



1878), physician, born on 18 May 1796 at 
New Ko68, CO. Wexford, was the eldest son 
of Peter Roe, a banker, and a cousin of Geor^ 
Roe, a distiller in Dublin. He began his 
medical studies somewhat late in life, after his 
marriage in 1817, and was admitted to the 
degree of M.D. in Edinburgh on 1 Aug. 1821, 
his inaugural thesis being ' De respiratione.' 
He then proceeded to Paris, returning later 
to London, where he was admitted a licen- 
tiate of the Royal College of Physicians on 
26 June 1828. He was still pursuing his 
studies at Trinity College, Dublm, where he 
graduated as B.A., MA., M.B., and M.D., 
the last degree being oonfeiied upon him in 
1827. He was incorporated upon this degree 
at Chdord in 1828, being at that time a 
member of Maffdalen Hall, afterwards Hert- 
ford College. He was admitted a candidate 
of the Royal College of Physicians of Lon- 
don on 13 April 1836, and a fellow on 
26 June 1836. 

He was appointed a physician to the 
Westminster Hospital in 1826, and, after 
serving for some tmie as a lecturer on medi- 
cine, he resigned in 1864. He was also a 
physician to the Hospital for Consumption 
and Diseases of the Chest, Brompton, to 
which he attached himself upon its founda- 
tion in 1841. He was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
in 1836, and served upon its council during 
1841-2. He was Harveian orator at the 
Royal College of Physicians in 1866, and 
consiliarius m 1864, 1866, and 1866. He 
died on 13 April 1873, and was buried in 
the Brompton cemetery. His son, William 
Gason Roe, was a medical practitioner at 

Dr. Roe was an intelliffent, well-informed, 
and practical physician. His decided manner 
won for him the confidence of his patients, 
but his private practice was smaU. He early 
gained the disapprobation of the members 
of his own profession by the promiscuous 
manner in which he gave advice gratuitously 
to those who could well afford to pay for 
it. He belonged to the Christian apostolic 

He was the author of ' A Treatise on the 
Hooping Couffh and its complications, with 
Hints on the Management of Children,' 8vo, 
London, 1836. The publication of this book 

Save rise to a fierce controversy between 
imself and Dr. Augustus Bozzi Granville 
[q. v.], whochargedhmiwithgross plagiarism. 

[Obituary notices by Dr. C. J. B. Williams in 
the FroMedings of the Royal Medico-Chirozg. 
8oe. viL 282 ; Autobiographical Beoolleetions of 
the Medical Profession, by J. F, Clarbs, London, 


1874, i>p. 606-9 ; Hunk's Coll. of Phys. ; Foster's 
Alumni Ozon. ; information kindly given to the 
writer by Mrs. George Oovell, Dr. £)e's daugh- 
ter-in-law.] D'A. P. 

ROE, JOHN SEPTIMUS (1797-1878), 
explorer, seventh son of the Rev. James Hoe, 
and his wife, Sophia Brookes, was bom at 
Newbury, Berkshire, 8 May 1797. He was 
educatea in the royal mathematical school 
at Christ's Hospitid, and entered the navy 
as midshipman on 11 June 1818, being * ap- 
prenticed to Sir Christopher Cole, captain of 
H.M.S. Rippon.' Unaer Captain Phillip 
Parker King he served in the expedition to 
survey the north-west coast of Australia in 
1818, and again in King's fourth expedition 
in 1821. He was promoted lieutenant on 
21 April 1822. He went through the Bur- 
mese war of 1826-7, for which ne received 
the medal in 1851, and was engaged at the 
siege of Ava. In December 182b Roe was 
appointed surveyor-general of Western Aus- 
tralia. Accompanied by his wife, he sailed 
in the Parmelia with Captain (afterwards 
Admiral Sir) James Stirling, and was one of 
the first tolaiid,on 1 June 1829, in the colony 
of Western Australia. He held his appoint- 
ment for forty-two years, and fulfilled its 
duties with eminent success, surveying and 
exploring the coasts and unknown tracts in 
the interior, until he made the long and event- 
ful journey from the Swan river to the south 
coast at dape Pasley in 1848-9. During the 
journey he received injuries that incapaci- 
tated him from further active work in the 
field. Accounts of this expedition, appa- 
rently the only productions from his pen, 
appeared in the ' J oumal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society' for 1862, and in Hooker's 
'Journal of Botany,' vols. vi. and vii. 

It was on Roe's advice that the sites for 
the capital, Perth and its port, Fremantle, 
were selected. He also founded the public 
museum at Perth and a mechanics' institute, 
of which he was for many years the presi- 
dent. He became a member of the execu- 
tive and legislative council of the colony, 
was an associate of the Royal Geographical 
Society and a fellow of theliinnean Society 
(1 April 1828). He died at Perth, Western 
Australia, on 28 May 1878. He married in 
England, on 8 Jan. 1828, Matilda Bennett, 
who died on 22 July 1870. 

[Proceedings of the Boyal Geographical So- 
ciety, new ser. i. 277; Mennell's Diet. Austra- 
lasian Biogr.; Britten and Boulger^s British 
Botanists ; Tablettea Biographiqnes ; Boyal So- 
ciety's Catalogue ; information kindly supplied 
by Robert Little, receiver, Christ's Hospital, 
and by B. H. Woodward, eorator of the Perth 
Masemn.] B. B. W. 




ROi; RIGEL^RD (d, 1868), stenographer 
tnd miscelianeous writer, doubtless gradu- 
ated B.A. in the university of DuDlin in 
1789. In the early part of his career he 
may ha^e been a mathematical and classical 
teacher. Afterwards he was in holy orders. 
He was residing in Dublin in 1821, and in 
18S& He was a popular bass-singer, and gave 
in London some ^lee and ballad entertain- 
meaU He died in London in March 1858. 

His principal works are: 1. 'A New 
SyBtem of Snorthand, in which legibility 
and b re n i tv are secured upon the most natu- 
ral prindplea, 'with respect to both the sig- 
nification and formation of the characters : 
especially by the singular property of their 
sloping all one way according to the habitual 
motion of the hand in common writing/ 
London, 1802, Sto ; 1808, 4to. 2. < Hadiogra- 
phy, or a System of Easy Writing, comprised 
in a set of the most simple and expeditious 
characterBy' London, 1821, 8vo. These works 
mark anew departure in the development of 
etenognphy. Koe was in fact the originator 
of that cursive or script style of shorthand 
which, though it has never found favour in 
this country, has acquired wide popularity 
in Qermany, where it has been successfully 
developed by Gabelsberger, Stolze, Arends, 
and otners. 

Boe was also the author of : 8. ' Elements 
of English Metre,' London, 1801, 4to. 
4. 'l^mciples of Rhythm both in Speech 
and Music/ Dublin, 1828, 4to, dedicated to 
the president and members of the Hoyal 
Irish Academy. 5. * Introduction to Book- 
keepiiur/ London, 1826, 12mo. 6. *The 
Engli^ Spelling Book,' Dublin, 1829, 12mo ; 
a woric m great value to the advocates of 
spelling reform. 7. 'Analytical Arrange- 
ment Si the Apocalypse/ Dublin, 1884, 4to. 
8. 'Analjrtical Arrangement of the Holy 
Scriptures/ 2 vols. London, 1851, 8vo ; on 
the title-page he gives his name as Richard 

The shorthand writer is sometimee con- 
fused with Richard Roe, a surveyor, skilled 
in mathematics, who died at Derby in July 
1814, aged 66 (Gmt. Mag. 1814, ii. 194; 
BU)yr, Diet, qf Uvmg Authon, 1816, pp. 299, 

[Allibone's Diet, of Authors ; Fanlmann's 
BisUiBseha Oxammatik der Stanographie, p. 
167; Gibson's Bibliography of Short&nd, p. 
194 ; Gibson's Memoir of Simon Bozdley, 1890, 
pp. 11-lS ; LeTy^s Hist, of Shortband, p. 137 ; 
iWis'sHistorieal Account of Shorthand, p. 182 ; 
fsJynfth^iY* u 103-7, 130; Zeibig'a Geschichte 
te Gescfawindschreibkunst, pp. 89, 212 ; Brown's 
IXa. ot EogliA Hnsicians; Athensenm, 1858, 
^ J«0. J T. 0. 

BOE, Sib THOMAS (1681 P-1644), am- 
bassador, son of Robert Kowe, was bom at 
Low Leyton, near Wanstead in Essex, in 
1680 or 1681. His grandfather, Sir Thomas 
Rowe or Roe, merchant tailor, was alderman, 
sheriff (1660), and lord mayor of London 
(1668) ; Mary, daughter of Sir John Gresham, 
was sir Thomas's wife [see under GbeshilK, 
Snt RiOHASD; and JSemembraneia, p. 832]. 
Robert, the father of the ambassador, died 
while his son was a child rWooD, AtheruB, ed. 
Bliss, iii. 111). His mother, Elinor, daugh- 
ter of Robert Jenny of Worstead, Norfolk 
(Philpot pedigree in College of Arms), sub* 
sequently married ' one l&rkeley of Rend- 
comb in Gloucestershire, of the famQy of the 
Lord Berkeley.' 

Thomas matriculated as a commoner of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, on 6 July 1693, 
at tne affe of twelve. He had clearly power- 
ful family influence, whether from the Berke- 
leys, the family of his stepfather, or from 
his father's wealthy relations. Aiter spend- 
ing some time ' in one of the inns of court 
or in France or both ' (Wood), he was ap- 
pointed esquire of the body to Queen Eliza^ 
oeth in the last years of her reign, and 
after her death was knighted by James I on 
23 March 1604-6. He was popular at court, 
especially with Henry, prince of Wales, and 
his sbter Elizabeth, afterwards queen of Bo- 
hemia; and the former gave him his first 
opportunity of distant travel by sending 
him * upon a discovery to the West Indies.' 
Roe Muipped a ship and pinnace, and sailed 
from Plymouth on 24 Feb. 1609-10. Striking 
the mouth of the Amazon, then unknown to 
English explorers, he sailed two hundred 
miles up the river, and rowed in boats one 
hundred miles further, making manv excur- 
sions into the country from the banxs ; then 
returning to the mouth, he explored the coast 
and entered various rivers in canoes, passing 
overHhirty-two falles in the river of Wia 
Poko' or Oyapok. Having examined the 
coast from the Amazon to the Orinoco for 
thirteen months, without discovering the sold 
in which the West Indies were bdieved to 
abound, he returned home by way of Trini- 
dad, and reached the Isle of Wight in July 
1611. Twice sAfain was he sent to the same 
coast, Ho make farther discoveries, and 
maintained twenty men in the River of Amo- 
zones, for the good of his countrev, who are 
yet [1614] remaining there, and supplied' 
(Stow, AnnaleSf contmued by Howes, 1631, 
p. 1022). At the close of 1613 he was at 
Flushing 'going for Captaine Floods com- 
panye,' who was just dead (Collxkb, Ze^^era 
emd Memorials of State of the Sydney Family ^ 
ii« 829). WhUe in the Netherlands he 




entered in Julj^ 1613 into some theological 
disputations with Dr. T. Wright at Spa, and 
these were published by the latter in 1614 
at Mechlin, under the title of ' Quatuor Gol- 

In 1614, after being elected M.P. for Tarn- 
worth, Roe was commanded by James I to 
proceed, at the request and at the expense 
of the East India Company, as lord ambas- 
sador to the court of Jeliangir, the Mogul 
emperor of Hindustan (Os/. State P€q>erSf 
DouL 24 No7. 1614). His instructions were 
to arrange a commercial treaty and obtain 
concessiouB for 'factories' for the English 
merchants in continuation of the privileges 
obtained by Captain WiUiam Hawkins fq. v.] 
in 1609-12 (PuBOHAS, 1625, i. 544; Stow, 
Aimaletf). The expedition consisted of four 
ships under the command of Captain William 
Keeling [q. v.] Roe embarked in March 
1614-15, uid, sailing round the Cape of 
Good Hope, landed at Sftrat on 26 Sept. 
Thence he travelled by way of Burhftnp^ 
and M&ndu to Ajmir, where the Emperor 
Jehftnffir resided. He had his first audi- 
ence of the emperor on 10 Jan. 1615-16. He 
remained in close attendance at the court, 
following Jeh&ngir in his progress to Ujain 
and Ahmad&b&d, untQ January 1617-18, 
when he took his leave, havmg accom- 
plished the objects of his mission as &r as 
seemed possible. He obtained the redress of 
previous wrongs, and an imperial engagement 
for future immunities, which placedthe esta- 
blishment at Surat in an efficient position 
for trade, and laid the foundations of the 
future matness of Bomber, and, indeed, of 
British India in general. The patience and 
self-restraint exercised by Roe under excep- 
' tional provocation are admirably displayed m 
the pages of hia entertaining ' Journal,' which 
gives an inimitable picture of the Indiflji court. 

On his way home Roe went to Persia, to 
settle matters in respect of the trade in 
silks (OaL State Papers, Dom. 7 Jan. 1619), 
and was reported onll Sept. 1619 as ' returned 
[to London} rich from India,' though it a[>- 
pears the wealth consisted chiefly in presents 
for Kinff James, and that the ambassador 
had ' little for hunself .' : 

Roe was elected, in January 1620-1, one 
of the burffesses for Cirencester, doubtless 
by the Bedceley interest. But his parlia- 
mentary career was quickly interrupted by 
a new foreiffn mission. He was sent in Sep- 
tember 1621 as ambassador to the Ottoman 
Porte. In passing through the Mediter- 
ranean he received ample evidence of the 
depredations of the Barbary pirates, and re- 
solved to make it his business to try to sup- 
press them. He atrived at Constantinople 

on 28 Dec. 1621, displacing Sir John Evre. 
iloe's audience of Sultan Osman II took place 
about the end of February 1621-2, and was 
of course purely formal. 'I spake to a 
dumb image,' he reports {Neffotiatiane, p. 37). 
He was under no illusions as to the strengUi 
or the dignity of the Turkish empire. He 
described it as 'irrecoverably sick' (ib, p. 
126), and compared it (idmost in the words 
of the Emperor Nicholas 230 years later) to 
'an old body, crazed through many vices, 
which remain, when the youth and strength 
is decayed ' (j&. p. 22). He remained at the 
Porte till the summer of 1628, his term of 
appointment having been specially extended 
at the urgent prayer of the vfnell-satisfied 
Levant merchants to Buckingham, in spite 
of Roe's repeated requests for recaJUl (fiaL 
State Papers, Dom. 8 March 1625). 

At Constantinople Roe succeeded in en- 
larging the privileges of Eujglish merchants, 
and the secretary of state. Sir Gktorge Calvert 

S. v.], wrote that hehad ' restored the honour 
our king and nation ' {Neffotiations, p. 60). 
He also mediated a treaty of peace between 
Turkey and Poland (ib. ^v. 129, 133), aad 
liberf^ted many Polish exiles at Constant!* 
nople (Col, State Papers, Donu 20 May 1623), 
services for which he received the thanks of 
King Sigismund in September 1622 (T. Smith, 
Account of the Greek Church, 1680, p. 252 ; 
Wood, Lc.) The suppression of the Alge- 
rine piracy in the Mediterranean proved be- 
yona the power of mere diplomacy ; but Roe's 
negotiations put England's relations with 
Algiers on a better footing, and he arranged 
for the freeing of English captives, nartly at 
his own cost {Negotiations, pn. 14, 117, 140). 
By his efforts a treaty vnth Algiers was 
patched un in November 1624 (ib. p. 146) ; 
and though it was not wholly approved in 
England, it led to the liberation of seven to 
eight hundred English captive mariners ( Cai. 
State Papers, Bom. 1623). Roe, however, 
met with doubtful success in his zealous 
efforts to attach Bethlen Gabor, the prince 
of Transylvania, to the protestant aluanoey 
and to use him as an instrument for the sup* 
port of Count Mansfeld and the restoration 
of the palatinate. Gabor's attitude perplexed 
the ambassador, and James I's hesitation and 
lack of money for subsidies impeded the ne- 
gotiation. But eventually Roe procured the 
promise of a monthly subsidy from England, 
and the Porte's support for the prince. The 
Porte consented to the reversion of the 
principality of Transylvania to Gabor's wife, 
a princess of Brandenburg, who was duly 
invested with the banner and sceptre by a 
Turkish ambassador (ib, p. 558 ; von Ham- 
MEB, Qeech, d, osm. Iteiches, iii. 73-5). Gabor 




motatdinglj allied himself to Mans&ld and 
Uie proteetant union in October 1626 (iVe- 
poMfiMfUy p. 671) ; but a yictoij over the 
in^rialista waa neutralified b j a truce and 
MamdMd'fl subsequent death (tb, pp. 679- 
593\ Suspicion was aroused bjthe conduct 
of Bethlen, -who complained that the pro- 
ndsedsiibsidy of ten thousand dollars a month 
from England had not been paid (tb. p. 696), 
Senrtbeleas Roe succeeded in keeping Qabor 
men at less on the side of the German pro- 
. twtsnts, and also managed in their interest 
lo ^uash the proposal for a treaty between 
Spam and the f^xrte (tb, p. 452). At the 
same lime he was a warm fr tend of the Greek 
dumh in Turkej, and on intimate terms 
with its celebrated patriarch, Cyril Lucaris. 
Ojia preoc nted through Roe to James I the 
odebnted' Godex Alexandrinus' of the whole 
Bible, which the patriarch brought from his 
fonner see of Alexandria ; it was transferred 
with the rest of the royal library to the 
British Musenm in 1757 (cf. NegotiatianBj p. 
618)u Roe was himself a collector of Greek 
manuscripts. Twenty^nine Greek and other 
msBQMriptSy including an original copy of 
the STuodal epistles of the council of Basle, 
he brought home, he presented in 
1938 to the Bodleian Library (Macbat, 
AimBUvfthe Bodleian^ 2nd ed., pp. 70, 72). 
A coikction made by him of 242 coins was 
giTen by his widow, at his desire, to the Bod- 
fetsB after his deatii. He also searched for 
Giaek 'marbles' in behalf of the Duke of 
Buckingham and the second Earl of Arundel. 
' Naked I came in, and naked I goe out,' 
he wrote on 6 Amil 1628, on finally leaving 
his embassy at Gonstantinaple (td. p. 810). 
June found him at Smyrna^ whence hie sailed 
to Leghorn, and on the way fought an enga^ 
ment with Maltese galleys, during which 
he was struck down by a spar wOch had 
Coftonately checked a ball (td. pp. 826-7). 
TaTellinff across the continent, ±£30 visited 
Mncess Elisabeth, the electress-palatine and 
queen ci Bohemia, at Rhenen, and, in com- 
uiance with her wish, adopted the two 
danghten of Baron Rupa, an impoyerished 
adherent of the elector (Gbeeit, PriTicestea 
o/Enffktnd, rl 471). Reaching the Hague 
in December 1628, he presented to the 
Prince of Orange a memorial in which he 
mied that Bethlen Gabor should affain be 
fubsidised, and that Gustarus Aaolphus 
should march into Silesia, where Bethlen 
would join him {Camden Society Mieoellany, 
ToL Tii. ; Letters of Sir T, Bocy ed. S. R. Gardi- 
ner, pp. 2-4). He left the Hague at the end 
of Febmaiy for England, and in May 1629 
be submitted another memorial to the same 
cfieet to Charles I, and in the result was 

despatched in June on a nussion to mediate 
a peace between the kings of Sweden and 
Poland (Instructions, printed ib. pp. 10-21). 
He visited theSwedish camp near Maxienburg, 
and then the Polish camp, brought about a 
meeting of commissioners in September 1629, 
and succeeded in arranging a truce for six 
years {tb, p. 89). He was m close personal 
relations with Gustavus Adolphus, whose 
generous character strongly impressed him, 
while the Swedish king admitted that he 
owed ohiefi^ to Roe the suggestion, which he 
pu{ into e£fect in June 1680, of carrying the 
war into Germany and placing himself at the 
head of the protestant alliance. He caUed 
Roe his 'strenuum consultorem,' and sent 
him a present of 2,000/. on his victory at 
Leipzig (Howell, Familiar I^tter8,ed, 1764, 
p. 228;. After arranging the truce be- 
tween Poland and Sweden, Roe drew up a 
treaty at Danzig settling the claims of that 
city with which he had been instructed to 
deal, and, breaking his homeward journey at 
Copenha^;en, he concluded a treatv with Den- 
mark which in other hands had been Ian* 
guishing for years. 

In the sununer of 1680 Roe returned to 
Euf^land from this successful mission. The 
king had a gold medal struck in his honour, 
bearing the shields of Sweden and Poland 
and the date 1680, and on the reverse the 
crown of England supported by two angels, 
and beneath a monogram of Koe's initials 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1680-1, p. 466). 
This medal Dame Eleanor Roe presented to 
the Bodleian Library in 1668 (I0.OBAT, An- 
nals, 2nd edit. p. 184>. But beyond this 
barren honour tne ambassador received no 
rewards. For six years he lived in retire- 
ment, suffering from limited means; his wife's 
purchased pension was in arrears; even pay- 
ment was lon^ withheld from him on ac- 
count of the diamonds which he bought for 
the king at Constantinople, and the pleasures 
of a country life ill requited him for the lack 
of state employment. He ' bought a cell ' 
for his old age at Stanford, and afterwards 
moved to Bmwick and then to Oranfrad (Oai, 
State Papers, Dom. 1629*81, pp. 844, ke,) 
At last, in January 1686-7, he was appointed 
chancellor of the order of the Garter, to 
which a year later a pension of 1,200/. a year 
was added (f^. 1687-6, p. 214\ Meanwhile 
he was in constant correspondence with the 
queen of Bohemia, who addressed him as 
'Honest Tom,' and who depended on his in- 
fluence to counteract the indiscretions of her 
London agent, Sir Francis Nethersole [q. v.] 
(Grbbn, Princesses, vi. 556-66). 

In 1638 he was once more sent abroad as 
ambassador extraordinary to attend the con- 




gress of the imperial, French, and Swedish 
plenipotentiaries for the settlement of the 
terms of a general peace,which sat successively 
at Hamburg, Ratisbon, and Vienna (Neffotior 
tumsy p. IS ; Letters and Memorials of Sidney 
Family y ii. pref., 664,570; Cal, State Papers, 
Dom. 1638-43, passim; Brit.Mus,Addit.M8. 
21993, f. 294). The plenipotentiaries did their 
utmost to exclude him, but Roe contrived to 
join the conferences and to make his influence 
felt towards the restoration of the palatinate. 
Roe's ability profoundly impressed the em- 
peror, who is reported to have exclaimecl, ' I 
have met with many gallant persons of many 
nations, but I scarce ever met with an ambas^ 
sador till now ' (Wood, Athen€B, loc. dt. ; Bb 
WiCQUEFOBX, VAmbassadeur, 1682, p. 105^. 
These negotiations and a further treaty witn 
Denmark ooeupied most of his energies till 
September 1642 {CaL State Papers, Dom. 
1639, pp. 143, 206; Brit Mus. Addit. MS. 
^8937, f. 26), but he was at intervals in 
London, where he busied himself with par- 
liamentary work. He was sworn a mem- 
ber of the privy council in June 1640 {Oal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 447), and was 
returned on 17 Oct. 1640 as one of the 
burgesses for the university of Oxford. His 
wide experience, sober learning, and dig- 
nified eloquence had their weight in the 
House of Commons. Some of his speeches, 
chiefly on commercial and currency questions 
<e.g. on brass money, 1640, on Lora-keeper 
Finch, 1640, on the decay of coin and trade, 
1641), were printed, and on 13 Nov. 1640 he 
presented to the house a report on the nego- 
tiations connected with the Scottish treaty 
at Ripon (Nalson, Collect, ii. 624). In the 
following summer he asked and obtained 
the leave of the house to retain his seat 
during his absence at the diet of Ratisbon 
(id, p. 804). In July 1642, when ambassa- 
doz^-extraordinarv at Vienna, he wrote a letter 
to Edmund WaUer, which was read to the 
House of Commons, repudiating the rumour 
that he had offered an offensive and defensive 
alliance to the king of Hungary without his 
own sovereign's permission ^Letter to Waller, 
Brit. Mus., 1642). On 2 July 1643 Roe ob- 
tained permission of the commons to retire to 
Bath in the hope of improving his health. He 
died on 6 Nov. 1644--in the words of Dr. 
Oerard Langbaine's proposed epitaph, ' prsd- 
reptus opportune, nefunestam regni catastro- 
phen spectaret ' — and was buried two days 
later in the chancel of Woodford church, 
£s6ex (Wood, AtJunai) ; the manor of Wood- 
ford had been conveyed to him in 1640 
(J. Eezhtedt, Hist ofLeyton, p. 367). 

Roe's solid] udgment, penetration, and sa- 
gacity are sufficiently proved by his published 

journal and despatches; in knowledge of 
foreign afiairs ana in a practical acquaintance 
with the details of British commerce he pro- 
bably had no living equal ; he was not afraid 
of responsibility ; whue of the charm of his 
manner and conversation it is enough to 
quote the emperor's remark^ that ' if Roe had 
been one of the fSur sex, and a beauty, he 
was sure the engaging conversation of the 
English ambassador would have proved 
too hard for his virtue' (Coltjns, Letters 
and Memorials qf State of the Sydney Family , 
ii. 641 ft. ; Cal, State Papers, i)om. 1641-8, 

S, 131). In his personal character he was 
evout and regular ; he always gave a tenth 
of his income to the poor ; he was an earnest 
supporter of the protestant principle, and 
devoted to his kmg, thougn lightly re- 
warded. 'Those who knew nim well hare 
said that there was nothing wanting in him 
towards the accomplishment of a scholar, 
ffentleman, or courtier ; that also as he was 
learned, so was he a great encourager and 
promoter of learning and learned men. His 
spirit was generous and public, and his heart 
faithful to his prince ' (Wood, Atherusj iii. 
113). He married, before 1614, Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Cave of Stanford, 
Northamptonshire (Philpot pedigree, Col- 
lege of Arms), and niece of Lord Grandison 
(Cal, StaU Papers, Dom. 1636, p. 476). She 
accompanied her husband in 1621 on his 
embassy to the Ottoman Porte, and showed 

Ct courage during the engagement with, 
bese galleys on the way home. 

Roe's diplomatic memoirs and volumi- 
nous and interesting correspondence have 
only been in part publishea or preserved. 
Part of the ' Journal ' of his mission to the 
mogul, to February 1616-17, with inter- 
spersed letters, exists in two manuscripts in 
the British Museum, Addit. 6116 and 19277, 
and was first published during his lifetime in. 
1626 by Purchas in 'His Pilgrimes,' pt. i. 
pp. 635-78, together with some of his corre- 
spondence with George Abbot [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and others. The 
journal was re]jrinted by Harris in 1705 in 
liis ' Navis;antium BibUotheca,' i. 156-67, 
and more lully by Churchill in 1732 in his 
'Collection of Voyages,' L 688-728, where 
it is stated that the original manuscript has 
been used. It was also translated into rrenck 
in the ' Relations de divers Voyages Curieux,' 
1663, into German in Schwabe's ' AUgemeina 
Historic der Reisen,' 1747, and into iJutch in 
the ' Joumael van de Reysen,* 1666. 

Proposals were published in 1730 for edit- 
ing Roe's European correspondence, and his 
'Negotiations in his embassy to the Ottoman 
Porte/ 1621-8, were eventually printed in 




gie&tdeUil by Samuel RichardBon (1740), but 
with sctizcely any attempt at annotatioB or 
eating, beyond a Tery full analytical table of 
contents and decipherments of some of the 
ciphem This larse volume (of Ixiy + 628 
folio pages) was published mainly at the cost 
of the 'Society for the Encouragement of 
LeanuDB^' and Thomas Carte [q. v.], who 
otiginaSed this society, appears to have 
amand the papers pubUshea in this volume 
rBrit Mas. Addit. MSS. 6190 f. 21, 6185 ff. 
iO&, HI ; Harl. 1901). This was prospec- 
rireiy the first of several volumes, and the 
intention was to have published the rest 
of Boe's correspondence up to his death, but 
the scheme was abandoned. Roe also printed, 
besides several of his parliamentary speeches 
in pamphlet form: 1. ' A True and Faiths 
fol Bemtion ... of what hath lately hap- 
penedin Constantinople, concerning the death 
of Sultan Onnan and the setting up of Mus- 
tapha his nncle,' London, 1622, 4to. 2. < A 
Dtseome upon the reasons of the resolution 
talnn in the Valteline against the tyranny 
of the Orisons and heretics,' translated from 
Fra ^olo Sarpiy London, 4to, 1628 (reissued 
in 1650 as ' llie Cruel Subtiltv of Ambi- 
tion'). A poem by Hoe on the death of 
Lord Harington appeared in 'The Churches 
Lamentation for the Losse of the GN>dly,' 
1614 {Noies and Queries, 4th ser. v. 9). 

A few of Roe's despatdies, preserved in the 
state wsr office, were edited in 1847 by 
Dr. S. K. Gardiner for the 'Camden Society 
MiseeHanv/ vol. vii., 'Letters relating to the 
Mission of Sir T. Roe to Ghistavus Adolphns,' 
sad George lord Carew's letters to Roe 
between lSl6 and 1617 were edited by Sir 
John i^t^^^^rt for the Camden Society in 
1860L lliere are numerous letters and des- 
patches of Roe's, still unpublished, in the 
puUie record office; but few of those pub* 
bshed in the volume of ' Negotiations ' 
seem to he preserved there (Notes and 
Quenee^ 2nd ser. viii. 351-2). In the British 
Ifasenm, besides his Indian journal and 
letters, there are letters among tne Harleian, 
Egectoot and Sloane manuscripts. Roe is 
further stated by Wood to have left in 
manuscript ' A Compendious Relation of the 
Proesedings and Acts of the Imperial Dyet 
held at Ratisbon in 1640and 1641, abstracted 
out of the Diary of the Colleges^' which was 
in the possession of T. 8mitl^ D J)., of Mag- 
dalen College, Ozfordi and a 'Journal of 
ssffersl proceedings of the Knights of the 
Gaiter/ neqoMitly cited by Ashmole in his 
' Institation ' (Cat. MSS. AngluB et Hib. i. 
3301 His portrait^ by Michael ^an Miere* 
veldt of Delft, is engraved by Vertue as a 
to the ' Negotiations.' 

[Authorities cited above ; Laud's Works, pii»- 
sim ; information from Mossbb. T. M. J, Watkin^ 
PorteuUis, S. B. Gardiner, J. Cartmnght* F. H. 
Bickley, and Lionel Cost. F. S. A] & L..P. 

ROEBUCK, JOHN, M,D. (1718-1794), 
inventor, bom in 1718 at Sheffield, was the 
son of John Roebuck, a prosperous mannfae- 
tnrer of Sheffield goods, who wished him to 
enffage in and inherit the business. John had 
a higher ambition, and, after receiving his 
early education at the Sheffield grammar 
school, was removed to Dr. Doddridge's aca- 
demy at Northampton. He became a good 
classical scholar, retaining throughout hfe a 
taste for the classics; and he formed at 
Northampton a lasting intimacy with his 
fellow-pupil, Mark Akenside. Thence he 
prooeeded to Edinburgh University to study 
medicine. There the teaching of Cnllen 
and Black specially attracted him to che- 
mistry. He became intimate with Hume, 
Eobertson, and their circle, forming an attach- 
ment to Scotland which influenced his sub- 
sequent career. He completed his medical 
education at Leyden, where he took his degree 
of M.D. on 5 Mfl«^ 1742. A promising open- 
ing having presented itself at Birmingham, he 
settled there as a physician. He had soon a 
considerable practice, but his old love of 
chemistry revived, and he spent all his spare 
time in chemical experiments, particularly 
with a view to the application of chemistry to 
some of the many industries of Birmingham. 
Among his inventions was an improvMl me* 
thod of refining gold and silver ana of collect- 
ing the smaller particlesofthem^ formerly lost 
in the processes of the local manufacturers. 
Stimulated by his successes, he established 
in Steelhouse Lane a large laboratory, and 
in connection with it a refinery of the precious 
metals. He associated with himself in the 
management of the laboratory an able busi- 
ness coadjutor in the person of Samuel Gar- 
bett, a Birmingham merchant. Roebuck be- 
came, in fact, what is now called a consulting 
chemist (Pbobseb, p. 16), to whom the local 
manufacturer applied for advice, and thus a 
considerable impetus was given to the indus* 
tries of Birmingham. The most important of 
his several improvements in processes for the 
production of chemicals at this period was one 
of very great utility in the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. In the fifteenth century the Ger- 
man monk Basil Valentine had first produced 
oil of vitriol by subjecting sulphate of iron 
to distillation, and the proeess had been but 
little improved previous to 1740, when Joshua 
Ward facilitated the manufacture by burning 
nitre and sulphur over water, and condensing 
theresultinff vapour in g[lass globes, the larvest 
that could be blown with safety* For giasa 




fflobes Roebuck now subetltuted leaden cli&m- 
bers. The change effected a revolution in the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, which was 
thus reduced to a fourth of its former cost, 
and was soon applied to the bleacUng of 
linen, displacing the sour milk formem' used 
for that purpose. The first of the leaden 
chanberB wBserectedbyRoebuckand Qarbett 
in 1746, and the nnxlem process of manufao* 
tnre is still substantially that of Roebuck 
(Pabxbb, i. 474-6; c£ Bloxam, Chomistry, 
1896, p. 220). 

Encouraged by the success of the new pro- 
cess, Roebuck and Garbett established in 1y49 
a manu&ctory of sulphuric acid at Preston- 
pans, eiffht miles east of Edinburgh. This 
proved ror a time very profitable, but the firm 
neglected at the outset to procure a patent 
for their invention either in England or in 
Scotland, and endeavoured to reap exclusive 
TOofit from it by keeping the process a secret. 
llie nature of the process became, however, 
known in England through an absconding 
workman, and in 1766 it was used by rivals 
in England, and later by others in Scotland. 
In 1771 Roebuck took out a patent for Scot- 
land (cf. specification printed in the Bir" 
minffham Weekly Post, 19 May 1894), and 
with Garbett sought to restrain the use of the 
invention in SooUand by others than them- 
selves. The court of session decided against 
this claim, on the ground that the process was 
freely used in England, and therefore could 
be fireely used in Scotland. A petition against 
this decision was in 1774 dismissed bv the 
House of Lords (JoumalSy zxxiv. 76, 217). 

It is uncertain whether Roebuck was still 
in Birmingham whan he turned his attention 
to the manufacture of iron. With the death 
of Dud Dudley [q. v.] the secret of smelting 
iron by pit-coalinstead of by charcoal, a mu(m 
more expenaiveprocess, had expired or be- 
come latent^ The smelting of iron ore by 
coke made from pit-coal was probably redis- 
covered by Abranam Darby [q. v.] at Cole- 
brookdale about 1784, but Koeouck was un- 
doubtedly among the first to reintroduce the 
industry into Britain, and, further, to con- 
vert by the same agency east iron into mal- 
leable iron. If thd iron manufacture was 
comparatively unproductive in England, it 
was virtually non-existent in Scotland, al- 
though a country abounding in ironstone and 
coal. After adding a manufacture of pottery 
to that of sulphuric aeid at Frestonpans, Roo- 
buck appears to have thought of trying in the 
sane district the manufiicture of iron on a 
small scale ( jABBnrE, p. 71). In the result 
th«re was formed for the purpose of manufac- 
turing iron on a large scale in Scotland a 
company consisting of Roebuck and his three 

brothers, Garbett, and Messrs. Oadell & 
Sons of Oockensie (Pabxes, i. 478). The 
latter firm had alreieuly made some unsuc- 
cessful efforts to manufacture iron. Every 
arrangement of importance in the establish«- 
ment of the company's works was due to 
Roebuck's insight ana energy. He selected 
for their site a spot on the uinks of the river 
Carron in Stblin^hire, three miles above its 
infiux into the Firth of Forth. The Garron 
furnished water-power, the Forth a water- 
way for transport, and all around were, 
plentiful suppbes of coal, ironstone, and 
limestone. Tne first furnace was blown at 
Carron on 1 Jan. 1760. and during the same 
year the Garron worxs turned out fifteen 
hundred tons of manufactured iron, then 
the whole annual produce of Scotland 
(Skilbs, InduBtriai Biography, p. 186). 
liarge quantities of charcoal were used at 
first (SoBivBiTER, p. 84) ; but Roebuck's in- 
^nuity brought the much cheaper pit-coal 
mto play, both for smelting and refining. 
In 1762 he took out a patent for the con- 
version of any kind of cast iron into malle- 
able iron by the ' action of a hollow pit-coal 
fixe' {Specifications of Patents, 1762, No. 
780). The use of pit-coal on a large scale 
required, however, a much more powerful 
blast than was needed for charcoaL Roe- 
buck consulted Smeaton [see Skbatoit, John], 
in whose published ' Reports ' (1812, voL i.) are 
to be found accounts of several of his in- 
genious contrivances in aid of the operations 
at Garron. The chief of these was his pro- 
duction of the powerful blast needed for the 
effective reduction of iron by pit-coal. The 
first blowing cylinders of any magnitude con- 
structed for this purpose were erected at Gar- 
ron by Smeaton about 1760 (d. Sobivefbr, 
p. 88, and Smilbs, Life of Smeaton, p. 61). 
J^ides turning out quantities of articles ot 
manufactured iron for domestic use, the Gar- 
ron works became fiimousfor their production 
of ordnance, supplied not only to our own 
army, but to the armies of continental coun* 
tries. It was from being made at Garron that 
carronades derived their name. The first of 
them was cast at Garron in 1779 (Skilbb, 
InduitneU Biography, p. 187 n.) The Garron 
ironworks were long the laivest of their kind 
in the United Kingdom, and are still produo* 
tive and prosperous. 

When the Garron works were firmly eeta* 
bUshed in a career of prosperity. Roebuck, 
unfortunately for himself, engaged in a new 
enterprise which proved his ruin. Mainly 
to procure an improved supply of coal for 
the Garron works, ne took a lease from tbe 
Duke of Hamilton of large coalmines and 
saltworks at Borrowstounness (Bo* ness) in 




linficligowsluie, wbich woe yieldmi^ little 
or no piofitt and about 1764 he removea with 
his fkmilj to Kennefl House, a ducal maiuion 
which overlooked the Firth of Forth and 
went with the leaae. Roebuck set to work 
to iink for ooal, and opened up new eeam« ; 
but hit p rogr ooa waa checked l^ water flood- 
ing his pita, a diaaater which the Neweomen 
engine employed by him wa$ powerless to 
avert. It waa this difficulty which led to 
one of the moat intereetinff episodes of his 
caner, hia intimacy with and encouragement 
of Watt» then oocopied in the invention of 
his steam-o^pne [see Watt, Jaxbb]. Roe* 
buck waa intimate with Robert Black, then 
pruftanar of chemistiy at Edinburgh, who 
was a patron of Watt. Hearingfrom Black 
of Watt and hia steam-engine. Roebuck en- 
tered into oorreepondenoe with him, in the 
hope that the new engine might do for the 
water in hia coalpits what Newcomen's had 
faiOad in doing. Eventually Roebuck came 
tobetieve in the promise of Watt's invention, 
rebukimg him for his despondency, and wel- 
eam^ghim to Kinneil House, where Watt 
TOit together a working model of his ongip^* 
Koebock took upon himself a debt of 1,200/. 
which Watt owed to Black (Smilbs, Indut-' 
trial Biograpkietj p. 139), and helped him 
to proeoxe his first patent of 1769. Watt ad- 
mitted that he must have sunk under his 
disapDOtBtments if he 'had not been sup- 
MTftea by the friendship of Dr. Roebuck.' 
Aoebnck became a partner with Watt in his 
mat mvention to uie extent of two thirds. 
But the engine had not yet been so perfected 
as to keep down the water in Roebuck's mines. 
Through the expense and Ices thus incurred 
Roebuck became involved in serious pecu- 
niary embarrasaments. To his loss by his 
miwe waa added that from an unsuccessful 
attempt to manufacture soda from salt. After 
siaUng in the coal and salt works at Bor- 
fowBtoonness his own fortune, that brought 
him by his wife, the profits of his other en- 
terpriaea, and laige sums borrowed from 
frieoda, he bad to withdraw his capital from 
the Canon ironworks, from the refining works 
at Binninglumi, and the vitriol works at Pres- 
toBpaoB to satisfv the claims of his creditors. 
Among Roebuck s debts waa one of 1 ,200^ to 
Boalt<»i, afterwards Watt's well-known part- 
ner. Rather than claim against the estate 
Boohon offered to cancel the debt in return 
for the transfer to him of Roebuck's two-thirds 
ihareinWatt'seteani-eiigine,ofwhlch so little 
waa then thought that Roebuck's creditors 
dad not value it as oontributing a fsirthing 
te his assets (Sxilbb, JUyh of Watt, p. 177). 
Boebnek's cieditoia retained him in the 
management €a the Bonp^wstounness coal and 

salt works, and made him an annual allow- 
ance sufficient for the maintenance of him- 
self and his family. To his other occupations 
he added at Kenneil House that of farmine 
on rather a large scale, and though, as usual, 
he made experiments, he waa a successful 
agriculturist (Wiobt, Embandry qf Soot- 
kind, iii. 608, iv. 665). He died on 17 July 
1794, retaining to the last his fiftculties ani^ 
his native good humour. He married, about 
1746, Ann Ward of Sheffield, but left her un- 
provided for. His third son, Ebenezer, was 
lather of John Arthur Roebuck [q. v.] An- 
other grandson, Thomas, isseparatdy noticed. 

Roebuck was a member of the Royal So- 
cieties of London and Edinburgh, and conr 
tributed to the ' Philosophical Iiwsactions ' 
(vols. 65 and 66). Of two pamphlets of 
which he is said to have been the author, 
one is in the library of the British Museum, 
< An Enquiry whether the guilt of the present 
Civil War in America ought to be imputed to 
Ghreat Britain or America P A new edition,' 
London, 1776, 8vo. Roebuck's verdict was in 
favour of Qreat Britain. 

Roebuck was both warm-hearted and 
warm-temnered,^ an agreeable companion, 
much Hkea by his many friends, and exem- 
plary in all the relations of private life. When 
ne received the freedom of the city of Edin- 
burgh during the provostship of James Drum- 
mond, he was assured that the honour con- 
ferred on him was ' given for eminent services 
done to his counlsry.' Certainly the esta- 
blishment of the Carron ironworks and the 
improvements which he introduced into the 
iron manufacture were of signal benefit to 
Scotland. Not only did it originate in Scot^ 
land a new industry which has since become 
of great magnitude, but it p^ave an impetus 
then much needed to Scottish industrial en- 
terprise. Even the works at Bonowstoun- 
ness, though ruinous to himself, contributed 
to the same end, so that the mineral re- 
sources of the district were developed with 
a spirit unknown before. Roebuck's personal 
failure there is to be ascribed mainly to the 
ultra-sanguine vi^s which resulted from 
his success elsewhere. 

[Memoir of Boebuek in vol. iv. of Transactions 
of the Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, commnnicated 
by ^h^fessor Jaidine of Glasgow ; R. B. Prosser's 
BiriDiDghamlnventomand Siventions ; Parkea's 
Chsmical Essays, 2Dd edit. ; Scrivener's Hist, of 
the Iron Trade; Percy's Metallurgy, ii. 889; 
Smilot's Lives of Boalton and Watt ; Hunter's 
HaIlam8hire,ed.Gkitty, p.810 ; Webster^s Patent 
Cases; authorities cited.] F. £. 

1879), politician, bona at Madras in 1801, was 
fifth son of Ebenesar Roebuck, a civil servant 




In India, -who was third son of Dr. John Roe- 
buck [q. v.] His mother was a daughter of 
KichardTickell,thebrother-in-lawaad friend 
of Sheridan. Losing his &ther in childhood, 
he was brought to England in 1807, whence 
his mother took him to Canada after her 
marriage to a second husband. He was edu- 
cated in Canada. Returning to England in 
1824, he wasentered at the Inner Texnple,and 
called to the bar on 28 Jan. 1881. He went 
the northern circuit. In 1848 he was ap- 
pointed queen's counsel, and was elected a 
bencher of hia inn. In 1886 he became agent 
in England for the House of Assembly of 
Lower Canada during the dispute between 
the executive government and the House of 
Assembly, and on 6 Feb. 1888 he was heard 
at the bar of the House of Lords in opposi- 
tion to Lord John Russell's Canada JBill. 
His practice as a barrister was not large. 
The only trial in which he made a decided 
mark was that in which he successfully de- 
fended Job Bradshaw, the proprietor and 
editor of a Nottingham newspaper, for a 
libel upon Feargus O'Connor [q. v.] 

A disciple of Bentham and a friend of 
JohnStuart Mill, Roebuckprofessed advanced 
political opinions, which he resolved to up- 
nold in the House of Commons. On 14 Dec. 
1832 he was returned by Bath to the first 
reformed parliament. The constituencv had 
previously invited Sir William Napier [q. v.] 
to contest the seat. Napier refused, but ex- 

Caed warm approval of the selection of 
buck, with whom he thenceforth cor- 
responded frequently on public questions 
(Bbttcb, lAfe of Napier^ i. 418, ii. 40, 61, 
70). Roebuck delivered his maiden speech 
on 5 Feb. 1888, during the debate on the 
address, declaring himself ' an independent 
member of that nouse.' That position he 
always occupied, attacking all who differed 
frx>m him with such vehemence as to earn 
the nickname of 'Tear 'em.' With the 
whigs he was always out of sympathy, and 
never lost an opportunity of exhibiting his 
contempt for them. In domestic questions 
his attitude was usually that of a thorough- 
going radicaL He joined O'Connell in oppoe- 
ing coercion in Ireland, and advocated the 
ballot and the abolition of sinecures. In 
1885, when he was re-«lected for Bath, he 
proposed to withdraw the veto from the 
House of Lords, substituting a suspensive 
power, and providing that a bill which had 
been rejected by the lords should become 
law, with the royal assent, after having been 
passed a second time by the commons. In 
the same year he collected in a volume a 
series of ' Famphlets for the People,' in sup- 
port of his political views, which he had 

issued week by week, ^rst at the price of 
three-halfoence each, and afterwards of two- 
pence. Their aim resembled that of Cob- 
Wa 'Twopenny Trash' (1816). The act 
which, by the imposition of a fouipenny 
stamp on each copy, had caused the sus- 
pension of Cobbetrs periodical was circum- 
vented by Roebuck's scheme of publishing 
weekly pamphlets, each complete in itself. 
His chief fellow-workers were Joseph Hume, 
GeorgeGrote, Henry Warburton, and Francis 
Place, all, save the last, being members of par- 
liament. In one of his pamphlets Roebuck 
denounced newspapers and everybody con- 
nected with them, with the result that John 
Black [q. v.], editor of the ' Morning Chroni- 
cle,' sent him a challen^. A duel was fought 
on 19 Nov. 1886, butneither party was injurod. 
The Reform Club was founded in 1886 
for promoting social intercourse between the 
whjgs and the radicals, and Roebuck became 
a member and continued one till 1864 ; but 
his original aversion for the whigs was not 
modified by personal association. His final 
opinion of them was declared in hb ' His- 
tory of the Whig Ministry of 1880 to the 
Passinpr of the Reform Bill ' (1862). < The 
whips, he wrote, 'have ever been an ex- 
clusive and aristocratic faction, though at 
times employing democratic principles and 
phraaes as weapons of offence against their 
opponents. . . . When out of ofiice they are 
demago^es ; in power they become exclu- 
sive oligarchs' (li. 405-6^. He failed ta 
be re-elected for Bath in 1887, but he re- 
gained the seat in 1841. On 18 May 184S 
a motion of his in favour of secular educa- 
tion was reiected by 166 to 60, and on 
28 June, in the debate on the Irish Colleges 
Bill, he taunted the Irish supporters of the 
bill with such bitterness that Mr. Somers, 
M.P. for Sligo, threatened him with a chal- 
lenge, a threat that Roebuck brought to the 
attention of the speaker. In April 1844 
Roebuck, with some inconsistencv, defended 
Sir James Graham, Sir Robert FeeVs home 
secretarv, f^m various charges, and was de- 
nounced bv George Sydnev Smythe, seventh 
viscount Strangford fq. v.], as tiie ' Diogenes 
of Bath,' whose actions were always con-> 
tradictory. Roebuck*s retort provoked a 
challenge from Smythe. He was rejected 
for the second time by Bath in 1847, when his 
admirers there consoled him with an address 
of confidence and a pSt of 600/J He spent 
some of his leisure m writing ^ A Plan for 
Governing our English Colonies,^ which was 

Sublished in 1849. He was ifetumed for 
heffield unopposed in May of tl^e same year, 
and with that constituent^ he was closely 
identified until death, ' 




In questions of foreign policy Roebuck 
alwftjs championed spirited action on Eng- 
land's part^ On 24 June 1850 he moved 
a stnoglj worded Tote of confidence in 
Fklmerston^s recent foreign policr. In 1854 
lie defended the Crimean war ; but the in- 
«iBeieQCj^ which soon became apparent in 
euiying it on excited his disguBt. His most 
notewofthj appearance in parliament was 
on 26 Jan. 18o5y when he moved for a com- 
suttee to inquire into the conduct of the 
irar. Lord John RusseU resigned the office of 
presideBt of the council as soon as notice was 
irren of the motion. Although physical in« 
in&itj hindered Roebuck from saying more 
thaa a few sentences, his motion was carried 
on 29 Jan. by S05 against 148 votes, and the 
administration of Lord Aberdeen resigned 
next day. Liord Palmerston succeeded to 
llie premierahipy and at once appointed a 
comndttee of inquiry into the war. Of this 
My, which was known as the Sebastopol 
committee, Roebuck was appointed chair- 
man. Its report was adverse to Lord Aber- 
deen's government, and on 17 July Roebuck 
moved that the mimsters who were respon- 
sible for the Crimean disasters shoultl be 
visited wiA severe reprehension. The pre- 
irions question was carried, but 181 members 
TOted with Roebuck. Kinglake, in recording 
these inodents, criticises with acerbity the 
indiscrinmiate invective which BoebucK ha- 
bitually employed. Roebuck was an un- 
Boceessfiil canmdate for the chairmanship 
of the metropolitan board of works at the 
&8t meeting on 22 Dec. 1865. On 8 Sept. 
1866 his Sheffield constituents marked their 
appreciation of his parliamentary activity 
OT presenting him with his portrait and 
cteren hundred guineas. At the same period 
be became chairman of the Administrative 
Reform Association, but that body failed to 
answer the expectation formed of it by its 
friends. He was re-elected at Sheffield after 
a contest in 1862 and 1857, and without oppo- 
Bition in 1869. He headed the poll tiiere in 
1866. But, although his popularity with the 
Sheffield electors was always great, his stu- 
died displays of political independence and 
ths eiaanai modification of his radical views 
on £mte8tic questions alienated many of his 
liberal supporters. A speech at Salisbury 
in 1862, in which he alleged that working 
znen were spendthrifts and wife-beaters, made 
him for a time unpopular with the artisan 
daases. Broadheaa and other organisers of 
trade-unionist outrages at Sheffield in 1867 
fbond in him a stem denouncer. When 
mil war ra^ed in the United States of 
Aaerica he violently qhampioned the slave- 
holdeia of the South, boasting that Lford 


Palmerston had cynically confessed to him 
that he was on the same side. In like man- 
ner, Roebuck defended Austrian rule in 
Italy. So uncompromisinflT and so apparently 
illiberal an attitude led to Koebuck's rejection 
by Sheffield at the election of 1868, when the 
liberals returned Mr. Mundella in his st^. 
His friends gave him 8,000/. by way of testi- 
monial. He ref^ed the seat in 1874. 
During the administration of Lord Beacons- 
field, with whom, when Mr. Disraeli, he had 
had many lively encounters, he favoured the 
policy of supporting the Turks against the 
Eussians, ancl finally broke with his few re- 
maining liberal friends. On 14 Aug. 1878 
he was made a privy councillor by tttd tory 
government. He died at 19 Ashley Place, 
Westminster, on 30 Nov. 1879. He married, 
in 1834, Henrietta, daughter of Thomas 
Falconer (1772-1839) [q. v.] of Bath. She, 
with a daughter, survived him. 

Roebuck was short in stature, vehement 
in speech, bold in opinion. He addressed 
popular audiences with easy assurance and 
great efiect. His indifi^erence to party ties 
was appreciated by the multitude, who re- 
garded him as a politician of stem integrity. 
A portrait of him by H. W. Picker8giU,R.A., 
belongs to the corporation of Sheffield. 

[B. £. Leader's Life and Letters (with chapters 
of autobiography), 1897; Times. 1 Dec. 1879; 
Blackwood, xlii. 192, versified address of 'Boe- 
back to his Constituents;' Spencer Walpoie's 
Lord John Bussell ; Hunter's Sallamshire, ed. 
Gatty, pp. 183-4; GrerilleMemoua; Kinglake's 
Crimea, viL 281, 813-20; Matthew Arnold's 
Essays in Criticism, 1876, p. 25.] F, B. 

ROEBUCK, THOMAS (1781-1819), 
orientalist, grandson of John Roebuck [q. v.] 
the inventor, was bom in Linlithgowshire in 
1781. He went to school at Alloa, and after- 
wards to the high school at Edinburgh. His 
uncle Benjamin Roebuck (d. 1809), of the 
Madras civil service, procured him an ap- 
pointment with the Efast India Company, and 
early in 1801 he left England to enter the 
17th regiment of native infantry as a cadet. 
He became lieutenant-captain 17 Sept. 1812, 
and captain 15 June 181o. 

Roebuck soon acquired a complete com- 
mand of Hindustani, and, on account of his 
proficiency, was frequently sent in advance 
when the regiment was on active service. 
His health suffering, he obtained leave in 
1806-9, returned to England, and spent 
much time in' Edinburgh assisting Dr. John 
Borthwick Gilchrist [q. v.] to prepare an Eng- 
lish and Hindu dictionarv, and two volumes 
of the < British-Indian Monitor/ 1806-8. On 
the return voyage he compiled ' An English 
and Hindustani Naval Dictionary,' with a 




flliort grammar (palcutta, 1811 ; 2nd edit. 
1818; 4th 1848; oth, re-edited and enlarged 
as a * Laakari Dictionary ' by George Small, 
M.A., London, 1882). In March 1811 Roe- 
buck was attached to the college of Fort 
William, Madras, as assistant-secretary and 
examiner. Here he had leisure to pursue 
his oriental studies, to superintend the pub- 
lication of a Hindustani version of Persian 
tales, and to edit, with notes in Per- 
sian, a Hindu-Persian dictionary (Calcutta, 
1818). He died prematurely or fever at 
Calcutta on 8 Dec. 1819. Just before his 
death he completed 'The Annals of the Col- 
lege of Fort William ' (Calcutta, 1819, 8vo) 
and 'A Collection of Proverbs and Pro- 
verbial Phrases in the Persian and Hindus- 
tani Languages ' (Calcutta, 1824). His un- 
published materials for a lexicon of the latter 
language, which he had long projected, be- 
came, after his death, the property of the go- 
vernment, and were deposited in the library 
of the college. Roebuck was a member of 
the Asiatic Society. 

[Memoir by Professor H. H. Wilson in his 
edition of Roebuck's Persian Proverbs; Registers 
of the East India Company, 1803>1819; Roe- 
back's Works ; Dodwell and Mile8*s Indian Army 
List, pp. 148-9.] G. F. S. 

1700), ]iaint6r of portraits and still life, son 
of Gemt van Roestraten of Amsterdam, was 
bom at Haarlem in Holland in 1627. He 
was a pupil of Frans Hals, whose daughter 
Ariaentffe he married in 1654. Although he 
practised portrait-painting, Roestraten de- 
voted himself principally to painting still 
life, this class of art bein£^ practised with 
great success in Haarlem by the sons and 
pupils of Frans Hals. Roestraten espe- 
cially excelled in the delineation of gold and 
silver plate, musical instruments, &c. He 
came over to England, and was patronised 
by his fellow-countryman, Peter Lely, who 
showed some of his work to Charles II. 
Lely is doubtfully said to have been jealous of 
him as a portrait-painter, and therefore to 
have encouraged him to devote himself to 
still life. Roestraten met with great success 
in England, and his pictures are far from 
uncommon, although they have seldom met 
with the reco^ition they deserve. Two 
pictures by him are in the royal collec- 
tion at Hampton Court, six at Newbattle 
Abbey, others at Chatsworth, Waldershare, 
and other seats of the nobility and gentry. 
During the fire of London Roestraten re- 
ceived an injury to his hip which lamed him 
for the rest of his life. A portrait of him 
(enffraved in Walpole*8 ' Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing^) foggests that he was of a convivial dis- 

position. In his will, dated 29 April 1700 
(P. C. C. 105, Noel), he is described as of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 'picture-drawer/ 
The will was proved on 24 July 1700 by 
his widow, Clara, who was lus second wife. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
nnm ; De Piles's Lives of the PainUrs ; Bode's 
Studien der hollandischen Malerei; Oud Hol- 
land, iii. 810, zi. 216; HoubraJcen*8 Gioote 
Schonbnrgh der Nederlantsche Kdnstsphilders ; 
information from Dr. A. Bredins, Br. C. Hofstede 
De Groot, and Mr. Oswald Barron.] L. G. 

EOETTIEES, JAMES (1663-1698), 
medallist, the second son of John Roettiers 
[q. v.], the medallist, was bom in London in 
1663. From about 1680 he assisted his 
father at the English mint in making dies 
and puncheons (CaL Treasury Papers, Ibod- 

1696 pp. 108, 110, 613, 1697-1701-2 p. 
195), and in 1690 was officially employed as 
an assistant engraver at the mint together 
with his brother Norbert. An annual salary 
of 325/. was divided between the brothers. In 

1697 (before July) James Roettiers was re- 
moved from his office at the mint in conse- 
quence of the theft of dies from the Tower 
[see under Roettiebb, Johjt]. He was how- 
ever allowed to retain his dies and puncheons 
for medals. He died in 1698 at Bromley in 

His principal medals are : 1. ' Battle of 
La Hoffue,* rev. ' Noz nulla secuta est ' (pro- 
bably by him), 1692. 2. 'Death of Queen 
Mary,' rev. inscription, 1694-5 (by James 
and Norbert Roettiers). 3. 'Xfeath of 
Mary,' rev. Sun setting oehind hill, 1694-5. 
4. ' Death of Mary,* rev. Literior of chapel 
(signed L R.), 1694-5. 5. 'Medal of 
Charles I, rev. * Virtutem ex me,' &c. (by 
James and Norbert Roettiers), 1694-5. 
6. ' Presentation of collar to the Lord Mayor 
of Dublin,' signed * James R.' (one of his 
best medals), 1697. 

He was the father of Jaues Roettiebs 

S)98-1772), medallist, who was bom in 
ndon in 1698, and held the office of en- 
ffraver-general of the Low Countries from 
31 Aug. 1733 till his death at Brussels ou 
15 Jnly 1772. 

[For authorities see under Bobttibil^, John.] 



JOHN(1631-1763),medallist. bomon4 July 
1631, was the eldest son of Pnili^ Roettiers 
(or Rotier^, medallist and goldsmith of Ant- 
werp, by his wife Elizabeth Therm^. John's 
younger brothers, Joseph (1635-1703) and 
Philin (b. 1640\ were bom at Antwerp, but 
it is aoubtful ii this was his own birthplace. 
Jolm Roettiers adopted the profession of a 




waJallMft and fltonecuttor, and his eaziiest 
hum medals are of 1666 (?) and 1660. 

in 1661 hm and his bitter Joseph (and 
safate^nenUy the third brother, Philip) 
VETB malted to Ensland by Oharles II to 
wock at the English mint. Aooording to 
^alpole {AmeodoteM qf Pamiing, ii. 184), 
tbdr {aAor had lent money to (Charles during 
bis eiik^ and had been nromised employ- 
ment ht hk sons. The fetters patent ap- 
poiatiBg the tlunee Roettiers engravers at the 
BiiBt itafee tliat they were employed on 
seooant fd the King's long enerience of 
their gnat skill and knowledge '^in the arts 
ofgiarangand cutting in stone' (see CcU, 
TnamnPapen, 16974701-2, pp. 4d7, 488). 

In January and February 1662 John 
BoettierB and Thomas Simon [q. v.] were 
ofdered to enffrave dies for the new ' miUed' 
money in {pcdd and silver, but, ' by reason of 
a eontast in art between them,' they could 
not be brouf^t to an agreement. They there- 
upon submitted patterns for gold ' unites ' 
and fiir ^nlver crowns.' Simon produced his 
splendid 'petition crown,' but his rival's 
woric was pr^erred, and John Roettiers wae 
oitzusted with the preparation of the ooineffe, 
and on 19 May 1662 received a grant of tne 
offioe of one of the chief engravers of the mint. 

Roetticts had been already at work upon 
medals cemmemoiating the Restoration, and 
heprodttoedmany important medak through- 
out the Rsgn of Oharles IL In February 
1066-7 he wae directed to make a new great 
seal of the kingdom of Great Britain, ciNn- 
pletedataooetof 246i.8#.2<;. JoeephRoet- 
oers, John's principal aesistant at Uie mint, 
left En^and m or before 1680, and in 1682 
became engiaver-^peneral of the French mint. 
He died at Paris m 1708. James Roettiers, 
John*s eeeond son« rendered aasiBtance to his 
&ther at the mint in place of Joseph. Philip 
Roettien was officially connected with the 
Eagljih mint as an engraver tiU February 
1684, but he was absent (at any rate tern- 
Doranly) in the Low Countries ^m about 
1673, %uBd afterwards became engraver- 
geaeral of the mint of the king of Spain in 
the Low Oountries. He produced a few 
medals : 'Charles II and Catharine,' 

1667 (?) (dgned ' P. R.0 ;' State of Britain,' 
1667? (*P. B.*); 'Liberty of Conscience,' 
1672 ('Philip Roti'). Norbert Roettiers, 
John's third son, assisted his father after 
I^iilip's departure from England. John, Jck 
Kph, and Philip Roettiers appear to have 
originally received an annual allowance of 
325iL dnided between them. On 7 April 
1669 th^ were granted by warrant a yearly 
peaaon of 460A (i.e. 160/. each). John con* 
tinaed to receive the 450^. after his brothers 

had left the mint, but he had to petition 
more than once for arrears of payment. 

John Roettiem produced the official coro- 
nation medals of James II (1686) and WU- 
liam and Mary (1689), but he was not ac- 
tively employed after the death of Charles II. 
In January 1686-7 it was discovered that 
dies for coins of Charles II and James II had 
been abstracted bv labourers at the mint, 
and had been handed over by them to coiners 
in the Fleet prison, who used the dies for 
striking ' guineas ' of James II on ffilded 
blanks of copper. A committee of the Bouse 
of Commons reported on 2 Feb. 1696-7 that 
John Roettiers, who occupied ' the graver's 
house ' at the Tower, was responsible for the 
custody of the dies, and was an unfit cus- 
todian, inasmuch as he was a violmt papist, 
and ' will not nor ever did own the king 
[William IIIl or do any one thing as a 
graver since tne revolution.' Roettiers ap- 
pears to have bean removed from his office 
about this time, and to have taken up his 
residence in Red Lion Square, London. In 
his later years he suffered from the stone 
and from ' a lameness in his right hand.' He 
died in 1703, and was buried in the Tower. 

John Roettiers was one of the best en- 

giLvers ever employed at the English mint, 
velyn (Diary, 20 July 1678) refers to him 
as ' that excellent ^ver . . . who emulates 
even the ancients m both metal and stone; ' 
and Pepys {Diary, 26 March 1666), who 
visited Roettiers at the Tower, declares that 
he there saw ' some of the &iest pieces of 
work, in embossed work, that ever I did see 
in my life, for fineness and small ness of the 
images thereon.' On 11 Oct. 1687 Henry 
Slii^bv (ez-master of the mint) offered 
Pepys nis collection of Roettiers's medals. 
The ' Great Britannia ' (' Felicitas Britannin ') 
was valued by Slingsby at 4/. 10«., and the 
other medals at sums from 10«. to 3/. 4«. 
apiece. The following is a list of Roettiers*s 
principal medals, all of them made subsequent 
to the Restoration : 1. ' Archbishop Laud/ 
2. ' Giles Strangways.' 8. 'Memorial of 
Charles I;' rev. hand holding crown. 
4. ' Landing of Charles U at Dover, 1660.' 
6. ' Restoration,' 1660, ' BritannisB.' 6. ' Re- 
storation, Felicitas Britannifls ' (the head said 
to be by Joseph Roettiers). 7. 'Marriafe of 
Charles II and Catharine,' 1662, in silver 
and in gold — ^probably the 'golden medal ' 
oommemoratea by Waller. 8. ' Naval Re- 
ward,' 1665 (' Pro talibuB ausis '). 9. ' Duke 
of York, naTal action, 166d.' 10. * Proposed 
Commercial Treaty with Spadn,' 1666. 
11. ' Peace of Breda ' [1667] (' Favente Deo»' 
with figure of Britannia, ii portrait of Mrs. 
Stuart, duchess of Richmond). 12. 'Duke 





of Lauderdale/ 1673. 18. < Nautical School 
Medal' and 'Mathematical Medal' for 
Christ's Hospital, ld78. 14. < Sir Samuel 
Morland/ 1681. 16. 'Duke of Beaufort/ 
1682. 16. ' Charles H/ 1688 (P) ; rev. royal 
arms. 17. ' Coronation Medals of James 11/ 
1686. 18. ' Coronation Medal of William 
and Mary/ 1689. 19. Dies and puncheons 
for intended medals of the Duchesses of 
Richmond, Cleveland, Portsmouth, and 

John Roettiers's usual signature on medals 
is ' J. R.' in monogram. He also sigps Bon. ; 
BOBTTi; TAN. B. ; JOAK. Bon. Little IS known 
of his work as a gem-cutter. Walpole(.^in«o- 
dotes tf Painting, ii. 187) mentions a cornelian 
seal hy him with the heads of Mars and 
Venus. Many dies and puncheons executed 
bv John Roettiers and his relatives were pur- 
chased from the Roettiers family by a Mr. 
Cox, and were by him sold in 1828 to 
Matthew Toung, the coin dealer, who, after 
strildng some impressions for sale, presented 
them in 1829 to the British Museum. 

John Roettiers married, in 1668, Cathe- 
rine F^st, by whom he had five daughters 
and three sons : John (6. 1661 P), James [q. v.], 
and Norbert fq-v.]) John Roettiers (the 
younger), unlike his two brothers, does not 
appear to have been a medallist. The commit- 
tee of the House of Commons concerning the 
abstraction of the dies reported (2 Feb.1696-7) 
that this younger John was suspected of par- 
ticipation in the conspiracy of Rookwood 
and Bernado, ' the assassinators/ 'having at 
that time provided himself of horses and arms 
at his own house in Essex, where he enter- 
tained very ill company, to the great terror of 
the neighbourhood? A warrant for high trea- 
son was out against him, 'but he is fled from 
justice ' [see under Rooxwoon, Axbbose]. 

[The principal authority for the life of John 
Roettiers and for the complicated history of the 
Roettiers family is Bum's Memoir of the 
Roettiers in the Kmnismatie Chronicle, lit 
158 8^. See also Numismatic Chronicle, ii. 
199, lii. 56; Hawkins's Medallic Illustrations, 
ed. Franks and Qmeber; Advielle's Notices 
snr lee Roettiers in the Report of the Reunion 
desSoci^t^ des Beaux- Arts, May 1888 (Paris, 
1888); Jonin and MaieroUe, Les Roettiers 
(MAcon, 1894); Ghiiffirey in Revoe Numis- 
matique, 1889, 1891; Revue beige de Numis- 
mati^ue, 1896, pp. 282 f. ; Walpole*s Anecd. of 
Fainting, ed, Womum ; Od. State Papers, Dom, 
166 1-9 ; Oal. Treasnzy Papers, 1695-1 702 J 

W. W. 

medallist, the third son of John Roettiers 
[q. v.], the medallist, was probably bom at 
Antwerp in 1665. He assisted his &ther at 

the English mint in making dies and pun- 
cheons from about 1684, and in 1680 was 
ofllcially employed as an assistant en- 
mver at the mint, together with his elder 
Brother James [see Koeitiebs, Jambb, 1663- 
1698]. He was an ardent Jacobite, and, 
according toWalpole {Anecdotei of Painting ^ 
ii. 186), waa suspected by persons with 
'penetrating eyes' of having introduced a 
small satyr% head within the head of Wil< 
liam III on the English copper coinage of 
1694. The existence of the satyr is more 
than doubtful, and, in any case. James, and 
not Norbert, Roettiers had tne principsl 
hand in the coinage. It is however certain 
that Norbert left the country about 1695, 
and attached himself to the Stuarts at St. 
(Germain, He made several medals for the 
Stuart family (1697-1720) and their ad- 
herents, and was appointed ' engraver of the 
mint' by the elaer Pretender. He made 
(1709) the English ' crown-piece,' with the 
efiigy and titles of James III (iVtimtsmatis 
Chronicle, 1879, p. 185, pL v. 3) and the 
Scottish * coins ' (1716) with the pretender's 
title of 'James Yin.' He was appointed 
engraver-general of the French mint in sue* 
cession to his undo, Joseph Roettiers, who 
died in 1708, and in 1722 oecame a member 
of the French Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture. He described himself officially as 
' Graveur g6n6ral des monnaies de France et 
d'Angleterre.' He died at his country seat at 
Ghoisy-sur-Seine on 18 May 1727. 

His principal medals, generally signed 
N. R, are as follows: 1. 'Memorial of 
Charles I,' rev. * Rex padficus.' 2. Portrait 
of Queen Mary {Modallio lUustratunUj ii. 
106). 3. < Death of Mary' (with James 
Roettiers), 1694-^. 4. Medal of Charles I, 
rev. 'Virtutem ex me,' &c. (with James 
Roettiers), 1694r-^. 5. Prince James, rev. 
Ship in storm, 1697. 6. Prince James, rev. 
Dove, 1697. 7. Medals of James II and 
Prince James, 1699. 8. Succession of Prince 
James, 1699. 9. Portrait of William HI 
(plaque). 10. Portrait of Queen Anne. 
11. Jamea HI protected by Louis XIV, 
1704. 12. James HI, < Restoration of King- 
dom,' rev. map, 1708. 13. 'Claim of elder 
Pketender,' rev. Sheep feeding, 1710. 

14. James III and Princess Louisa, 1712. 

15. 'Birth of the Young Pretender,' 1720. 
He probablv also made the touchpiece of 
James HI (1708 f ), and a few other medals 
are attributed to nun in the ' Revue Numis* 
matique' (1891, p. 825). 

Norbert Roettiers married, first, Elisabeth 
Isard ; secondly, Winifred, daughter of 
Francis Clarke, an Englishman living at St* 

« • 

• ■•. » 




(1707-1784% medaUist 
ind ^pUamith, the eldest ton of Norbert 
Itoetfcia% by his second wife, was bom at St. 
Gennam-en-Laye on 20 Aug. 1707, the elder 
Pretender heinf his godfatner. He at first 
vaetisBd medaf exigraTing, but subsequently 
aerotodliiiBBelf with success to the business 
of a gQUamithy and was appointed ffdd- 
nuth to the French king. On the death 
ofhisfrther in 1727 he was appointed 'enr 
ciaver of the mint' of the Pretender. In 
17^1 he eame to London with a proiect of 
itrikiBg medals from the dies made by his 
giiaHmther, John Boettiers. He was en- 
oonaged by Mead and Sloane, and himself 
pndwed medals of the Duke of Beaufort 
(I7aOX John Locke (17S9^, and Sir Isaac 
Xewton (1739). His signature is 7AC. 
He became a member of the 

French Academy of Painting and Sculpture, 
and in 1772 obtained ^ettres de confirmation 
denoblasBe.' He died at Puns on 17 May 1784. 

£For aithoritiefl see under Hobttiebs, Johv.] 


BOGSR jm Breteuil, Eabl of Eebe- 
poBB Ql 1071-1075). [See Fitzwilliam, 

MoHTOOXEBT, Eabl op 
SuMBwaouBi AVD Abxthsel (d. 1093 P)^ was 
of the Norman fiunily of Montgomery. In 
the foondalion charter for the abl!ey of 
Trocm he describes himself as ' ego Bogerius 
ex Nbanamio Normannus, magni autem 
Bogerii iDins' (Staplbiok,^^. NortnannuB, 
I. iTJKy n. xciii). He was son of Boger the 
Great, who in 10S5 was an exile at Paris for 
ticacheary, and was a counn not only df the 
Conqueror, but also of Balph de Mortimer 
(dL 1104 P)[q-^-] f^^ o£ William FitsOsbem 
^j.T.] His inrothersy Hugh, Bobert, Wil- 
liam, and GHlbert, took a prominent part in 
the disordera of Normandy under the young 
Duke WiDiani; it was William de Mont- 
gomoy who murdered Osbem, the duke's 
■tewaidy and &ther of William FitsOsbem 
(WiLuaJi OP JinoiBBB, 268 B, did A). 
The Tonmg Boger, however, soon became one 
•f Will]«m*is most attached and trusted sup- 
porters. In 1048 he was with the duke be- 
fore Ddmfront, and was one of the spies who 
diseoTCfed the hasty flight of Gteofirey Martel 
(^WiLiuPoiTiEB8,pp.l&-8; Will. Malmes- 
BTBT, O^ia Reffitm^ ii. 288V Boger added 
to his paternal estate as lora of Montgomery 
and Tieeonnt oi L'Hiemois by manying 
3ffabel, daughter of William Talvas of Bel- 
Mae, Alem^Qii. and 86es, and thus became 
the greatest of the Norman lords. His in- 
fluence with William was great* By in- 

ducing the duke to give the castle of Neuf- 
march6-en-Lions to Hugh de GhrantmesnU he 
rid himself of a dangerous neighbour, while 
by his advice Balph of Toesny, Hugh de 
Grantmesnil, and Arnold d'Ecliaufour were 
for a time banished from Normandy (Obd. 
Vrr. ii. 81, 118). Bo^r was present at the 
council of Lillebonne in 1066, and agreed to 
contribute six^ ships for the invasion of 
Euffland. At Hasting he was in command 
of uie French on the n^ht, and distinguished 
himself by his valour m JdlUng an English 
giant rWACB, 7668-9, 18400). He returned 
with William to Nonnandy in 1067, and 
when the king went over to England was 
left as guardian of the duchy jointly with 
Matilda (Obd. Vit. ii. 178). Bat William 
soon summoned Bocer to rejoin him, and 
made him Earl of Chichester and Arundel. 

About 1071 Boger obtained also the more 
important earldom of Shrewsbury, which, if 
it was not a true palatinate, possessed under 
Boffer and his sons all the characteristics of 
su(Ui a diffuitv. In Shropshire there were 
no crown lanas and no kmg's thegns ; and 
in 'Domesday ' there is mention of only five 
lay tenants in chief, besides the earl (Domes- 
day^ p. 263 ; Stubbs, Omst, Hist. i. 204-6 ; 
Fbeekait, Norman Oonquut^ iv. 49S). The 
importance of this earldom and the need for 
its exceptional strength lay in its position on 
the Welsh border. Koger^s special share in 
the conquest was achieved at the expense 
of the Welsh. This work was aooomundied 
by politic government, and by a well-aevieed 
scheme of castle-building. Chief of his 
castles was that of Montgomery, to which 
he gave the name of his Norman lordship 
(Ettoit, iv. 62, xL 118). The chief of 
Boger's advisers were Warin, the sheriff, 
who married his niece, Amieria; William 
Pantulf or Fantolium [q. v.] ; and Odelerius, 
his chaplain, the father of Ordericus Vitalis 
(Obd. vit. ii. 220). But though Boger is 
praised by Ordericus, he does not seem to 
have been so popular with his English sub- 
jects, for the Ediglish burgesses oi Shrews* 
bury complained that they had to pay the 
same gela as before the earl held the castle 
{Domesday, p. 262). Boger exerted himself 
to bring about the peace of Blanchelande 
between William ana Fulk Bechinof Anjou 
in 1078, and to effect a reconciliation between 
the king and his son Bobert in the following 
year (Obd. Yit. ii. 267, 888). In December 
1088 his Countess Mabel was killed by Hugh 
de la Boche dlg6 at Bures-sur^Dives. Mabel 
was a little woman, sagacious and eloquent, 
but bold and cruel (Will. JxTXikeEs, p. 276). 
Among other ill deeds, she had deprived 
Pantulf of Perai. Pantulf, who was anriend 

• • 




pf Hugh dlg6, was suspected of complicity 
in the murder, and in consequence suffered 
much at the hands of Roger and his sons 
(Obp. Vit. ii. 410-11, 402). After MaheFs 
death Boger married AdelLia, daughter <^ 
Ehrard de Puiset, a woman of very different 
character, who supported her husband in his 
beneficence to monies. In 1088 Roger com- 
menced to found Shrewsbury Abbey bT the 
advice of Odelerius ; the work was still in 
progress at the time of the Domesday survey 
{ib, ii. 421; WiLL. Malmbbbxtbt, Oesta 
Pont p. 806 ; Domesday, p. 252 b). 

Roger secretly supported the cause of 
Robert of Normandy a«^ainst William Rufus 
in 1088, but apnarentty he took no active 
part in the rebellion {JEnalM Chron, ; Flob. 
WIG. ii. 21; but cf. WiLi.. Malxesbubt, 
G^eitoJZe^ttm, pp. 860-1). While Rufus was 
engaged in Sussex, he found an opportunity 
to meet Roger, and by conciliatory aigu- 
ments won him over to his side (Will. 
Malmbsbitbt, Qesta lUgum, p. 861). Roger 
was actually present at the siege of Ro- 
chester in the King's host, while his three 
sons were fighting on the other side within 
the castle* Robert of Belldme [q. y.lthe 
eldest son, soon made his peace with Wil- 
liam, and presently crossed over to Nor- 
mandy, where Duke Robert threw him into 
prison. Roffer of Shrewsbury then Hao went 
to Normandy, and garrisoned his castles 
■against Duke Robert. The duke was urged 
bv his uncle, Odo of Baveux [a. v.], to expel 
the whole brood of Talvas; tor a time ne 
followed Odo'a counsel, but after a little dis- 
banded his army. Roffer then, by making 
false promises, obtained all he wished for, in- 
cludin^rhis son's release (Obd. Vit. ii. 202- 
294, 299). Soon afterwards Roger went 
back to England. A little before his death 
he took the habit of a monk at Shrewsbury, 
and, after spending three days in pious con- 
vereation and prayer, died on 27 July (Obd. 
Vit. LiL425). The year was probably 1098, 
as given by Florence of Worcester (ii. 81), 
for Ordericus (ii. 421) says distinctly ^at 
Roger survived the Conqueror for six years ; 
the date is, however, often given as 1094, 
and M. Le Prevost even £ivonrs 1095 (see 
£TT0V,ix.29, xi. 119). According to a late 
tradition, Roger died at his house at Quat- 
ford (ib. ix. 817), but this is against the plain 
statement of Ordericus. He was buried in 
the abbey at Shrewsbury, between two altars. 

Roger of Montgomery was ' literally fore- 
most among the conquerors of England ' 
(Fbbbxait, Norman Gonque$t^ ii. 194). To 
Ordericus he is the ancient hero, the lover 
of lustice, and of the company of the wise 
and moderate (it. 220, 422). Even in Mabel's 

lifetime ho was a munificent friend of monks. 
In 1060 he established monks at Troam in 
place of the canons provided for by Roger I 
m 1022. Bv the advice of Mabel's uncle 
WilUam, bishop of S6es, Roger restored St. 
Martin S^ez as a cell of St. Evroul (Obd. 
Vit. ii. 22, 46-7, iiL 805}. Roger's second 
wife> Adelisa de Puiset, loined with him in 
the foundation of Shrewsbury Abbey, bring- 
ing monks from S^es ; the beiie&cliions com- 
menced in 1086 seem to have been com- 
Sleted in 1087 (ib. ii. 416, 421-2; Dtodalb, 
ioncut. Angl, iii. 618-20}. Roger also 
restored the abbey of St. Milbuxga at Wen- 
lock for Oluniac monks, and established the 
priory of St. Nicholas, Arundcd («^. vL 1877). 
The collegiate churcn at Quatford, Shrop- 
shire, is said to have been founded by Earl 
Roger to commemorate the escape of Adeliza 
from shipwreck (Bboxpion, ap. Scriptores 
Decern, col. 988). Roger was also a bene- 
factor of the abbey of Cluny, and of Alme- 
nesches and Caen in Normandy, and of St. 
Evroul, to which he ffave lands at Melbourne 
in Cambridgeshire (Obd. Yit. ii. 416, iii. 
20). Besides the castles at Shrewsbury and 
Montgomerv, he built another at Quatford. 
By Mabel, Roger was father of five sons : 
Robert of Belldme [see Bbli^bJ, Hugh de 
Montgomery [see Hugh], Roger, Philip, and 
AmuJf ; the last three are noticed belo^r. 
He had also four daughters : Emma, who was 
abbess of AlmenescMs from 1074 to 4 March 
1118 ; Matilda, who married Robert of Mor- 
tain ; Mabel, wife of Hugh de Chateauneuf 
en Thimenus ; and Sybil, who was, by Robert 
FitzHamo, mother of Matilda, the wife of 
Earl Robert of Gloucester [q. v.] Bv Ade* 
lisa he had one son, Ebrard, a learned clerk, 
who was in Orderic's time one of the royal 
chaplains in the court of Henry I (Obd. 
Vm. ii. 412, iii. 818, 426). 

RoGEB THB PoiiEviN (Jl, 1110), the third 
son, owed his surname to his marriaffe with 
Almodis, daughter of the Count of Marche 
in Poitou, in whose right he saoceeded to 
her brother, Count Boso, in 1091 (Reoueil dee 
Hietoriene de France, xii. 402). His &ther 
obtained for him the earldom of Lancaster 
in Enffland rpBD. Vit. ii. 428, iiL 425>6). 
In 1088 he lought on the rebel side at 
Rochester, but was taken into favour soon 
after, and in September was acting on behalf 
of Rufus in the negotiations witn William 
of St. Calais [see William], bidiop of Dor- 
ham, in whose behalf he afterwards appealed 
without success (DroDALB, Monaet. Angl. 
i. 246-8 ; Fbeemait, WxaJiam ItuifHa, ii. 93, 
109, 117). In 1090 he was fighting on be- 
half of his brother Robert of BellSme 
against Hugh of Grantmesnil (Obd. Vit. 




m. 861). AfkcrwudB he held Anrontan in 
NomMiidy for l¥illiaiii agmintt Duke Ro^ 
boty but wmm fonod to surrender in 1094 
(flyffii OkrameU; Hoi. Huht. p. 317). 
Hooer sided mriih his brother Robert of 
BeOtee in his reb^lion against Heniy I in 
IIQS, end for kis treaeon vns dejnriTed of 
bis eixidoae and expelled from fSngland. 
Be Ktiied to hie wife's castle of Gharrouz, 
near CiTmi, "where he waged a long war 
irith Ho^ VI of Lusignan as to the county 
of lAMaidie. He was succeeded as count of 
La JfiwA^ by his son, Audebert III; his 
daughter Pontia married Vulgrin, count of 

xn. 402). itogper gave lands in Lancashire 
to his father's foundation at Shrewsbury, 
and was Kiw»<i^lf the founder of a {niorr at 
TanrantflT sia a cell of St. Martin S6ex 
(Dvosiai.B, Mcmut, AngL iii. 519, 521, vi. 

PmuF OF MoxTooxEBT (d. 1099), called 
Gxammatieoe or the C9erk, fourth son of 
Roger de Montoomezy. witnessed the founds^ 
tk» charter of SfarewsburyAbber (Dvodaxa, 
MomatL ^^AxgL iiL 620). He took part in the 
rebdlion of Robert de Mowbray [q. v.1 in 1094. 
Early in 1086 he was imprisoned oy Wil- 
liam n (Fii>B. Wig. i. 39), but was soon 
releaied, and in the same year went on the 
cmasds with Robert of Normandy, and, after 
fi^tin^ Tsliantly against Corbogha at An- 
ciocfa, died at Jerusalem. William of Malmes- 
bnry describee him as renowned beyond all 
knighca in letters. His daughter Matilda 
snceee d ed her aunt Emma as abbess of 
Almeneeehes (Osn. Vit. iiL 488, iv. 188; 
Wnx. Maui. Gesta lUffum, p. 461). The 
SooCtish family of Montgomene, now repre- 
sented by the £arl of £ff linton, claims to be 
descended from Philip ae Montgomery [see 
uai]erMo2iT80MB]iiB,SiBJoHK]. Philip had 
iflSDe, "who remained in Normandy and bore 
the name of Montgomery (Staplbioit, BoL 
Smm. n. zciy). 

Abstulf, £^sl of PSMBSOia (Ji. 1110), 
fifth aoB of Roger de Montgomery, obtained 
Dyved or Pembroke as his share by lot (Ofio. 
Vit. iL 423, iiL 425-6 ; Brut y Tywysogion^ 
p. 67). He built the castle of Pembroke 'ex 
Tirgia et ceepite 'about 1090 {ib, ; Gi&. Cambb. 
▼L 89). The same year he was fighting for 
Robert of Belldme, and twelve Tears later he 
took a chief part in the rebellion against 
HeniT L Amulf sent for help to Ireland, and 
aakea for the daughter of Murchadh \q, v.], 
kin^ of Leinster, in marriage, which was 
easily obtained. He crossed over to Ireland 
to ceceiTe his wifia^ and is said to have sup- 
ported the Irish against Magnus of Norway, 
and aqiired to obtain the kingdom of Ireland. 

Mnrohadhy however, took away his daughter 
La&eroth, and schemed to kill Amulfi Sub- 
sequently Amulf was reconciled to Mnr* 
chadh and married to Lafacroth, but he died 
the day after the weddim^ (Obd. Vit. iv. 
177-8, 198-4; Brut, pp. 69, 78). He founded 
the priory of St. Niuiolas in the castle at 
Pembroke as a cell of St. Martin S4ee, 
27 Aug. 1098 (DnoBAia, MomuL AngL iv. 
820, vi. 999). The Welsh family of Carew 
claims descent from Amulf. 

[Ordericns Yitalis (See. de THist. de France) ; 
William of Malmesbur/s Gesta Regum and 
Oeeta Pontiflenm; Brut y Tyirjaogion (RoUs 
Ser.); Willittm of Jnmidgst, and William of 
Poitiers, ap. Dachesoa's Hist. Norm. Seriptoees; 
Wace's KomaD de Ron ; Stapleton's Rot. Scacc 
NonoanniaB ; Battle Abbey Boll, ed. Doehess of 
Cleveland; Dugdale's Baronage, L 20-32, aad 
Mooasticon Anglicannm; Freeman's Norman 
Cooquest and William Rufos; EytooV Anti- 
quitiis of Sbropsbire, passim ; Owen and Blake- 
way s Hietory of Shrewsbury; PlanchiV Con- 
queror and his Companions; other anthoritiss 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

ROGER BIGOD(^ 1107), haron. [See 
under Bigob, Hugh, first Ea&l of Nobvolk.] 

ROGER INFANS {Ji. 1124}, writer on 
the 'Compotus' (i.e. the methoa of comput- 
ing the calendar), states that he published 
his treatise in 1124, when still a yonng man, 
though he had abeady been engaged for 
some years in teaching. For some reason he 
was called 'Infans,' which Leland, without 
sufficient justification, translated Yonge. 
Wood, whom Tanner follows, puts Roger's 
date at 1186, and absurdlv calls him rector 
of the schools and chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Oxford. The only inown manuscript 
of his Treatise is Digby MS. 40, ffl 26-^2, 
where it commences with a rubric (of the 
thirteenth century): 'Preefatio Magistri 
R6geri Infantis in Oompotum.' Wright has 
printed an extract from this preface. Roger^s 
chief authorities are Qerland and Helperic^ 
whom he frequently corrects. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 718; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Ozon. 1. 153 ; Wright's 
Biogr. Brit Litt. ii. 89; Cat. of Dighv MBS.] 

ROGER OF Salisbubz (J. 1139), also 
called RooER the Gbbai, bishop of Salis- 
bury and justiciar, was of humble origin, 
and oiifrinally priest of a little chapel near 
Caen. The futnre king, Henry I, chanced, 
while riding out firom C^en, to turn aside to 
this chapel to hear mass. Roger, guessinff 
the temper of his audience, went througo 
the service with suoh speed that they <&• 




clared him the Tery man for ft soldiec'e 
chaplain^ and Henry took him into his aer- 
rice. Roger, though almost wholly unlet- 
teiedy was astute and zealous^ and as Henry's 
steward managed his affairs with such sluU 
that he soon won his master's confidence 
(Will. Nbwb. i. 36, ap. Chron. Stephen^ 
Henry 11, and Richard I, Rolls Ser.) After 
Henry became king, he made Roger his 
chancellor in 1101. In September 1102 
Henry inyested Roger with the bishopric of 
Salisbury. In this capacity Roger attended 
Anselm's council at Michaelmas; but though 
the archbishop did not refuse to communi- 
cate with him, he would not consecrate Roger 
or two other intended bishops who had lately 
receiTed investiture from the king. Henry 
then appealed to Archbishop Gerard [q. v.] of 
York, who was ready to perform the cere- 
mony, but the other two bishops declined to 
accept consecration from Qerara, while Roger 
prudently temporised, so as neither to anger 
the king nor to injure the cause of Anselm 

S^ILL. ALkLH. Gesta Pmtificum, pp. 109-10). 
e consecration was in consequence post- 
poned, but Roger nerertheless resiffnea the 
chancellorship, in accordance with uie usual 
practice, soon after his investiture as bishop. 
He may possibly have resumed his office as 
chancellor in 1106, but, if so, again resigned, 
when he was at last consecrated in the fol- 
lowing year. The contest between the kin^^ 
and archbishop on the question of inyesti- 
tures was formally settled in August 1107, 
and on II Aug. Roger and a number of other 
bishops were consecrated by Anselm at Can- 
terbury {ib»y, 117 ; Eadmbb, p. 187). 

Shortly afterwards Ro j^er was raised to the 
office of justiciar. ^ William of Malmesbury 
{Geata ttegum^ ii. 483^ speaks of him as 
haying the goyemanoe orthe whole kingdom, 
whether Henry was in England or in Nor- 
mandy. But it is uncertain whether he really 
acted aa the king's lieutenant in his absence, 
or even whether the name of justiciar yet 
^possessed a precise official significance' 
(Stubbs). He is, howeyer, the first justiciar 
to be called < secundus a rege ' (Hek. Hunt. 
p. 245), Roger was one of the messengers 
sent by the Bng to Anselm in 1108 to in- 
duce him to consecrate the abbot of St. 
Augustine's in his own abbey, and was pre- 
sent in the Whitsuntide court of that year 
at London, when he joined with other 
bishops in supportinp^ Anselm's contention 
as to the consecration of the archbishop- 
elect of Tork (£AJ»MBB,pp. 189, 208). Roger 
was responsible for the peaceful administra- 
tion of jBuffland during the king's Ion? ab- 
aoicee in Normandy. On 27 June 1116 he 
was at Canterbury for the conseeratbn of 

Theodoald as bishop of Worcester, and 00 
19 Sept. for that of Bernard of St. Dayids 
at Weetminster (i5. pp. 2d0, 236). In 1121 
he claimed to officiate at the king's marriage> 
with Adela of Louyain, on the ground that 
Windsor was within his diocese ; but Arch- 
bishop Ralph d'Eseures [q. y.} resisted, and 
entrusted the duty to the bishop of Win- 
chester {ib, p. 2^ ; Will. Malk. Getta 
Pontifiaanf p. 132, n. 3). Roger was in the 
king's company when Kobert Bloet [q. y.J 
died in their presence at Woodstock, January 
1123. Rob^ and Roger had arranged to 
preyent the election of a monk to theyacant 
archbishopric of Oanterbury, and through 
Roger's iu&uence William of Oorbeuil was 
elected in the fc^owing February, and Roger 
took part in his consecration at Canterbury 
on 18 Feb. (En^itak CknmicU, 1123). At 
Christmas 1124 Roger summoned lul the 
coiners of England to Winchester, and had 
the cohiers of base money punished {ib. 1125). 
In 1126 Robert, duke of Normandy [q. y.J, 
was remoyed from Rcjger's custody (t5. 1126). 
At Christmas Henry held his court at Wind* 
sor, and made all the chief men of the country 
swear allegiance to his daughter Matilda. 
Roffer was foremost in recommending this 
oath (Hbit. Huht. p. 256), but he was after* 
wards fijrst to break it. William of Mdlmes- 
bury relates that he often heard Roger de- 
clare that he took the oath only on the 
understanding that Henry would not marry 
Matilda except with his adyioe and that of 
his nobles, and that therefore he was ab- 
solyed when Matilda married Geoflfrey of 
Anion without their consent {Higt, Nov. p. 
530). Roger was present at the consecration 
of Christ church, Canterbuxr, on 4 May 1130. 
When, after the death of King Henry 011 
1 Dec. 1135, Stephen of Blois came oyer ta 
secure the crown, Roger took his side with 
little hesitation. His adhesion secured the 
new king the command of the royal treasure 
and the administration, and thus eontribated 
chiefly to Stephen's success. He attended 
Stephen's coronation, and after Christmae 
went with the kinff to Reading. At Easter 
1136 he was with the king at Westminster, 
and he witnessed the charter issued at Ox-» 
ford in April (Roinn>, Gtoffrey de Mande^ 
vilie, ii. 262-3; 6eieU Charters, p. 121). 
Stephen naturally retained him as justiciar. 
His influence was all-powerful, ana Stephen 
declared he would giye him half England 
if he asked for it; ^he will be tired of asking' 
before I am of guying.' When Stephen 
proposed to cross oyer to Normandy, he in- 
tended to leaye the goyemment of Eng^ 
land in Roger's hands during his absence* 
Bat a false report that Roger was dead 




eiUed Stephen to Salialbvzy, and the expedi- 
tioa ms postponed to the sprint oi 1137 
(Obh Vit. t. 6S). The whole administra* 
1am of the idngdom mis under Rogei'e 
eoDtrol; Iob mm Boger (see below) was 
dtuieeUory his nephew Nigel (d, 1169 [q. ▼.! 
vMlttbop of EI7 and tieamner, and a second 
neshev, Aleocander (d. 1148) [^. v.], was 
bidiop of liseoln. The three bishops need 
theb Rionroes in Ibrtifpng the castles in 
their dioceses. Rogev^s intention may have 
been to km the balance of power in ms own 
iiudi. ms power and wealth excited the 
esoity of the harais in St^hen's party 
iWiu. Maim. Mitt. Nov. p. 548), or, as 
laother writer allM[es, made the king sus- 
piekMB of his fidelity (Obd. Vit. ▼. 119). 
Aecordiog to the autihor of the ' Gesta Ste- 
^ui '(p. 47XComit Waleran of Meulan was 
oQger'idiieiaccoser. Ordericus relates that 
Wslem, Earl Bobert of Leicester, and 
Aim de Dinan stirred up the king. Stephen 
ranaoned Roger ana his nephews to 
come to him at Oxford on 24 June 1189. 
Boger, with a foreboding of evil, unwillingly 
Waited OD his waj, Bayin^f, ' I shall be of as 
aseh good at this eoancil as a yoiuuc colt 
is t bsttle* (Wiix. Malic. Hiit. Jvov. p. 

At Oxford Earl Alan*s followers picked 
aqunel with the bishops' men, and in the 
not Akn's nephew was killed. Stephen 
^fdtfed that tne bishops' men had broken 
^ peace, and demanded that in satisfao* 
*Mn the bishops should surrender the keys 
^ their esstles. The bishops demurred, and 
S^cpbes then arrested Bishop Ro^er, his son 
Rqger the chancellor, and Alexander of Lin* 
^. Nigel fled to his uncle's castle of 
^iKi. StOThen at once marched lu^inst 
':im, uldag his prisoners with him. (^ ap- 
^•nog haore Bevixes, the king confined 
^er in the cowhouse, and threatened to 
^ the bishop^ eon if the castle were not 
"ncDdered. By Stephen's permission Roger 
^ in interriew with Niffel, whom he re- 
^i*bd for not ilemng to his own diocese, 
^if^ however, rsfbsed to yield. Roger then 
^funtd that he would fast till the castle 
^^■''adered. After three days his concubine, 
^tttiUa de Ramsbury, who held the keep, 
'pssdered it to save her son's life, and 
N'ifd VIS then compelled to yield (Will. 
Mill. iTttt. Nw.v. 648; Oeeta Stephcmi, 
n- 4M0; Cimt. Flob. Wig. ii. 108; ao- 
««% to Okd. Vit. t. 120-1, Roger's fast- 
is VII iBToluntary \ The surrender of De- 
^ WW followed oy that of Roar's other 
21^ of Sherborne, Sdisbuiy, and Malmes- 
°^ Bishop Henry of Winchester, the 
'^i hrother and papal legate, at once pro- 

tested against the treatment of the bishops, 
and summoned Stephen to appear at a 
council at Winchester on 29 Aug. Even- 
tually a compromise was acrranged, by which 
the bishops were to surrender the castles 
other than those which belonged to their 
sees, and confine themselves to their ca- 
nonical rights and duties. Stephen had to 
do penance for his treatment of^the bishops. 
The incident was the ruin of Stephen's 
prospects, since it shattered his hold on the 
clergy and on the machinery of government. 
But Roger did not survive to take any share 
in the political consequences of his oreach 
with the king. He died at Salisbury on 
11 Dec., according to some accounts, from 
vexation at his ill-usage (Will. Malk. Hiat. 
Nov. p. W7; Hhht. Hukt. p. 266; Qmt. 
Flob. vVie. ii. 118, where the date is given 
as 4 Dec. ; Will. Nbwb. i. 882, says that 
Roger went mad before his death). Roger 
was buried in his cathedral, whence his 
remains were translated on 14 June 1226, 
on the removal of the see to the new city 
and cathedral in the plain ( J?^. St. Osnumdy 
ii. 56). A tomb in the modem cathedral of 
Salisbury has been conjectured to be Roger's 
{Arehtgoloffta, iL 188-93); it bears an in- 
scription commencing 

Tlent hodie Salesberie, quia deddit ensis 
Justitie, pater ecclesie SalesberienBls. 

But the last lines of this inscription imply 
that the bishop referred to was of^noble birth, 
and it is perhaps more probable that the 
tomb belongs to Bishop Jocelin {d. 1174) 
(cf. JReff. 8t. Osmund, ii. p. Ixxv). 

In Roger, the statesman completely over- 
shadowed the bishop, and fifty years after 
his death he was regarded as the prototype 
of those prelates who allowed themselves to 
be immersed in worldlv afiairs (Ralph bb 
DiOBio, ii 77 ). Yet William of Malmesbury 
expressly states thot Roger did not neglect 
the duties of his ecclesiastical office, and that 
he accepted the justiciarship only at the bid- 
ding of the pope and of three archbishops — 
Anselm, Ralph, and William (Gesta B^m, 
p. 484). Through his five years' admini- 
stration of churcn affairs in the interregnum 
after the death of Anselm, though the bi- 
shoprics were used as rewards for state ser- 
vices and the spiritual life of the church was 
little regarded, the evils that had prevailed 
under William Rufus were avoided. If 
bishops were appointed from motives of 
state, the men cnosen were on the whole 
worthy. From a worldly point of view, the 
advantages of the system established by 
Roger were great; it secured for the aa- 
ministration of state affairs the most capable 




officialBi and men vrho were lew exposed to 
temptation than laymen. 

Itoger's main energies were devoted to the 
work of secular government ; under his di- 
rection * the whole administrative system was 
remodelled ; the jurisdiction of the curia 
and exchequer was carefuU^r or^nised, and 
the peace of the country maintamed in that 
theoretical perfection which earned for him 
the title of the Sword of Righteousness' 
(Stxtbbs)* His great-nephew, Richard Fitz- 
neale [q. v.], in the * Diatogus de Scaccario ' 
(Stubbs, Select CharterSf-p, 194), attributes to 
Roger the reorganisation of the exchequer on 
the tMisis which lasted down to his own time. 
It was perhaps a defect in Roger's character 
that he concentrated so much power in the 
hands of his own relatives. £ut the great 
administrative family that he founded served 
the state with conspicuous ability for over a 
century. £iesides Roger's nephews Alexan- 
der and Nigel, his son, the duuicellor, and his 
great-nephew, Richard Fitzneale, this family 
probably included Richard of Ilchester [a. v.] 
and bis sons Herbert and Richard roor 
see FooB, Hbbbbbt, and Poob, Richabb] 
[Stubbs, jRt^. to RoG. Hov. voL iv. p^ xci n.) 
failings were family ambition ana avarice. 
In the accomplishment of his designs he 
spared no expense. Above all else he was 
a great builder, particularly of castles. He 
fouuded the castles of Sherborne and Devizes, 
added to that at Salisbury, and commenced 
a fourth at Malmesbury. The castle of De- 
vizes is described as the most splendid in 
Europe (Hsir. Hxtnt. p. 266). Freeman 
speaks of him as hainng ' in his own person 
brought to perfection that later form of 
Norman architecture, lighter and richer than 
the earlier type, which slowly died out before 
the introduction of the pointed arch and its 
accompanying^ details . . . The creative ^^enius 
of Roger was in advance of his age, and it took 
some little time for smaller men to come up 
with him.' But after the anarchy 'men had 
leisure to turn to art and ornament, and the 
style which had come in at the bidding of 
Roger was copied by lesser men almost a 
generation after his time' (Norman Conquest^ 
V. 638-0). Besides his castle-building, Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury relates that Roger made 
new the cathedral of Salisbury, and adorned 
it BO that there was none finer in England 
(Qeeta Regum^ p. 484). Nor was Roger un- 
mindful of the temporal welfare of his see. 
Through his influence with Henry I and 
Stephen additional endowments and prebends 
were obtained for the cathedral (cf. Reg, St. 
Omrwnd^ vol. iL pp. xlvii - viii ; Sarum Chat^ 
terif pp. 6-10^. He also annexed to his see 
the abbeys of Malmesbury and Abbotsbury, 

which after his dealh reeovend their inde« 
pendenee(WzLL. WoM^Miet Nw. pp. 669- 
o60). Two copes and a chasuble tihat bad 
belonged to Roger wereipreserved«t Salisbury 
(Reg, Se. O^nundf ii. IfiO, 138). Roger lived 
openly with his wife or concubine, Matilda 
de Ramsbury, who was the mother of his ac- 
knowledged son, Roger Pauper (see below). 
Alexander of Lincoln and Nigel of Ely, who 
owed their education and advancement to 
R<Mper, seem to have been his brother's sons. 
RoQBBPAifPBB (^.1139), chancellor, was 
the son of the grest Bishco Roger, and is 
supposed to have been called Pauper or Poor 
in contrast to his father'8wealth(UEm^.Fu)R. 
Wia. ii. 108; WutL. Majm. Mist. Nov, p. 
549; Geneaiogiatf April 1896, where Count 
de la Poer argues that Le Poher or Poor is 
a territorial name). He became chancellor 
to King Stephen through his father's influ- 
ence, and as chancellor witnessed three char- 
ters early in the reign, including the charter 
of liberties granted at Oxford in April 1136. 
He retained his post down to June 1139. 
The part which he and his mother played in 
the overthrow of the bishops and capture of 
Devixes is described above. Roger Pauner 
was kept in prison for a time, and eventually 
released on condition that he left England. 

[William of Malmeebury's Qesta Pontificum, 
Gesta H^gurn, and Historia Norella, Hemy of 
Buntiiigdon, ESadmer's Historia Novomm, B»- 
gitfter of St. Osmand, Saram Cfaarteei and Docu- 
ments (all these ia Rolls Ser.); Gesta Stephani, 
and flor. Wig. (Bogl. Hist. Soe.); Boglish 
Chronicle ; Oxdericus Vitalis (Soc de I'Hist. de 
France); Freeman's Nwman Conquest; Stabbs's 
Coustitutional Hist. ; Norgate's England under 
the Angevin Kings; Bound's Geoffrey de Man- 
deville; Foss's Judges of England, i. 161-9; 
BoiTin-Cbampeaax, Notice sur Roger le Grand.] 

G. L. K. 

ROGER OF FoBD (JL 1170), called also 
RooBB QvffSJJV, QtvwrvMf and Roobb of 
OiTBiLnx, haffiographer, was a Oistercian 
monk of Ford in Devonshire. He went to 
Schonau, and while there wrotOi at the order 
of "William, abbot of Savigny, 'An Account 
of the Revelations of St. Elizabeth of 
Schonau,' with a preface addressed to Bald- 
win (d, 1190) [q. v.l, abbot of Ford, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury. The pre- 
face begins * Qui vere diligit semper,' and 
the text ' Prom^tum in me est, frater.' A. 
manuscript of this work is in St. John's Col- 
lege, Oztord, oxlix, No. 8 ; another copy is 
in Bodleian MS. E. 2. Roger alao wrote a 
sermon on the eleven thousand virffins of 
Cologne, beginning < Vobis q[ui pios anectua,' 
and an encomium of the Virgin Mary in 
elegiaoa» both of which are contained ia the 




St. J6kBfs Cbllege KS. cbdx. No. 8, and the 
latter in Bodleian MS. E. 2 as well* 

f T^Boer*8 Bibl. Brit. ; Coxa's Cat. MSS. in 
Oou. Aaliflqua Oxon.] H. B. 

BOQER OF HsBBFOBB (Ji. 117S), mathe- 
Tniricmn and aatxoloffor, 8t»eiii8 to Mve been 
a natire of Herefoiddiire, and is said to have 
been educated at Cambridge. He was a 
laboBOQa atudanty and was held in gieat 
esteem hy hia contemporarlBs. His chief 
i4adiei wexe natnral philosophy and astro- 
logj, and he was an authority on mines and 
meula. The following tracts are attributed 
to him: 1« 'Theonca FUnetarum Rogeri 
Hflnfordenria' (Digby MSS. in Bodl. Libr. 
No. 16B). 2. * Introductorium in artem 
jodieiariana astiorum.' & ' liber de quatuor 
partiboa aatronomia judiciomm eoitus a 
maratro Rogaro de Harefordia ' (Digby MSS. 
in BodL labr. No. 149). 4. ' De ortu et 
occMQ signorum.' 5. ' uollectaneum anno- 
Tum wwmm planetaTum.' 6. 'De rebus 
metallicis.' In the Arundel collection in 
the British Museum is an astronomical table 
hj him dated 1178, and calculated for Hero- 

\BMm BenpU Brit Cent, iil 18 ; Fits, De 
Illiiatr.Ai«l.ScripLp.237; Tanner's Bibl. Brit; 
BriaaTvync^s AnL Acad Oson. Apol ii. 218-21 ; 
TulWe HisL of Cambridge; Thomas Wright's 
BiogT. Brit. lit. ii. 218 ; Hard/s Cat. of Hist 
lfafiirial% ii. 4 1 6 ; Mag. of Pop. Science, ir. 276 ; 
Ott. MSS. in BodleisD Library.] W. F. S. 

BOGEB {(bL 1179), bishop of Worcester, 
was either the youngest, or tne youngest but 
one, of the fire sons of Bobert, earl of Glou- 
cester [q. T.l, and his wife Mabel of Qla- 
morgan (et Materials, Tii. 258, and iiL 106). 
His lather's favourite, and destined from 
iafivM^ lor holy orders, he shared for a while 
in Bristol Oastle the studies of his cousin, 
the lutuie Henry II (t;^. vii. 268, iiL 104), who 
in ILucch lldS appointed him bishop of 
Woneester ^Arm, Monast. L 49). He was 
present as bishop-elect at the council of Cla* 
reodon in January 1164 {Materials, It. 207, 
T. 72), and was oonsecrated by Archbiahop 
Thomas at Canterbury on 23 Aug. (Qebt. 
Cave L 182 ; Amo. Mtmast. L 49). At the 
council of Northampton in October, when 
Thooaas naked his suffingans to advise him 
how he ahoold answer the king's demand 
for aa aeooant of his ecdesiastiod admini- 
ftmtaony Roger 'so framed his re|)ly as to 
•how bj negatiTea what was in his mind.' 
*I will giTe no counsel in this matter,' he 
ssidf 'lor if I diould say that a cure of souls 
nay be jnstly resignea at the king's com- 
nndf my oonscitmce would condemn me; 
bat ifl should advisB resistance to the king, 

he would banish me. 80 I will neither say 
the one thin|^ nor recommend the other' 
(Materials, iu 828). He was one of the 
three bidiops whom Thomas sent to aak the 
king for a safe-conduct on the night before his 
flight (ib. iiL 69, 312). He was also one of 
those chaiged to oouTffjr to the pope ths 
king's appeal against the arehbishop. But 
his part in the embassy wss a pssftve one ; 
in the pope's presence he stood sUently by 
while his colleagues talked {ib. iu. 70, 73 : 
Thokas Saoa, i. 283). On Candlemas Day, 
1166, he was enthroned at Worcester {Ann, 
Manast. L 49, !▼. 88n. It is doubtftil 
whether he joined in the appeal made by 
the English bishops as a body, under orders 
from the king, against the primate's juris- 
diction at micbummer 1 166. Roger was soon 
afterwards, in company with Kurtholomew 
of Exeter {d> 1184) [q.r.], who had protested 
against the appeal, aenounoed by the king 
as a * capital enemy of the kingdom and the 
commonwealth' {Materials, vi. 66, 63); 
while the appellants in general were over- 
whelmed with reproaches by the sidibishop 
and his partisans, Roger seems never for a 
moment to have forfeited the oonfideaee 
and the approval of his metropolitan; and 
the martyr's bio^phers talk of him as * the 
mominff star which illuminates our sad stoiy, 
the briUiant gem shininff amid this world's 
darkness ' — the Abdiel who, alone of all Tho- 
mas's suffragans, not onljr never swerved 
from his obedience to his spiritual father, but 
even followed him into exile. 

Soon after his flis^ht Thomas summoned 
Roger to join him, ana Roger made a fhutless 
apj^ication to the kin^ for leave to go over 
sea, on the plea of wishing to complete his 
studies, 'he being a young man' (ib, iti. 86). 
Later in the year (1166) a olerk of Robert de 
Melon (q. v.Jybishopof Hereford, came to the 
king in JNormandy, and stated that his own 
bishop and 'Dominns Rogerus' had both 
been cited by the primate and intended to 
obey the citation, * unless the king would 
furnish help and counsel whereby they might 
stay at home,' Le. would make some arrange- 
ment which might enable them to do so 
without incurring the guilt of disobedience 
to their metropolitan. Henrv * complained 
much of the lora Roger,' and threatened that 
if they went they should find the going 
easier than the return (t^. vi. 74). This 
Dominus Rogerus is prorably the bishop of 
Worcester, who oertamiv went over sea next 
year {Atm, Monast, i. 50), and without the 
royal license, for Thomas's friends im- 
mediat-ely began to rejoice over him as one 
who had voluntarily thrown in his lot with 
them in their exile, and was prepared to loaf 




hiBbishoprieinconsequence. Heniy, however, 
was not disposed to proceed to extremities 
with his oousm. Some ot the archbishop's party 
urged that Roger might be more useful to 
the cause at home thim in exile, and accord- 
inglj Roger sought direction from the pope 
as to the terms on which he might return. 
The pope bade him go back to his diocese if 
he could exercise his office there without sub- 
mitting to the royal 'customs * (MateriaU^ tL 
398-4, 390). On this he seems to have re- 
joined the court in Normandy. In November 
he was present, with several other English 
bishops, at a conference between the king 
and tne papal legates at Argentan, when he 
appears to have acquiesced in the renewal 
01 Uie bishops' appeal ; and he was even re- 
ported to have spoken very disrespectfiillv 
of the pnmate and of his cause {jib, pp. 270, 
276, WHY His friendly relations with 
Thomas, however, seem to have continued 
unbroken. Early in 1109 he endeavoured 
to persuade the archbishop to delay his 
thieateoied excommunications, and asked for 
instructions how to frame his own conduct 
towards their victims when once the sen- 
tences were issued. Thomas bade him have 
no dealinf^ whatever with excommunicate 
persons (tb, vi. 677-9, vii. 50; accordingly 
when Geoffrey Ridel [q. v.] entered the royal 
chapel one day, just as mass was about to 
begm, Roger at once walked out. The kin?, 
on hearinj^ the reason of his withdrawn, 
ordered him out of his dominions, but re- 
called him immediately (ib. iii. 86-7). Roger 
was the one English prelate summoned to 
attend the king at a conference with the 
legates Vivian and Gratian at Bayenx on 
1 Sept. 1169; but he did not make his ap- 
pearance till the next day, when the business 
of the meeting was practically over {ib, vii. 
72). He was one of the commissioners sent 
to convey the king's offered terms to the 
iMpates at Caen a week later (t&. p. 80). In 
SdSurch 1170 Henxjr bade the bishop of 
Worcester follow him to England to take 
part in the coronation of the ' young king' 
[see Hbnbt, 1155-1183]. Thomaa, on the 
o^er hand, also bade him go, but for the pur- 
pose of conveying to the archbishop of York 
and the other bishops a pmil brief forbidding 
the coronation (ib, vii. 269-60). The queen 
and the senescnal of Normandy, disoover- 
inff this, gave orders that no uiip diould 
taSe him on board, and he could get no 
further than Dieppe. On Hemys return 
(midsummer) the cousins met near Falaise. 
The king upbraided the bishop for his dis- 
obe^enoe, and denounced him as ' no tme 
son of the good earl Robert.' Roaer ex- 
how he had been prevented from 

crossing. Henry angrily demanded whether 
he meant to shift the olame on the queen. 
' Certainly not,' retorted Rog[er, ' lest, if she 
be frightened into suppressmff the truth, 
you should be more angry witn me; or, if 
she avow the truth, you should turn your 
unseemly wrath asainst her. Matters are 
best as they stand; never would I have 
shared in a rite so iniquitotisly performed ; 
and if I had been there it never should have 
taken place. Ton say I am not earl Robert's 
son. I know not ; at any rate I am the son 
of my mother, with whose hand he acquired 
all his possessions ; while from your conduct 
to his children nobody would guess that he 
was your uncle, who brought you up and 
risked his life in fighting for you.' He went 
on in the same bold strain till a bystander 
interrupted him with words of abuse, where* 
upon Henry suddenly declared that ' his 
kinsman and his bishop' should be called 
names by no one but himself, and the cousins 
went amicably to dinner together (ib, iiL 

In 1171, when Henry's dominions were 
threatened with an int€ardict on account of 
the murder of St. Thomas, Roger was one of 
the prelates sent to intercede, first with the 
legate Archbishop William of Sens, and 
anerwards with the pope himself (^fat^nVt^. 
vii. 444, 474, 476, 486 ; Arm. Monast i. 50). 
He went to England in August 1172 witn 
the young king and queen, assisted at their 
crowning at Winchester on 27Au£., and re- 
turned to Normandy about 8 Sept (Gesta Hen, 
i. 31). In July 1174 he was with the king at 
Westminster (£ttok, p. 181). Acceding to 
the * Qesta Henrici '(L o4)he was there again 
in May 1175, at a council held by the new 
archbishop, Richard (d. 1184) [q. r.] ; but 
Gervase (i. 251) says tnat sickness prevented 
his attendance. In July at Woodstock he 
and the archbishop as papal commissioners 
confirmed the election of the king's son 
Gbofirey [see Gboffbht^ d. 1212] to the 
see of Lmcoln (R. Diobto, i. 40V). At the lent- 
tine council at Westminster in May 1176, 
when the archbishops of Canterbury and 
York came to blows, he averted the idng's 
wrath from his own metropolitan by turning 
the matter into a jest at the expense of the 
northern primate (Gib. Caxbb. vii. 63) feee 
RoesB OT jPovt L'Evfiaus]. He assisted at 
Canterbury at the coronation of Pbter d« 
Leia as bishop of St. David's on 7 Not. of the 
same year (Gerv. Cast. i. 260 ; R. Dicbvo, i. 
415). On 20 Jan. 1177 he was sent by the 
king, with the bishop of Exeter, to expel the 
nuns of Amesbury (Oetta Sen. L 185) ; in 
March he was present at a great oouncU. 
in London (•6. pp. 144, 166) j at Ohriatmas 




1178 be WBS with the court at Winchester 
(Ettov, p. 224). He went over sea shortly 
afterwards to attend the Latoran council 
{JwL MonoML, L 62), which was summoned 
for 6 M^pch 1179 ; on the joumey baidc he 
£ed on 9 Aug. at Tours^ and there he was 
hmied («5. L 62, iL 241 ; OegtM Hen. i. 243; 
R. DiGETO, L 482). 

like St. Thomas, Soger neyeir bestowed 
bc n stoa or reTcnues on his own kinsfolk 
(On. Cakbb. TiL 6d); and he refosed to 
sMt Archbishop Ricnard in a consecration 
wUch he regaraed as uncanonical (Anglo* 
iforai. Satir. PoeU, i. 198), just as decidedly 
IS he had protested to the king against a 
oaronation whidi he held to be ulegaL He 
wu a ffreat fiiYOurite with Alexander m, 
who euled him and Bishop Bartholomew 
oC Exeter ' the two great lignts of the Eng- 
lish church,' and usually employed them 
ts his detoffates for ecclesiastical causes in 
England (CflB. Gambb. yii. 67). The fear- 
lessness which he displayed in his relations 
with the king showed itself in another way 
when the western tower of a great church in 
which he was celebrating mass crumbled 
suddenly to the ground, and amid a blinding 
dust ana the ruui of the terrified congrega- 
tion he alone stood unmoyed, and as if utterly 
unconscioua that anything had happened (ib, 
p. <^). The church is said by duraldus to 
hare been Gloacester Abbey, but it was more 
probably Worcester Oathedral (cf. Mr. Di- 
mof^s note, Lc, with Ann. Monast iy. $83 
and 416). Boger's bold, independent cha- 
racter and his reiikdy wit had at least as |preat 
a shsie as his high birth in enabling lum to 
go his own way amid the troubles of the time, 
and yet to win the esteem of all parties, both 
in chnieh and state. 

[MatariAls for ffistory of Becket, Annales 
Monastiei, Thomas Saga» Oerrase of Canteiv 
bny, Balph de Diceto, Gesta Benrid, Giraldus 
OuBhrsaaia, Angk>-Noniian Satirieal Poets (all 
ia Rolls Ser.); Eyton's Itinerary of Benry II.] 

K. N. 

BOOBB ov Post L'Eyfiars {d. 1181), 
aiehbiahop of York, a ' Neustrian * scholar, 
WIS bronffht up in the court of Theobald, 
'q. yJL arutbishop of Canterbury (Bbokptof, 
ed. Twyaden, coL 1067). His surname, 
' De Fonte-E^iscopi ' (sometimes translated 
Biihop's-bridge)| was probably deriyed from 
Pont TEy^ue in Normandy. He was an 
able studenl. but by temperament ambitious 
and masternil; and he soon fell out with 
Tonng Thomaa of London, afterwards Arch- 
bidiop Beekat. ^He was not only consumed 
iatemally bj ttiyy, but would often break 
out openly into contumely and unseemly 
laagusge, so that he would often call Thomas 

clerk Baillehache; for so was named the 
clerk with whom he first came to the palace ' 
(Materials Jmr the Life of ArckbieAop Tktmas 
Becket, iy. 9). Twice he procured the dis- 
missal of Thomas (1^. iii. 16, of. ii. 962) ; but 
Walter, archdeacon of Canterbury, the arch- 
bishop's brother, procured Thomas's restorsr- 
tion to fayour. On the consecration of the 
archdeacon, Walter, to the see of Rochester, 
14 March 1148, Boger was made archdeacon 
of Oanterbury (GsByASB of Cahtsbbitbt, 
ed. Stubbs, Bolls Ser. i. ISS). He shortly 
afterwards became one of the king's chap- 
lains. He was present at the council held 
at Rheims by Eugenius III in the same year 
(1148; HiHaria Pvntifkalie, ed. Ports, zz. 
628). He was also inyolyed In oontroyersy 
about his rights as archdeacon, and sought the 
interyention of Gilbert Foliot [q.y.]ni>iBhop 
of Hereford (Epietolm Q. Foliot, I 90. 124). 
In 1162 he was sent by Kinff Stephen to 
Rome to procure a reyersal of me papal pro- 
hibition of the crowning of Eustace (letter 
of Becket to Boso, MateriaU, yi. 68). He 
was unsuccessful, but is asserted to haye 
endeayoured to foment discord between the 
king and Archbishop Theobald (t^.) P^ 
bably he receiyed about the same time the 
proyostship of Beyerley (ib. iy. 10, 11 ; but 
Raikx, Archhishops of York, L 234 n., denies 
this). On the death of William, archbishop 
of York, Archbishop Theobald, with the 
assistance of the dean, Robert, and the arch- 
deacon, Osbert, procured the election of 
Roger as William^ successor (Will. Nbwb. 
Rolls Ser. i. 81-2). He was consecrated by 
Theobald, at the request of the chapter of 
York (see Walt. Hbm. L 79), on 10 Oct. 
1164 in Westminster Abbey, in the presence 
of eight bishops. He then went to Rome 
and receiyed tne pall. He was present at 
the coronation of Henry II. 

On the election of fiecket to the see of 
Oanterbury, Roger of York claimed ex 
officio the right of consecrating him (Geb- 
yASEy i. 170). but his claim was rejected. He 
obtained a few weeki afteiwarcb authority 
from the pope to carry his cross and to 
crown kiuffs (13 July 1162; Materials, y. 
21). Becket protested and appealed (ib. 
yip, 44-6), and the right was temporarily 
withdrawn (ib. pp. 67--8). Eyentually he was 
ordered not to carry his cross in the southern 
proyinoe (ib. pp. 68-0). He was present with 
Becket at the council of Tours, Whitsuntide 
1168, where he sat on the pete's left hand 
(Ralph db Diceto). 

During the earlier stages of the contro- 
yersy concerning criminous derks, Roger^ in 
whose diocese a case submitted to the king 
had arisen in 1168, asserted the priyilege of 




his order^and at the London council m 1168 
opposed the king's claims. Henry, howeyer, 
sueeeeded in wiiming him over to his side 
(MmteruUst ii. 877), and Becket, learning his 
defeotioiiy spoke of him as * maloram omnium 
inoentcnr et caput.' Roger n€fw threw him- 
self holdly into the contest in support of the 
king, and from the first gave full assent to 
the conslitutions of Clarendon. He con- 
tinued to negotiate with Beoket, though he 
proposed to Henry that Becket should he im« 
prisoned for contumacy (ib, i. 87). Henry 
asked of the pope that Roger should he 
appointed papsl legate in England, and he 
received a papsl commission dated Sens, 
27 Feb. 1104 (&. v. 86-7). Roger, now im- 
mersed in intrigue, had envoys in France 
supporting his lAterests at the king^s court 
and in tne papal curia (ib, p. 117), and 
claiming the prunacy of the Scottish church 
{ib. p. ll8). He himself was sent by Henry, 
with other envoys, to Sens to lay his causes 
of cosiplaint against Becket before Alex- 
ander III. They visited Louis VII on their 
wav, but Louis warmly supported the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Speaking before the 
pope, Roger decdarea that he had known the 
character of Thomas from his youth, and 
that there was no wav but by papal rebuke 
to correct his pride (Alan oip TBWEBSBUxr, 
c. 22). The pope temporised, but eventually 
ordered Roger to aid his legates, Rotrou, 
archbishop of Rouen, and Henry, bishop of 
Nevers, in compelling Henry to do justice to 
Beoket. Roger, however, caused the deigv 
of his diocese to take an oath, at the kin^ 
command, that they would not obey the 
pope's orders in the matter of the archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

On6 April 1166 Pope Alezanderlll with- 
drew his permission to Roger to crown kings, 
on the ground that he had learnt that, oy 
Immemorial custom, the privilege belonged 
to Canterbury (Thomas 8aga\ Materials^ 
V. 328). On 17 June 1167, however, he for- 
mally autliorised Roger to crown the young 
Henry (Materials, vi. 206 ; the authen- 
ticity of the letter has been doubted by 
Roman catholic writers, such as BsBiNeroKy 
Henry I J, pp. 606-8 ; LuraARD, iL 158 ; but 
the manuscripts seem conclusively to prove 
its genuineness; cf. Materials, vi. 269 sqo.) 
But Becket's remonstrances induced tne 
pope to withdraw his license to RoMzer to 
crown the young Henry, and on 2$ Feb. 
1170 Alexander zbrbade the archbishop of 
York to perform the ceremony of coronation 
during tne exile of the primate of all Eng- 
land (»&. vii. 217). NevertheleBS, on 14 June 
1170, Uie coronation took place at West- 
minster. Roger of York performed the cere- 

mony, assisted by the bishops of London, 
Salisbury, and Rioehester, and in spite of 
the protests of Becket. The pope eagerly 
took up the cause of Becket, and suspended 
Roger (ib, vii. 898). Henry, under fear of ex- 
communication, was (22 July 1170) brought 
to a reconciliation, and the archbishop of 
York was thus left unprotected. Roger en* 
deavQured to prevent his rival's return -to 
England; but Becket, before sailing, sent 
over on 81 N^v. a letter suspending Rogei*, 
which was delivered at Dover on the follow- 
ing day. Becket, on his return in Decembo', 
met with great opposition frolm R<Mper, who 
dissuaded the young Henry £rom admitting 
him to his presence, and eventually crossed 
to Norman^ to lay his complaints before 
the king, fie bitterly urged upon Henry 
that he would have no peace so long as 
Thomas was alive (ib. iiL 127), and, ao^>rd- 
in^ to one authority, himself urged the four 
knights to take Becket*s life, giving them 
money, and suggestinff the very words they 
used when they saw the archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Gaxsibb db Poirr S. Maxbkcb, ed. 
Hippeau, pp. 174 soq.) When the murder 
was accomplished. Reaper hastened to purge 
himself of all complicity. He took oath 
before the archbishop of Rouen and t^e 
bishop of Amiens that he was innocent, and 
that ne had not received the pope*s letter 
prohibiting the coronation of the young king. 
Ue was thereupon absolved. In a long and 
joyful letter to Hugh de Puiset [q. v.] he 
announced his absolution and return, and he 
sent his thanks to the pope (Materials, vii. 
502, 504). 

'Roger's relations with Richard (d, 1184) 
[q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, were hardly 
more happy than with his predecessor. H!e 
was absent from the Westminster synod of 
1175, but sent claims to carry his cross 
within the province of Canterbury, and to 
have supervision of the sees of Lichfield, 
Worcester, Hereford, and Lincoln. He ap- 
pealed to Rome against the archbishop of 
Canterbuiy. His power to carry his cross 
was restored provisionally (i^. vii. 568). Ha 
claimed also the rule over the church of St. 
Oswald at Qloucester ^Bbkbdict ov Pbxeb- 
BOBOUOH, i. 69, 90]|. Later in the year an 
agreement was arrived at bv which that 
ohurch was vielded to York, ^siout do- 
minicam capellam Domini regis' (ib, p. 104), 
and the other matters were referred to tlie 
decision of the archbishop of Rouen. On 
25 Jan. 1175-6, in a council at Northampton. 
Roger claimed that the Scots chilrch should 
be subject to Uie see (^ York as metropolitaa, 
and a new dissension broke out witn Can- 
terbury, to whom also the subjection was 




declared to belong [see Kioh^bd, d. 11841. 
On 15 Aiiff. 1176 the two archbishops nuide 
peace fn nVe years. In the Lateran oouncil 
of 1179 it was declared that no profession of 
obedSenee was dae from York to Canterbury. 
No fbother controversy appears to have oc- 
enned between the sees during the life of 

fianng the next few years Roger was 
acdTdy engaged in poshing his claims to 
supremacy oyer the Soots church. These 
be bad originally asserted while Beoket was 
gtill aliye, and they were strengthened by 
the sabmiasion made by William the Lion 
in 1 175. He claimed that the sees of Glasgow 
and Whitbune had always belonged to York ; 
but the queation was complicated by the 
d^ms of the archbishop of Canterbury and 
by the Scottish prelates' declaration that they 
were immediately subject to the pope. On 
3 Jane 1177 Cardinal Vivian, papal legat^ 
h^ a synod at Edinborjgrh, and suspendea 
Christian, bishop of Whitheme, for his ab- 
sence. Christian claimed that his bishopric 
belonged to the legation of Roger of York, 
who had consecrated him bishop according 
to the ancient custom of the predecessors of 
them boUiy and Hojg&r, on his own part, sup- 
ported this claim (t^. i. 166-7). The question 
continued to be discussed for many years ; but 
in 1180 Alexander III reco^ised a certain 
authority oyer Scotland as belonging to Roger 
of York, when he ordered him to compel the 
king of Scots to compliance with his order 
to make peace with Bishop John of St. An- 
drews. He also made him legate for Scot- 
land (tb. pp. 26^-4). In 1181 Roger pro- 
ceeded to excommunicate William the Lion 
for his contumacy. 

Roger remained steadfast in his sllegiance 
to Henry U. During the rebellion of 1173- 
1174 he g&jo yaluable assistance to the royal 
forces, when Henry took the barons* castles 
into his himds in 1177, he gave Scarborough 
to the custody of the archbishop of York, 
who was constantly present at royal councils 
daring the ten years previous to his death. 

He remainea a friend of Gilbert Foliot 
rq.y.3, as well as of his great neighbour, 
Hae£ de Puiset [q. y.], Ushop of Durham. In 
1181 he felt his end approacning. He called 
together his deigy, and ordered the distri- 
bntion of his property for the benefit of the 
poor (BsarBDicT, 1. 282>3). He was moved 
from his palace at Cawood to York, where 
be died on 21 Nov. He was buried by Hugh 
de Pniset in the choir of York minster. His 
l»dy was removed to a new tomb by Arch- 
bosbop Thoresby. 

Rv^ of Dviham was forced by the king 
to disgorge a large sum which he had taken 

from the treasure of the archbishop, and to 
apply it to pious uses. 

Roger's true character is hard to discoyer. 
He is asserted to haye beto an opponent of 
monaaticism, and William of Newburgh fire- 
quently speaks severeljr of his treatment of 
tne monks. He was in fact engaged for 
many years in a quarrel with the canons of 
Newburgh. John of Salisbury charges him 
with odious vices {MateriaU. yii. 5§7), and 
it is certain that he amassea a very large 
treasure — ^William of Newburgh asserts 'by 
shearing rather than tending the Lord% 
flock.' He was, however, a mimificent builder 
— ' the most munificent ruler that ever pre- 
sided over the see of York' (Dixon and Raini:, 
p. 248). He erected an archiepiscopal palace 
at York — of which small ruins remain — ^and 
endowed many churches in his diocese. As 
an enemy of Becket he incurred Uie hate of 
almost all those who wrote the history of his 
times, and his lack of spiritual fervour, if not 
his personal vices, served to deepen the bad 
impression . He was one of Heniy ITs states- 
men-prelates, and as a bishop he shaped his 
course so as to satisfy a political ambition. 

[MaterialH for tbe Hist, of Archbiahop Thomas 
Becket (Rolls Ser.) ; Tbomas Saga Erkibyskupe 
(Rolls Ser.); Benedict of Peterborough i Rolls 
Ser.) ; Roger of HoTeden (Rolls Ser.) ; Gervase 
of Canterbury (Rolls Ser.) ; William of New- 
burgh (Rolls Ser.) ; Gamier dePont S. Mazenee's 
Vie de 8. Thomas, ed. Hippeau, Paris, 1859. 
Almost all contemporary writers, in faet, contain 
some references to his character and career. 
Among modern writers may be named : J. C. Ro- 
bertson's Life of Becket; J. Morris's I^ife of St. 
Tbomas of Canterbury; Dixon and Raine's Lives 
of the Archbishops of York ; Radford's Thomas 
of London before bis Consecration; Button's 
St. Thomas of Canterbury.] W. H. H. 

ROQER OP HovBtoBH or Howden {d, 
1201 ?), chronicler. [See HoyEDEir.] 

BOGER (d, 1202), bishop of St. Andrews, 
was second son of Robert de Beaumont, third 
earl of Leicester (d. 1190) [q. tO'.^I Petronil, 
daughter of Hu^h de Grantmesuil [q.y.], lord 
high steward of England. The marriage in 
1186 of his relatiye, Ermengarde, daughter of 
Richard, yiscount de Beaumont, with Wil- 
liam the Lion, king of Scotland, probably 
accounts for the description of him as cousin 
of the king. Craufurd states that R(^er was 
dedicated to the church in his youth, and that 
his father caused him to pursue his studies 
for that purpose. Haying taken orders, he 
was made lord high chancellor of Scotland by 
William the Lion in 1178, and held that 
office till 1 189. ^ For twelye years before that 
date the possession of the see of St. Andrews 
had been disputed by two claimants — John 




and Hugh — who were both described as bi- ' 
shops of St.* Andrews. John died in 1187, 
and Hugh in the following year. Thereupon 
Boger was elected bishop (13 April llBO) 
(jChron. de Mailros), but, for some unex- 
pluiued reason, was not consecrated until 
1198. Spotiswood adds that the ceremonj 
was performed by Richard, bishop of Moray, 
but Hoveden avers that Matthew, bishop of 
Aberdeen, officiated. It is possible that this 
delay arose through the oftAisserted claim of 
the archbishop of York [see Rooeb of Pont 
L'EyiauB, d, 11811 to supremacy over the 
Scottish cnurch, a claim which the Scottish 
king declined to aclmowledge ; the bull of 
Clement III declaring the independence of 
the Scottish church was promulgated in 1188. 
It has been stated that after his election 
to the bishopric Bog[er was made abbot of 
Melrose. This is not impossible, as Radulf us, 
the abbot, became bishopof Down in 1189. 
Between 1199 and 1201 Koffer was often iu 
England, and his name is lound as witness 
to many charters by King John. Wyntoun 
says that the castle of St. Andrews was built 
by Roflper as an episcopal residence in 1200. 
According to Fordun« Roger's last political 
act wasthe reconciliation of the king of Scot- 
land and Hsxald, earl of Orkney, which he 
effected at Perth in the spring of 1202. He 
died at Gambuskenneth on 9 July 1202, and 
was buried within the chapel of St. Regulus 
at St. Andrews, beside his predecessors Robert 
and Arnold. Dempster states that Roger 
wrote ' Sermones yarios in Ecclesiast.' 
[Balfonr^s Annales, i. 28 ; Chron. of Melrose, 

Sp. 97, 108» 104; Bog. Hot. in Bolls Sn.; 
potiKwood^s Hist, of the Ghnrch of Scotland, 
i. 83; Begistmm Yetas de Aberbrothoek, pp. 
6, 28, 101, 102, 103, 104, 141 ; Registram Prio- 
Kttns Avicti Andxee, pp. 147, 168 ; Keith's Cat. 
of ^shops^ p. 9 ; Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, 
1. 97; Grordon's Seotichronicon, i. 143; Crau- 
furd's Officers of State, p. 10 ; Anderson's Scot- 
tish Nation, iii. 857.] A. H. M. 

ROOEB 07 Obotli^td (d, 1214?), 
biographer of Becket, was one of the many 
monks employed at the close of the twelfth 
century and early in the thirteenth in com- 

J filing liyes of St. Thomas of Canterbury 
cf. Hebbebt of Boshax\ In 1213 he re- 
yised the compilation maae by an Evesham 
monk in 1199. The work was undertaken 
at the request of Henry, abbot of Croyland, 
to whom it was dedicated by Roger (letter 
printed by Giles, Vita et EpistoUs S. Thorn. 
Cant, ii. 40-5). The abbot presented it to 
Stephen Langton on the translation of the 
martyr, 27 June 1220 {ib,) The work is of no 
original value, though the author had known 
Becket during his life. Roger after 1213 

became prior of Preston, and is supposed to 
have died in the following year {Uk) Manu- 
scripts of Roger's life of Becket are in the 
Bodleian Library (£. Mus. 133, 8612), in 
the Bibliothdque Nationale, Paris (5372, 1), 
and at University College, Oxford. 

[Hardy's Cat ii. 844*5. iu. 84 ; Leland's De 
Script. Brit. i. 219; Magnnsson's Preface to 
Thomas Saga (Bolls Ser.). ii. xcv.] W. H. H. 

BOQER DE Wbvdoveb {d, 1236), chro- 
nicler. [See Wbitboveb.] 

BOQER DE Weshih or Wesehak (d, 
1257), bishop of Lichfield. [See Wesham.] 

BOOSR DE THTTEnLBi (d. 1260), judge. 
[See Thubulbi.] 

BOQER DB Lbtbottbkb {d. 1271), wardea 
of the Cinque Ports. [See Letboubne.] 

BOQEB op Walthau (d. 1336), author, 
was a clerk in the service of Antony Bek 
(d, 1310) fq. v.], bishopof Durham {Reg, Pal, 
Dunelm, i. 530; CaL Close i2o/^, Edward II, 
i. 257). On 30 April 1304, being then rector 
of Langnewton, Durham, he obtained license 
to hola another benefice together with his 
prebend of Sakynton at Dariington (Blibb, 
CaL Pap. Jteg. i. 613). On 23 March 1314 
he was rector of Eggescliffe, and held canon- 
ries orprebends at Loddon, Darlinflrton, Auck- 
land (East Marie), and Chester-le-§treet (JR^. 
Pal Dunelm. 1. 523, iii. 102-4). In 1816 he 
occurs as prebendary of Cadin^ton Minor at 
St. Paul's, London, and is Baia to have been 
also precentor. He was keeper of the kuig's 
wardrobe from 1 May 1322 to 19 Oct. 1823, 
for which period he delivered his account at 
the exchequer on 22 May 1329 (Bebkabd, 
Cat. MSS. AnaluB,B.Y. Bodl. MS. 4177; Oal. 
Clote Soils, Edw. II, iu. 626, 634 ; Col. Pat. 
BolU, Edw. Ill, i. 131). In 1322 he was 
nominated to the archdeaconry of Bucking- 
ham, but the appointment was cancelled 
(CaL Close Polls, Edw. II, iu. 602}. One 
Roger de Waltham was keeper oi rebels' 
lands in Stafford in 1322 (ib. iii. 572-3, 576- 
579, &c.) On 1 Feb. 1325 the canon was 
present at St. Paul's for the translation of 
the remains of St. Erkenwald. Durinff the 
next two years he commenced to nroviae for 
a chantry with two priests at St. Paul's; 
the ordinance was finally completed in 1329 

but probab^ died before 1337, when Thomas 
Braawardine held Cadington Minor, and 
certainly before 20 Oct. 1341. when his 
successor was appointed at Aucldand. His 
'obit' was kept at St. Paul's on 12 Oct. 
(SiHPSoir, pp. 71, 98). 




B(ser was author of: 1. 'Compendium 
Monfis PhilosopIiUB/ which is extant in 
Laud. Miac MS. 61 6, and Bodleian 2664, both 
in tbe Bodleian LibTary ; there was anciently 
a copy at Durham Gathedial (Gz^. Vet SeripU 
Dvifkm, p. 137, in Surtees Soc) Roger's ' Com- 
pendium^ was used by Sir .fohn Forteecue 
(1994P-1476 P) [q. tJ in his « Governance of 
Endaod.' It is not r»&lly a treatise of moral 
pbuosc^^y bat a series of moral disquisitions 
on the Tirioea and duties of princes. It is 
landj derived from Seneca among classical, 
tnd mlinand of Froidmont among meduBval 
writers. 2. ' Imagines Oratorum, of which 
Leknd aaya that he had seen a cony at 
St. Paul's. 3. A manuscript at St. Paul's 
marked ' W. D. 5/ contains on folios 66-60 a 
list of pittances of the church of St. Paul, 
drawn up by Roger of Waltham (HUt M8S» 
OnxnL 9th Rep. p. 69 a). 

A table to Koger of Waltham's ' Compen- 
^um Morale/ compiled by Thomas Gh^unt 
{d. 1474), is in Faniax MS. 4 in the Bod- 
leian library. 

[RcgiitnimPalatinumDQDebnense (Rolls Ser.); 
Hiat. Bunelm. Script. Trea, p. cvii (Surt«ea 
Soc) ; Srapaon's Docamenta ilmstrative of the 
Hiatory of St. Paol'a (Camd. Soc); Leland's 
Oommeat. de Script. Brit. pp. 264-5; Bale'a 
Centoris, IT. 16; Tanner^a Bibl. Brit-Hib. p. 

340 ; Plammer'a edition of Foiteacue'a Qo- 
Teroaofe of England ; Kingaford'a Song of Lewea 
{ia the bttar two there are a fair eitationa fiom 
tfae Oooipaadium) ; other authorities quotedj 

C Xj. £• 

B06EB or Chxsteb (Jt 1339), chroni- 
ekr. [See Chesteb.] 

ROGER aw St. Albans (Ji. 1450), genesr 
Ia^:isty was bom at St. Albeiis, and bmme a 
finar of the Carmelite house in London. He 
wrote a senealogy and chronoloffical tables, 
treeing tne descent of Henry YI m>m Adam, 
berinning 'Considerans historic sacre pio- 
lizitatem,' of which there are copies, botn in 
fifteenih-oentury hands, at St. John*s Col- 
fe^, Oxford, Nos. zxiii. and lyiii. (the last con« 
taming the biblical part only). A copy in 
Qneeira College, Oxford (No. clxviii.), is said 
to be the very roll which the author pre- 
sented to Henry YI (Tajhteb, Bibl, Brit), 
but it is in a sixteenth-century hand (Coxs, 
Cat) The bibtical part of the same work is 
in the Ounbridge University Library, Dd. 
iii.55,56. The Cottonian copv (Otho D. 1) 
vas destroyed by fire. A closely similar 
work in Jesus College, Oxford ^cxiv.), begins 
'CuiHbet vrincipi congruum/ and carries 
tlM ehnmological table to 1478. 

{nUien de St. Etianne's Bibl. CarmeT. ; Tan- 
oers Bibl. Brit.] M. B. 


ROGERS, BENJAMIN (1614-1698), 
organist and composer, bom at Windsor, and 
baptised at the church of New Windsor on 
2 June 1614, was son of George Rogers of 
Windsor (Fostbb, Alumni Oxon.) He was 
a chorister of St. George's Chap^ under Dr. 
Nathaniel Giles, and afterwards layderk. Li 
1639 he succeeded Randolph Jewitt [a. v.l as 
organist of Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin. 
The outbreak of the Irish rebellion of 1641 
drove Rogers from his post, and he returned 
as singingnian to Windsor ; but there also tbe 
chonJ services were discontinued about 1644. 
Occupied with composition and teaching, 
Rogers maintained himself, with the helpofa 
small government allowance, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Windsor. By virtue of Crom- 
well's mandate, dated 2S May 1668, Rogers 
obtained Uie de^pee of Bac Mus. of Cam- 
bridge, a distinction probably due to the influ- 
ence of Dr. Nathaniel Ingelo [q. v.] For the 
city banquet given to the king to celebrate the 
Restoration, he supplied the music both to 
a hymn by Injgelo and to the d2nd Psalm, 
'Exultate jttsti in Domino,'for which he'ob- 
tained a great name . • . and a plentiful re- 
ward' (Wood). 

As early as 1653 the fame of Rogers's 
'Sets of Ayres in Four Parts' extended to 
the court of the emperor, and when Ingelo 
went as chaplain to the Swedish embassy 
unon the Restoration, he presented to Queen 
Christina some of Rogers s music, which was 

ferformed 'to her great content' by the 
talian musicians at the Swedish court. His 
' Court-Masquinff Ayres' were performed 
with no less applause in Holland. 

Rogers won a high reputation in England 
by his music for the services of the estabushed 
church and by his reorganisation of important 
choirs. At the Restoration he had been re- 
appointed lay clerk of St. George's Chapel, 
with an addition to his allowances in con- 
sideration of his playing the organ whenever 
Dr. Child was absent, and in 1662 he was also 
appointed organist to Eton College. Invited 
by Dr. Thomas Pierce [q.v.] to fill a similar 
post at Magdalen College, Oxford, he became, 
on 26 Jan, 1664-5, informator choristarum ; 
his duties, which included the playing of 
the organs, were remunerated by a salary of 
60/. and lodgings in the college. On 8 July 
1669 he proceeded Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

In 1685 Rogers ' forfeited his place through 
misdemeanour,' that is to Say, through the 
misconduct of his daughter, whom he per- 
sisted in keeping at home, within the pre- 
cincts. This irregulsrity, together with some 
trivial charges of loud talking in the chapel 
and the like, led to Rogers's dismisssl, which 
has been wrongly adcrioed to the persecuting 





spirit of James II. In 1687 he petitioned the 
royal oommiBaioners, then sitting at Oxford, 
CO reinstate him, but he was persixaded to rest 
satisfied with the SOL per annum whioh the 
college had voted him two years previously. 
Ris hymn ' Te Patrem colimus ' has been 
used erery evening as f^nce in the college 
hall since his time, and is also sung annually 
on Magdalen tower evexr Mayday morning. 
Rogers retired to New Inn Hall Lane, and 
died there, aged 64, in 16d8. He was buried 
on 21 June at St. Feter-le»Bailey. His widow, 
Ann, survived him only a few months. His 
son John, bom in 1664, was B.A. 1674, M.A. 
1677, clerk 1 674-81 . A granddauffhter, Ann 
Rogers, dying in 1696, left most m the little 
property the possessed to ' her deare, afiec- 
tionatOy tender, and well-beloved grand- 
father, Dr. Benjamin Bogers.' 

Hogers's chief works are found in the 
various collections of cathedral music. They 
include a morning and evening service in D 
(Bovoe.i*) ; evening service in A minor (Rim- 
bault, Goss, and Turle) ; morning and even- 
ing verse sendee in G, by Peter or Benjamin 
Rogers (Rimbault); service in F; verse 
service in E minor (Ouseley). Among his 
published anthems are: a 4, 'Behold, now 
praise the Lord ; ' ' Teach me, Lord ' 

wilt Thou forget me;' 'Behold how good 
and joyful; ' * O give thanks ;" pray for 
the peace ; ' ' O thiat the salvation ; ' ' Save 
me, O God' (Cope); «0 God of truth' 
(Hiillah) ; < Everlasting God ; ' ' Hear me 
when I call ' (Clifford). For treble and 
bass : * Exaltabo Te ; ' ' Audivit Dominus ; ' 
< Deus misereatur nostri ; ' ' Jubilate Deo 
omnia terra ; ' ' Tell mankind Jehovah reigns.' 
For two trebles or tenors: 'Lift up your 
head; ' ' Let all with sweet accord ' (' Cantica 
Sacra'); 'Gloria' (Play ford's 'Fournpart 
Psalms'). His glees include: 'The Jolly 
Vicar,' a 8 ; 'In the meny month of May,' 
ii 4 : ' Gome, come, all noble souls,' a 3 
(many editions); 'Bring quickly to me 


There are unpublished anthems at Mag- 
dalen and New CoUe^, Oxford, in the Aid- 
rich collection at Christchurch, and at Ely, 
Gloucester, and other cathedral libraries. 

[Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii 806; Foster's 
Alumni OxoD.» 1600-1714; Hawkins's History, 
p.682; State Trials, ed. Howell, xii. 40; Carljle's 
Cromwell, v. 248 ; Bloxam's Begisten of Mag- 
dalen Colleffe, ii. 102 et seq.* oontaining list of 
works and fullest details of Bogers's oareeik For 

Rogers's fiimily, Bloxam's Reg. i. 03 ; Oxford Be- 
gistersof WilU, 1605^6, foL 310.] L. M. M. 

ROOBRS, CHARLES (1711-1784), art 
collector, bom on 2 Aug. 1/11, was second 
surviving son of William and Isabella Rogers 
of Dean Street, Soho, London, In Maj 
1731 he was plaoed in the custom house 
under William Townson, from whom he ac- 
quired a taste for the fine arts and book- 
collecting. Townson and his two sisters left 
by. wiU ail their estate, real and personal, to 
Rogers, a bequest which includea a house at 
3 Laurence Fountney Lane, London, con- 
taining a ohoioe museum of art treasures. 
Here Kogers in 1746 took up his residence, 
and, aided bj several friends who lived 
abroad, made many valiuible additions to 
the collection. In 1747 he became derk of 
the certificates. Through the interest of 
his friend Arthur Pond [q, v.] he was elected 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries on 
23 Feb. 1752, and several times served .on 
the council. He became fellow of the Royal 
Society on 17 Nov. 1757 (Thomson, Hist, of 
Royal Society f App. iv. p. xlviii). Among 
his friends were Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Horace Walpole, Richard Oough, Paul 
Sandby, Cipriani, Romney, and Angelica 
Kauffimann. He died unmarried on 2 Jan. 
1784, and was buried in Laurence Pountney 

Roffer8*3 collections passed at his death, 
into the hands of William Cotton (d, 1791), 
who married his sister and heiress, and from 
him descended to his son, William Cotton, 
F.S.A., of the custom house. The latter aold 
by auction in 1799 and ISOI a considerable 
portion of the collection ; the sale occupied 
twenty-four days, and realised 3,886/1 10». 
The remainder, on Cotton's death in 1816, 
became the property of his son, William 
Cbtton, F.S.A. (A 1863), of the Priory, 
Leatherhead, Surrev^ and Highland House, 
Ivy bridge, Devonshire, who, after making- 
some aoditions to the collection, handed it 
over in two instalments, in 1852 and 1862, 
to the proprietors of the Plymouth Public 
(now Proprietary) Library. A handsome 
apartment was built for its reception at a 
cost of 1,600/., and was opened to the public 
on 1 June 1853 by the name of the Cottonian 
Library. The collection includes four por- 
traita ov Sir Joshua Reynolds, about five 
thousand prints, a few fine examples of early 
typography, illuminated manuscripts of the 
fifteenth century, carvings, models^ casts, 
bronzes, and medals. A catalogue of the 
first part of the benefaction, compiled by 
Llewellynn Frederick William Jewitt [q. v. J, 
was printed in 1853; the second part re- 
mains uncatalogued. 




The ehief work of Bomn's life was a series 
of carafolW executed uc^miles of original 
diawiiiga nom the great masten, engraved 
in tint The book was issued in 1778, with 
the title 'A GoUection of Prints in Imitap- 
tion of Drawings . • « to which are annexed 
liTQB of their Authors, with Explanatory 
and Critical Notes/ 2 vols, imp^al folio. 
The ptstes, which sie 112 in number, were 
eBgisTed chiefly by Bartolozsi, Ryland, 
fitfiny and Simon Watts, £rom drawings 
loaie of wliidi were in Rogers's own col- 

In 1782 Roflers printed in quarto an 
anooymous blaiur-verse translation of Dante's 
' Inferno.' He also contributed to * Archs90- 
h^' and the * Gentleman's Magazine/ 

A portrait of Rogers was painted in 1777 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and now hangs in 
the Cottonian labrary. It was engraved in 
meootint by W. Wynne Ryland for Rogers's 
'Indtataons/ also by S. W. Reynolds and 
by J. OoQ^ for the ' Gentlemao's Magazine.' 

[WiboD's Hist, of the Parish of St. Laorenee 
PoDQtnej, London ; Prefaes to Sale Oat. of 
Boger^lB CollectioDB, 1799 ; Introdaction to 
JewiU's Om. of Cottoniaa Libnury, 1853; Gent. 
Hag. 1784 i. 169-61 (with portrait), 1801 ii. 
692, 793, 1868 i. 620-1 ; Nichols's Lit. Aneod. 
lii. 256 ; Nichols's IlYostr. of Lit. viii. 461 ; 
Coxr«0poodsoee io Western Momiog News, 
19 aad 23 Stpt., 3 and 16 Nov. 1893 ; Lowndes's 
BibI MuDaf (Bobn). pt. viii. p. 2116 ; AlU- 
booe'a Diet, of Anthors, ii. 1848; Monthly Re- 
view for Jtfay 1779.] G, G, 

B0GEB8» CHARLES (1825-1800), Scot- 
tiah author, only son of James Rogers (1767- 
1849}, minister of Denino in Fife, was bom 
in the manse there on 18 April 1825; His 
mother, who died at his birth, was Jane, 
second daughter of William Haldane, mini- 
ster sueoesBively at Glenisla andKingoldrum. 
The iiallier published a ' General View of the 
AgrieuUnreof Angusy' Edinburgh, 17^, 4to ; 
an ' Essay on GoTemment,' Edinbuxgh, 1797, 
8to ; end contributed an account of Monikie 
and of Denino to the * New Statistical Ac- 
ooont of Scotland,' toI. ix. After attending 
the pariah school of Denino for seven years, 
Charles in 1899 matriculated at the university 
of St . Andiewsy and passed a like period there. 
Licensed by the presbytery of tnat place in 
June 1846, he was employed in the capacity 
of asnierant successively at Wester Aiistru- 
ther, Kinglassie, Abbotshall, Dunfermline, 
Ballingr7,aad Carnoustie. Sabsequently he 
opened a preaching station atr the Bridge of 
Allan, ana from «lanaafy 1855 until 11 Aug. 
18^ was ffhffpVwi of the garrison at Stirlii^ 

Dning his lesidence in Stirling Rogers 

was elected in 1861 a membor of the town 
council, and took a prominent part in local 
improvements, including the erection df the 
national Wallace monument on the Abbey 
Craig. In 1855 he inaugurated at Stirling a 
short-lived Scottish Literary. Institute. "In 
1862 he opened the British Christian Listi- 
tute, for the dissemination of religious tracts, 
especially to soldiers and sailors, and in con- 
nection with it he issued a weekly paper,, 
called 'The Workman's Friend,' and after- 
wards monthly setials, 'The Briton' and 
* The Recorder ; ' but the scheme collapsed in 
1863. In 1863 he founded and edited a news- 
paper, ' The Stirling Gazette,' but its career 
was brief. These schemes involved Rogers 
in much contenticm and litigation, and he 
imagined himself the victim of misrepresen- 
tation and persecution. To escape his calmn- 
niators he resigned his chaplaincy in 1868, 
went to England, and thenceforth devoted 
himself to literary work. 

Ro^rs's earliest literary efforts in London 
were journalistic, but Scottish history, litera- 
ture, and ^nealo^ were throughout his 
life the chief studies of his leisure, and his 
researches in these subjects, to which he 
mainly devoted his later years, proved oi 
value. Nor did he moderate the passion fox 
founding literary societies which he had first 
displayed in Stirling. In November 1865 he 
originated in London a short4ived Navid 
and Military Tract Society, as a successor to 
his British Christian Institute, and in con- 
nection with it he edited a quarterly periodi- 
cal called 'The British Bulwark.' When 
that society's existence terminated, he set 
up ' The London Book and Tract Deposit<»y,' 
which he carried on until 1874. A mere 
interesting venture was Rogers's Qran^iui 
Club, for the issue of wor^ illustrativia ot 
Scottish literature, historv^ and anttiquities. 
This, the most successful of all his foimda- 
tions, was inaugurated in London on 2 Nov. 
1868, and he was secretary and chief editor 
until his death. He also claimed to be the 
founder of the Royal Historical Society, 
which was established in London on 23 Nov. 
1868, for the conduct of historical, biographi- 
cal, and ethnologioid investigations. He 
was secretary and historiographer to thSs 
society until 1880, when ne was openly 
charged with working it for his own pecu- 
niary benefit. He defended himself in a 
pamphlet, ' Parting Words to the Membos,' 
1881, and reviewed his past life in 'The 
Serpent's Track : a Narrative of twenty-two 
years' Persecution ' (1880). He edited eight 
volumes of the Historical Society's 'Trans- 
actions,' in which he wrote much himself. 

In 1873 a number of Rogers's friends 





preeented him <mth a kouse in London, which 
he called Grampian Lodge. As early as 
1854 Colnmbia College, New Tork, had 
given him the degree of LL.D. He was 
made a D.D. by the imiversi^ of St. An- 
drews in 1881 . He was a member, fellow, or 
correspondent of numerous learned societies, 
British, foreign, and colonial, and an associate 
of the Imperial Archaeological Society of 
Hussia. He returned to Scotland some years 
before his death, which took place at his 
house in Edinburgh on 18 Sept. 1890, at the 
ajy^ed 65. Rogers married, on 14 Dec. 1854, 
Jane, the eldest daughter of John Bain of 
St. Andrews. 

Bogers's chief original writings may be 
classified thus: L Historical Aim Bio- 
GBAPHICAL. — 1. 'Notes in the History of Sir 
Jerome Alexander,' 1872. 2. * Three Scots 
Reformers,' 1874. 8. * Life of George Wis- 
hart,' 1876. 4. 'Memorials of the Scottish 
House of Gourlay,' 1888. 5. ' Memorials of 
the Earls of Stirling and House of Alex- 
ander,' 2 Tols. 1877. 6. ' The Book of Wal- 
lace,' 2 vols. 1889. 7. ' The Book of Bums,' 
d vols. 1889-91. 

n. TopooBAPHiOAL. — 8. * History of St. 
Andrews,' 1849. 9. ' A Week at the Bridge 
of Allan,' 1851 ; 10th edit. 1865. 10. * The 
BeatttiesofUpperStratheam,'1854. 11. '£t- 
trick Forest and the Ettrick Shepherd,' 1860. 

in. GmrsALoeiOAL. — 12. < Genealogical 
Chart of the Family of Bain,' 1871. IS. rTfae 
House of Roger,' 1872. 14. * Memorials of 
the Strachans of Thornton and Family of 
Wise of Hillbank,' 1878. 15. < Bobert Bums 
and the Scottish House of Bumes,' 1877. 
16. ' Sir Walter Soott and Memorials of the 
Haliburtons,' 1877. 17. 'The Scottish House 
of Christie/ 1878. 18. * The Family of Colt 
and CoutU,' 1879. 19. * The Family of John 
Knox,' 1879. 20. < The Scottish Family of 
gW 1888. 

IV. EooLBSiASTiCAL.— 21. < Historical No- 
tices of St. Anthony's Monastery,' Leith, 
1849. 22. * History of the Chapel Royal of 
Scotland,' 1882. 

y. Social. — 28. 'Familiar Illustrations 
of Scottish Life,' 1861; 2nd edit. 1862. 
24. 'TraitsandStoriesof theScottishPeople,' 
1867. 25. * Scotland, Social and Domestic,' 
1869. 26. ' A Centuzy of Scottish Life,' 
1871. 27. 'Monuments and Monumental 
Inscriptions in Scotland,' 2 vols. 1871-2. 
28. ' Social Life in Scotland,' 8 vols. 1884-^. 
VI. Relioioits.— 29. 'Christian Heroes 
in the Army and Navy,' 1867. 80. ' Our 
Eternal Destiny,' 1868. 

Vn. PoFTiOAL.— 31. 'The Modem Scottish 
Minstrel,' 6 vols. 1855-7. 82. ' The Sacred 
Minstrel,' 1859. 83. 'The Golden Sheaf,' 

1867. 34. « Lyra Britannica,' 1867. 85. 'Life 
and Songs of the Baroness Nairne,' 1869. 


36. 'Issues of Religious Rivalry,' 1866. 
87. 'Leaves from my Autobiography,' 1876. 
88. ' The Searpent's Track ' 1880. 89. 'Part- 
ing Words to the Members of the Royal 
Historical Society,' 1881. 40. 'Threads of 
Thought,' 1888. 41. ' The Oak,' 1868. 

Rogers also edited : 1. ' Aytoun's Poems,' 
1844. 2. ' Campbell's Poems,' 1870. 3. 'Sir 
John Scot's Staggering State of Scottish 
Statesmen,' 1872. 3. 'Poetical Remains of 
King James,' 1873. 4. ' Hay's Estimate of 
the Scottish Nobility.' 5. ' Glen's Poems,' 
1874. 6. 'Diocesan Registers of Glasgow,' 
2 vols. 1876 (in conjunction with Mr. Joseph. 
Bain). 7. 'Boswelliana,' 1874. 8. Regi- 
ster of the Church of Crail,' 1877. 9. 'Events 
in the North of Scotland, 1636 to 1645/ 1877. 
10. ' Chartulary of the Cistercian Priory of 
Coldstream,' 1879. 11. ' Rental-book of the 
Cistercian Abbey of Cupar-Ang^,' 1880. 
12. 'The Earl of Stirling's Register of Royal 
Letters,' 2 vols. 1884-^. 

[The autobiographical irorks above named; 
AtneDttuin, September 1890.] H. P. 

ROGERS, DANIEL (1538 P->159n, diplo- 
matist, eldest son of John Rogers (1500 P- 
1555) [q. v.], was bom at Wittenberg about 
1538, came ta England with his fia^iily in 
1548, and was naturalised with them in 1552. 
After his fietther's death in 1 555 he returned to 
Wittenberg, and studied under MelanchthoUy 
but returned on Elisabeth's accession, and 
mduated B.A. at Oxford in August 1661. 
Nicaaius Yetswiert, Elisabeth's secretary of 
the French tongue, who had known his father, 
and whose daughter Susan he afterwards 
married, introduced him to court. His know- 
ledge of languages stood him in good stead. 
He was emmoyed by Sir Henry Norris, the 
English ambassador in Paris lietween 1566 
and 1570, and sent home much useful intelli- 
sence to Secretary Cecil. In October 1674 
ne went with Sir William Winter to Ant- 
werp, and he accompanied an important em- 
bassy to the Netherlands, to treat with the 
Duke of Orange, in June 1575. In July he 
was elected secretary of the fellowship of 
English merchants settled at Antwerp. His 
father had in earlier years been their chap- 
lain. He was still engaged in diplomatic 
business in the Low Countries through 1576, 
and in March 1577 was there again to ne- 
gotiate the terms on which Queen Elizabeth 
was to lend 20,000/. to the States-General. 
This business occupied him till March 1678. 
In September 1580 ne was ordered to Germany 
to induce the Duke <tf Saxony to stay dis- 




sansioDS 'whidi were threatening a schifim 
among Gennan Lutherans. By an unhappy 
sutthinee he was arrested on imperial ter- 
liioiy hj the Baron Ton Anholti at the 
legoest of Philip c^ Spain, and spent four 
TesrsincaptiTity. His release was procured 
by the baron's counsellor-at-laWy Stephen 
Besner, who had been Bmrer^s fellow-student 
under Melanchthon at Wittenberg. Degner 
pramisedRoffersi's gaolers 160/. WhenEc^^ers 
put tbe&cta Defore Lord Burghleyi the latter 
ordered a collection to be made among the 
deigy to defiray the sum. On 5 May 1587 
Rogers was appointed a derk of the privy 
council; he had already filled the office of 
saaistaiit dark. He was M.P. for Newport, 
ComwallylGSd-O. He still occasionidly trans- 
acted offiidal bnuness abroad, voting Den- 
mark in December 1687, and a^[ain in June 
1688, when he cony^ed expressions of sym- 
Mthy from Queen Elisabeth to the yoim«r 
ung on the death of his father, Frederic if. 
On his own responsibility he procured an 
airangsment by which the subjects of Den- 
mark sod Norway undertook not to serve 
the king of &3ain against England. 

He died on ll Feb. 1690-1, and was buried 
in the ehuxch of Sunbury beside his father- 
in-UVsnaTe. In a ' Visitation of Middlesex' 
dated iSi he was described as ' of Sunbury.' 
According to the same authority he had two 
children — aeon Faucis, who married a lady 
named Cory ; and a posthumous daughter, 
Poethuma, who married a man named Speare. 
The son is said to haye left a son, also named 
Francis, but his descendants have not been 

Eogers was a man of scholarly tastes, and 
was the intimate friend of the antiquary 
Camden. The latter calls him *Yii opti- 
Kus' in a letter to Sir Henry Savile (Smith's 
J^pittohgt No. 13^, and he contemplated a dis- 
eourse ' conceminj^ the acts of the Britons ' 
ibr Camden's ' Britannia,' but it was never 
cootpleted. Camden quotes some Latin 
poems by him in his account of Salisbury, 
in^lTMl^wg ' an epigram on the windows, pillars, 
and towez^steps m the cathedral there, which 
he represaited as respectively equalling in 
nimber the months, weeks, and days in the 
year. Jtogers was also known to the scholar 
Gmter, who described him to Camden as ' pro- 
testantiasimus,' and he wrote to Hadrianus 
Junius asking him for early references to the 
kistoiy of Ir^d (JBpist 476,.479, 628). He 
inote Latin verses in praise of Bi0bop Jewel, 
which are appended toJLawrenceHux^phrey's 
'life of the Bishop,' and Liatin verses oybim 
alto figure in the preface to Ortelius's ' Thea- 
tran Orbis T^rrarum'and in Ealph Aggas's 
description of Oxford University, 1678. 

[Chester^s John Eogers, 1863, pp. 269-71 ; 
Wood's Athenae Ozon. cd. Bliss, i. 569 ; Hunter'a 
MS. Ghoma Vatum in Addit. MS. 24487, ff. 1-2 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; Chaimcey's Hertford- 
shire, i. 123.] S. L. 

BOOEE& DANIEL (167a>1662), divine, 
eldest son of Richard Bogers (1660.^-1618) 
[q. v.] of Wethersfield, £ssex, by his first 
wife, was born there in 1673. Ezekiel Rogers 
[q. y.l was his younger brother. He pro- 
ceeded to Christ's C^ege, Cambridge, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1696-6, and M.A. in 1699, 
and was fellow firom 1600 to 1608. Reared 
in the atmosphere of puritanism, Rogers be- 
came at college a noted champion of the 
cause. It is related that when Archbishop 
Laud sent down a coryplueus to challenjge 
the Cambridge puritans, KoffCrs opposed bun 
with such effect that the delighted imder- 
graduates carried him out of the schools on 
their shoulders, while a fellow of St. John's 
bade him go home and hang himself, for he 
would never die with more honour. 

On leaving the university Rogjers officiated 
as minister at Haversham, Buckinghamshire, 
but when Stephen Marshall [q. v.], his father's 
successor at Wethersfield, removed from that 
^ace to Ilnchingfield, Roj^ers returned to 
Wethersfield as lecturer, with Daniel Weld 
or Weald, another puritan, as vicar. He 
had several ]^ersonal discussions with Laud, 
who paid a high tribute to his scholarship, 
but, after being much harassed for varioua 
acts of noncomormitv, he was suspended by 
the archbbhop in 1629. The respect of the 
conforming cler^ in North Essex was shown 
by their presentmg a memorial to the bishop 
on his behalf, but he apparently left Essex 
for a time. It is doubtful if he be identical 
with Daniel Rogers, M.A., who was pre-' 
sented bv the narliament to the rectonr of 
Green'sNorton,Niorthamptonshire,on 22 «i uly 
1648, in succession to Bishop Skinner, who 
vacated the rectory on 16 July 1646, and 
seems to have been intruded into the vicar- 
age of Wotton in the same county in 1647 
(BsD)e£8, Nort^tnjttonthire, ed. Whalley, 

The latter part of Rogers's life was passed 
at Wethersfield, where he had for neighbour 
as vicar of Shalford his relative, Giles Fir* 
min (1614-1697) [q. v.], a warm royalist. 
On the fast day proclaimed after the execu* 
tion <^ the kinff, Rogers, who had preached 
at Wethersfield in the morning, attended 
flrmin's church in the afternoon, which he 
had only once done before. After the service • 
he went home with Firmin and * bemoaned 
the king's death' (Preface to Eibmiv's 
Weiffhfy QuestianB), When the army's peti- 
tion for tolerance, called ' the agreement of 




the people/ was sent down for the Essex 
ministers to sign, Rogers, on beh&lf of the 
presbyterians, Srew up, and was the first to 
sign, the 'Essex * Watchmen's Watchword/ 
London, 1649, protesting against the tolera- 
tion of any who refiised to sign the Solemn 
League and Covenant. 

Sogers died on 16 Sept. 1652, aged 80. 
He was buried at Wethenfleld. Rogers's 
first wife, Margaret Bishop, had the reputa- 
tion of a shrew. His second wife, Sarah, 
daughter of John Edward of London, was 
buried at Wethersfield on 21 Dec. 1662. A 
daughter married the Rer. William Jenkyn, 
vicar of All Saints, Sudbuiv, Suffolk [see 
under JiancxN, William]. His son by his 
first wife, Daniel, was minister of Havers- 
ham, Buckinghamshire, from 5 Oct. 1665 
until his death, 6 June 1680; DanieVs daugh- 
ter, Martha Rogers, was mother of Dr. John 
Jortin [q. v.] 

Rogers was of a morose and sombre tem- 
perament, and his creed was severely Cal- 
vinistic Never securely satisfied of his own 
salvation, he offered to * ezchan^ circum- 
stances with the meanest christian in We- 
thersfield who had the soundness of grace 
in him.' His religious views developed in 
him a settled gloom, and Firmin's 'Real 
Christian/ London, 1670, was mainly written 
to counteract his despondency. Rogers's 
stepbrother, John Ward, said of him that, 
altnongh he ' had grace enouffh for two men, 
he had not enough for himself.' 

Several of Rogers's works are dedicated to 
Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick [q. v.], 
and to his countess Susanna, at whose nouse 
at I weighs Priory he, like 'all the schis- 
maticaU nreachers' in the county, was often 
welcomed. Their titles are: 1. 'David's 
Cost, wherein every one who is desirous to 
serve GK>d aright may see what it must cost 
him/ enlargea firom a sermon, London, 1619, 
12mo. 2. ' A Practicall Catechisme/ &c. ; 
2nd ed. corrected and enlarged, London, 
1638, 4to, published under the author's 
initials ; 8rd ed. London, 1640, 4to ; in 1648 
appeared 'Collections or Brief Notes gar 
tnered out of Mr. Daniel Rogers' Practical 
Catechism by R. P.' 8. ' A Treatise of the 
Two Sacraments of the Gk>spel/ &o., by 
D. R. ; 8rd ed. London, 1685, 4to, dedicated 
to Lady Barrington of Hatfield Broad OtA:, 
Essex. 4. ' Matrimoniall Honour, or the 
mutuall crowne and comfort of godlv, loyall, 
and chaste marriaee,' London, 1&2, 4to. 
6. 'Naaman the Syrian, his Disease and 
Cure/ London, 1642, fol. ; Rogers's longest 
work, consisting of 898 pages folio. 

[Firmio's Weighty Questions Discussed, and 
his Real Christian ; Chester's John Rogers, p. 

248; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, ii. 281, iiL 
149 ; Crosby's Hist of Baptists, i 167 ; Davids's 
Hist, of EvaogeL l^oneonf. in Essex, p. 147 ; 
Life and Dendi of John Angier, pi 67 ; Frynne's 
Canterburies Doom, 1646, p. 378 ; FuUei's Hist, 
of the Univ. Gambr. ed. Prickett and AVright, p, 
184; Masson's Life of Milton, ed. 1881. i. 402; 
CaL Bute Papers, Dom 1629-81, p. 801; Divi- 
sion of the County of Essex into Classes, 1648 ; 
Essex Watchmen 8 Watchword, 1649 ; Bak»>r*s 
Hist, of Northamptonshire, ii. 63 ; Lipscomb's 
Hist, of Buckinghamshire ; Banev's Catalogae, 
1680: Harl.MS. 6071, f. 482; informatioD kindly 
supplied by the master of Christ's OoUeire, Cam- 
bndge ; Registers at WetJierstieldy 'which only 
begin 1648. and are dilapidated.] C. F. a 

ROaBRS, Sib EDWARD (14d8P- 

1667 P)| comptroller of Queen Elizabeth's 
household, bom about 1498, was son of 
GeoTce Rogers of Lopit, Devonshire, by 
Eliziuwdthy his wife. The family of Rogers 
in the west of Enffland was influential, and 
benefited largely by the dissolution of the 
monasteries. Kdward Rogers was an es- 
q^uire of the body to Henry VIII, and had a 
bcense to import wine in 1634 ; on 11 Dec. 
1634 he became bailiff of Hampnes in the 
marches of Oalab and SandjpEite in Kent. 
On 20 March 16d6«7 he receiyed a grant of 
the priory of Oannington, in Somerset. At 
the coronation of Edward TI he was dubbed 
a knight of the carpet, and on 15 Oct. 1649 
was made one of the four principal gentle- 
men of the privy chamber. In January 
1649-60 he was confined to his house in 
connection with the misdemeanours of the 
Earl of Arundel, whom he had doubtless 
assisted in his peculations. But he was 
soon free, and on 21 June 1660 had a pension 
of 60/. mnted to him. As an ardent pro- 
tectant ne deemed it ^udent to go abroad in 
Queen Mary's days. Under Elizabeth he ob- 
tained important preferment. On 20 Nov. 

1668 he was made yice-chamberlain, captain 
of the guard, and a privy councillor. In 
1660 he succeeded Sir Thomas Parrv (d, 1660) 

Sq. v.] as comptroller of the housenold. Sir 
ames Crofib [q. tJ succeeded him as con- 
troller in 1666. He was M.P. for Tavistock 
1647-62, and for Somerset 1663,1558, 1669, 
and 1563-7. He died before 21 May 1667, 
when his will, dated 1660, was proved. A 
portrait by an unknown painter, at Wobum, 
18 inscribed 1667, and tne note stat-es that 
it was drawn when Rogers was sixty-nine. 
He married Mary, daughter and coheiress of 
Sir John Lisle of the Isle of Wight. He 
left a son George, and he speaks also of sons 

tens-in-law] named Thomas Throckmorton, 
omas Harman, and John Ohetel. 
[Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 119 
&c., Additional,l 547-65, pp. 437, 580, 54(; Acts 




of th« Privy OouieU, ad. Dasent, ii. 846; 
FroiKbV Hi«t. oi Bbgl. hr. 217 ; Lit. Rem. of 
£dw.TI(Bozb. Clab), ezzzii. 244. 350 ; Parker a 
CofTeflp. ppw 76Bq.yl Zuricb Lettere, p. 6 r., aod 
Giiodal'fl Works, p. 32, all in the Pbrker Soc. ; 
Pp^rcMoa ot Qoaan Elia. i. 30 ; Scharf 'a Cat. of 
Wi>bani Pictoiea ; Collinaon's Someniet, i. 231 ; 
Hugos ICed. Nanoeries of Somerset, p. 137; 
Vuit. of Somerset (HarL 8oc.)> p. 128 ; Brown's 
Som«r»et Wills, 2Aa ser. p. 90 ; Strype's Works 
(India).] W. A. J. A. 

BOG£ELS, EZEKIEL(1584 P-1661}, colo- 
aidty bom about 1584, was son of Eicbard 
Eogm a550F>1618) [q. v.], incumbent of 
Wethersneld in Essex, and voanger brother 
ofDaniel Rogers (1678-1652) rq. v.] Hegjfa-^ 
daated B JL. in 1604-5 from Corpus Christi 
Collegey Cambridge, whence he migrated to 
Chridt's College. He became chaplain in the 
ikfflilj of Sir Francis Harrington in Essex. He 
was preferred by his patron to the living of 
Rowley in Yorkshire. There he became con- 
spicuous as a preacher, attached himself to the 
paiiiaapart J, and was suspended. In 1638 he 
came with a party of twenty families to New 
England. On 23 May 1639 he was admitted a 
freeman of Massachusetts. In the same year 
he and his companions established themselyes 
as a townskip, to which they gave the name of 
their old home, Kowley. Tneophilus Eaton 
~q. y.l and John Davenport [q. v.], then en- 
gaged in establishing their colony at New 
Haven, tried to enlist Rogers, but without 
saeceas. In 1639 Rogers was appointed pastor 
of the new township. In 164o he preached 
the election sermon, and in 1647 a sermon 
before the general synod at Cambridge. He 
died on 23 Jan. 1661, leaving no issue. He 
was thrice married : (1) to Sarah, widow of 
John Everard ; (2) to a daughter of the New 
England diyine, John Wilson; (3) to Mary, 

widow of Thomas Barker. 

Rogers published in 1642 a short treatise, 
entitled ' The Chief Qronnds of the Christian 
Religion set down by way of catechising, 
gathered Ion? since for the use of an honour- 
able Famfly/ London, 1642. Several of his 
letters to John Winthron, the governor of 
Massachosetts, are publisned in the < Massa- 
chusetts Historical Collection' (4th ser. vii.) 

[Cottoo Hathez^s Magoalia ; Winthrop's Hist, 
ol Kew England (Savage's edit.); OAvafre's 
Oenealogieal Eegisterof Mew England ; Chester's 
John R4^rB» p. 249.] J. A. D. 

3fAN (I791-I851), legal writer, son of the 
Bev. James Rogers of Rainscombe, Wilt- 
ihire, by Catherine, youngest daughter of 
Francis Newman of dadbury House, Somer- 
let, was bom in 1791. He was educated at 
Eton, matriculated from Oriel College, Ox- 

ford, on 6 May 1808, graduated B.A. in 
1812, and M.A. in 1815. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 21 May 1816, 
and to the Inner Temple ad eundem in 1820. 
He went the western circuit and practised 
in the common-law courts and as a special 

E leader. On 24 Feb. 1837 he was created a 
ing's counsel, and soon after was elected a 
bencher of the Inner Temple. From 1835 
to his death he vna recorder of Exeter, and 
from 1842 deputy jadg^e^vocate-generaL 
He died at 1 Upper Wimpole Street, Lon- 
don, on 19 July 1851, and was buried in the 
Temple Church on 25 JvHj, having married, 
on 29 June 1822, Julia Eleanors, third daugh- 
ter of William Walter Yea of Pyrhmd 
Hall, Somerseti by whom he had three sons 
and two daughters. Two of the sons, Wal- 
ter Lacy Rogers (d, 1885) and Francis New- 
man Rogers (d. 1859), were barristers. 

He was the author of: 1. 'The Law and 
Practice of Elections, with Analytical Tables 
and a Copious Index,' 1820 (dedicated to 
Sir W. D. Best, knt) ; 3rd edit, as altered 
by the Reform Acts, 1835 ; 9th edit, with 
F. 8. P. Wolferstan, 1859 ; 10th edit, by 
F. S. P. Wolferstan, 1865 ; 11th edit, (with 
the New Reform Act), 1808 ; 15th edit, by 
M. Powell, J. C. Carter, and J. S. Sandars, 
1890 ; 16th edit, by 8. H. Day, 1892. 2. < Par- 
liamentary Reform Act, 2 Will. IV, c. 45, 
with Notes containing a Complete Digest of 
Election Law as altered by that Statute,' 
1832. 3. ' A Practical Arrangement of Eccle- 
siastical Law,' 1840 : 2nd edit. 1849. 4. <The 
Marriage Question : an Attempt to discover 
the True S^ipturo Argument in the Question 
of Marriage with a Wife's Sister,' 1855. 

[Gent. Mag. 1861, ii. 822-8; Illnstr. London 
News, 1851, six. 138 ; Masters of the Bench of 
the Inner Temple, 1883, p. 102.] G. C. B. 


FORD (1811-1889), bom at Marylebone on 
31 Jan. 1811, was the eldest son of Sir FrtMle- 
rick Leman Rogers, bart. (d. 13 Dec* 1651), 
who married, on 12 April 1810, Sophia, se- 
cond daughter and coheiress of the late Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Charles Russell Deare of the 
Bengal artillery. She died on 16 Feb. 1871. 
He went to Eton in September 1822, and left 
in the sixth form in July 1828. He was con- 
temporary there with Mr. Gladstone, Bishope 
Hamilton of Salisbury and Selwyn of Lich- 
field, and with Arthur Henry Hallam. 
While at school he contributed, under the 
pseudonym of ' Philip Montagu,' to the * Eton 
Miscellany,' which Gladstone and Selwyn 
edited. He matriculated firom Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 2 July 1828. It is said that his 
choice of a college was due to the fact that 




John Henrj Newman, then on the look-out 
for pupilB of promise, had asked a faexid at 
Eton to hn^ the coUeg^e under the notice of 
his boys. He was a pupil of Hurrell Froude, 
a fellow Devonian ; Doth Froude and New* 
man soon became his intimate friends, and 
remained so throughout life. 

Bogers was elected Crayen scholar in 1829, 
and graduated B A. in 1882 (taldnff a double 
first, classics and mathematics), M. A. in 1886, 
and B.O.L. in 1838. In 1883 he was elected 
to a fellowship at Oriel, his examination 
being ' in strength of mind' one of the yenr 
best that Keble ever knew. He was ad- 
mitted a student of Lincoln's Inn on 28 Oct. 
1831, and called to the bar on 26 Jan. 1837 
(FosTBB, Men at the Bar^ p. 39), but he re- 
turned to Oxford in 1838, remained a fellow 
of Oriel until 1845, and became Vinerian 
scholar in 1834, and Vinerian fellow in 1840. 
In the last year he spent the winter in Rome 
«nth James Hope, afterwards Hope-Scott 
fq. ▼.] His friendship with Dean Church 
began at Oriel in 1888; they travelled 
together through Brittany during the long 
vacation of 1^4, and their friendship con- 
tinued unbroken until death. The tractarian 
movement had the sympathy and counsels 
of Roffers, and in 18& he issued ' A Short 
Append to Members of Convocation on the 
proposed Censure on No. 90.' During the 
latter part of Newman's stay at Oxford Rogers 
became for a time somewhat estranged from 
him (IsAAO WiLiJAifS, Autobiography^ pp. 
122-S). Rogers was one of the little band 
of enthusiastic churchmen that started on 
21 Jan. 1846 the ' Guardian ' newspaper. They 
met together in a room opposite the printing 
press in Little Fulteney Street, wrote articles, 
revised proofs, and persevered in their un- 
remunerative labour until the paper proved 
a success. 

In 1844 Rogers was called to official life 
in London. He became at first registrar of 
joint-stock companies, and then a commis- 
sioner of lands and emigration. ^ In 1857 he 
was appointed assistant commissioner for the 
sale of encumbered estates in the West Indies, 
and in 1868 and 1859 he was employed on a 
special mission to Paris, to settle the condi- 
tions on which the French mi^ht introduce 
coolie labour into their colonies. In May 
1860 he succeeded Herman Merivale [q. v.] 
as permanent under-secretary of state for 
the colonies. That office he retained until 
1871. George Higinbotham, an Australian 
politician, spoke in 1869 of the colonies as 
having 'been reaUv governed during the 
whole of the last mteen years by a person 
named Rogers' (Mobbis, memoir of Higin-' 
boihamf p. 188). Honours fell thick on him. 

He succeeded his fiither as eighth baronet 
in 1851, was created K.C.M.G. in I860, 
G.C.M.G. in 1888, and a privy councillor in 
1871, and on 4 Nov. 1871 was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Blachford of Wisdome, and 
Blachford in Comwood, Devonshire. Al- 
though he served as cathedral commissioner 
from 1880 to 1884, and was ai;pointed in 1881 
chairman of the royal commission on hospi- 
tals for smallpox and fever, and on Uie best 
means of nreventing the spread of infection, 
he dwelt for the most part after 1871 on his 
estate in Devonshire. He restored the chancel 
of Comwood church, and placed a window of 
stained glass in the south transept. He died 
at Blachford on 21 Nov. 1889. He married^ 
at Dunfermline, on 29 Sept. 1847, Georgiana 
Mary, daughter of Andrew Colvile, formerly 
Wedderbum, of Ochiltree and Cniigflower, 
North Britain. She died at BlacUord on 
18 July 1900 ; they had no children. 

Rogers was unswervingly honest and 
markedly sympathetic. While at the colonial 
office he took much trouble over the organisa*- 
tion and position of the church in the colonies* 
Walter enlisted Rogers on the ' Times' by 
the offer of constant employment (1841-4), 
but the labour soon proved oistastef ul to him 
(Deait Botle, Eeoolleetions, pp. 286-7). He 
wrote for the 'British Critic,' and contri- 
buted some reminiscences of Froude to Dean 
Church's ' Oxford Movement,' pp. 60-6. An 
article bv him on ' Mozley's Essays ' appeared 
in the 'N'ineteenth Century' for June 1879. 
His views on the conditions under which uni-- 
versity education may be made more avail* 
able for clerks in government offices appeared 
in No. iv. of the additional papers of the 
Tutors' Association (Oxford, 16M), and he 
set forth his opinions of SouUi African policy 
in the ' Edinburgh Review ' (April 1877> 
and the 'New Quarterly Review' (April 
1870). A manuscript autobiography of his 
early years has been published, with a selec- 
tion from his letters, under the editorship of 
Mr. G. E. Marindin (1896). 

[Lord Blachford'a Letters, ed. Marindin, 1896 ^ 
Foster's Alamni Oxen. ; Guardian, 27 Nov. 1889» 
by Dean Church; Bean Church's life and Iietters; 
Letters of Newman, ed. Hozley; Sir Henry 
Taylor's Autobiography; T. Mozle/s Beminis- 
cences of Oxford.] W. P. C. 

ROGERS, GEORGE, M.D. (1618-1697), 
physician, son of George Rogers, M.D., a fellow 
of the College of Physicians of London, who 
died in 1622, was bom in London in 161 8. 
Reentered in 1685 Lincoln College, Oxford, 
where he was a contemporary and friend of 
Christopher Bennet [g. v.] He graduated 
B.A. on 24 Jan. 1638. M.A. 4 Dec. 1641 » 
and M.B. 10 Dec 1642. He then studied 




medidne at Padua, where he was consiil of 
the English nation in the university, and 
gxaduated M J>. John Evelyn, who con- 
tinued hia aeonaintance throughout life, 
visited him at Padua in June 1645. He was 
ineorporated M.D. at Oxford on 14 April 
1648, and about 1664 beffan to practise as a 
nhvBieian in London. He was elected a 
xeUow of the College of Physicians on 
20 Oct 1664, was treasurer 168S-6, and was 
rnddent in 1688. In 1681 he delivered the 
Bsrman oratioii, which was printed in 
IdSSytnd of which he ^ve a copy to Evelyn 
(Eteltv, Diary), His only other publica- 
tion is a co n gratulatory Latin poem to his 
iaaiA Christopher Bennet, printed in the 
'Theatnun Tabidorum' in 1666. He re- 
sided on 11 Dec. 1691, owing tC ill-health, 
the office of elect, which he had held in the 
CoUe^ of Physicians since 6 Sept. 1682. 
He died on 22 Jan. 1697, and was buried at 
Itnislip, Middlesex. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Hawtrey of Buislip, and 
had three daughters, who died young, and 
three sons, George, lliomas, and John. 

[Monk's Cdl. of Phys. i. 3 16 ; Works; Evelyn's 
Disryi Posterns AlumTii Ozon.] N. H. 

B0GER8, HENRT a686P-1668), theo- 
logian,boTn in Herefordshire about 168*5, was 
son of a clergyman. He matriculated from 
Jesus GbU^e, Oxford, on 16 Oct. 1602, and 
graduated B.A. 21 Oct. 1606, M.A. SO May 
1608, B.D. IS Dec. 1616, D.D. 22 Nov. 1687. 
He became a noted preacher, and was sue* 
cessivdy rector of Moccas from 1617, and of 
9toke-£dith from 1618, and vicar of Foy 
£rY>m 1686 to 1642, and of Dorstone— all are 
in Herefordshire. He was installed in the 
prebend of Pratum Majus of Hereford Cathe- 
dral on 28 Nov. 1616 (Lb Neve, Fasti^, 
and in 1638 became lecturer, apparently in 
Hereford, through the influence of Secretary 
Sir John Coke and of George Coke, then 
bishop of Hereford. Laud gave testimony 
that Rogers was ' of good learning and con- 
fermable ' (fiist. M88, Omm, 12Ui Hep. ii. 
199, 200, 208). Ko^rs also had the repu- 
tation of bein^ an eminent schoolmaster. In 
the convocation of 1640 ' he showed him- 
self an undaunted champion' for the kin^ 
(TVaucbb, Sufferings of the Clergy , i. 86, ii. 
S4S). On the surprise of Hereford \j the 
parliamentary forces n)ecember 1646), Kogers 
was imprisoned and deprived of his prebend, 
and on 17 Dec. 1646 of his rectory of Stoke- 
Edith. He subsequently experienced great 
straits, thonfh 'sometimes comforted by the 
secret munificence of John, lord Scudamore, 
s&d the slenderer gifls of the loyal gentry ' 
(Walxeb^ uhi supra; eL Calendar (f Com-- 

nUtteefor Compounding, v. 8289). He died 
in 1668, and was buried under the parson*s 
seat in Withington church on 16 June 1668. 

Rogers wrote: 1. 'An Answer to Mr. 
Fisher the Jesuit his five propositions con- 
cerning Luther, by Mr. Rogers, that worthy 
Oxford divine, with some passages also of 
the said Mr. Rogers with the said Mr. 
Fisher. Hereunto is annexed Mr. W. 0. 
[i.e. William Crashaw, q. v.] his dialogue 
of the said argument, wherein is discovered 
Fisher's folly ' [London P], 1628, 4to. 2, ' The 
Protestant church existent, and their faith 
professed in all ages and bv whom, with a 
c&talogue of councils in all ages who pro- 
fessed the same,' London, 1688, 4to ; oedi* 
cated to George Coke, bishop of Hereford. 

[Wood's AtlMD», ed. Bliss, iii. 81 ; Bogers's 
works; informatton kindly sent by the Bev. 
Thomas Prosser Powell, rector of Dorstone, and 
the Rev. Charles S. \^too, rector of Foy; 
HavergaVs Fasti Herefordenses.] W. A. 8. 

EGOERS, HENRY (1806-1877), Edin- 
burgh reviewer and Christian apologist, was 
third son of Thonlas Rogers, sui^geon, of St. 
Albans, where he was bom on 1§ Oct. 1806. 
He was educated at private schools and by his 
father, a man of profound piety and more 
than ordinarv culture, who, bred a church- 
man, had early attached himself to the con- 
gregationalist sect. In his seventeenth year 
he was apprenticed to a surgeon at Milton- 
next-Sittmgboume, Kent; but a perusal of 
John Howe^s discourse on ' The Redeemer's 
Tears wept over Lost Souls ' diverted his at- 
tention Rom surgery to theology, and after 
Bomewhat less than three vears spent at 
Highbury College, he entered the congrega- 
tionalist ministry in June 1829. His f&st 
duty was that of assistant pastor of the 
church at Poole, Dorset, whence in 1882 he 
returned to Highbury CoUeffe as lecturer on 
rhetoric and logic. In 1^36 he was ap- 
pointed to the chair of English language 
and literature at University College, Lon- 
don, which in 1889 he exchanged for that of 
English literature and language, mathema- 
tics and mental philosophy in Spring Hill 
College, Birmingham. Iliat post ne held for 
nearly twenty years. An incurable throat 
afTection early compelled him to abandon 
preaching, so that his entire leisure was free 
for literary pursuits. 

In 1826 lto«!r8 publiBhed a small yolume 
of verse, entitled 'Poems Miscellaneous and 
Sacred;' and at Poole he began to write 
for the nonconformist periodical press. On 
his return to London he contributed intro- 
ductory essays to editions of Joseph Tru- 
man's 'Discourse of Natural and Moral Im- 
potency/the works of Jonathan Edwards, 




Jeremy Taylor (1884-5), and Edmund Burke 
(1886-7) and Robert Boyle's ' Treatiees on 
the Hign Veneration Man's Intellect owes 
to Gk>d| on Thinffs above Keason^and on tiie 
Style of the H<3y Scriptures.' In 1886 he 
issued his first important work, ' The Life 
and Character of John Howe ' (16dO-*1705) 
[^. T.] (London^ ^^o), of which later edi- 
tions appeared m 1868, 12mo; 1874, 8vo; 
and 1879, 8vo. In 1887 he edited, under 
the title 'The Christian Correspondent,' 
a classified collection of four hundred ana 
twenty-three private letters ' by eminent 
persons of both sexes, exemplifying the fruits 
of holy living and the blessedness of holy dy- 
ing/London, 8vols. 12mo. In October 1 889 he 
commenced, with an article on * The Structure 
of the English Language,' a connection with 
the ' Edinburgh Review ' which proved to be 
durable* In 1850 two volumes of selected 
'Essava' contributed to that organ were 
published, and a third in 1855, London, 8vo. 
Still further selected and augmented, these 
miscellanies were reprinted at London in 
1874 as 'Essays, Critical and Biographical, 
contributed to tiie " Edinburgh Review," ' 
2 vols. 6vo, and 'Essays on some Theological 
Controversies, chieflv contributed to the 
'^ Edinburgh Review," ' 8vo (cf. for his unao- 
knowledge essays bibliographical note infra). 

In 1852 Rogers issued anonymously, as 
'b^ F. B.,' the work upon which his fame 
chiefly rests, 'The Eclipse of Faith, or a 
Visit to a Religious Sceptic ' (London, 8vo), 
a piece of clever dialectics, in which the 
sceptic (Harrington) plays the part of can- 
did and remorseless cntic of the various 
forms of rationalism then prevalent. The 
liveliness of the dialogue and the adroit use 
made of the Socratic elenchus to the con- 
fusion of the infidel and the confirmation of 
the faithful gave the work great Vogue with 
the religious public of its day, so that in the 
course of three years it pa^ed through six 
editions. From Mr. Fnncis William r^ew- 
man, who figured in its pages in the thinnest 
of diB^uises, it elicited an animated ' Reply,' 
to which Rogers rejoined in an equally ani- 
mated < Defence of " The Eclipse of Faith," ' 
London, 1854 (8rd edit. I860). 

To the 'Encyclopesdia Britannica' (8th 
edit.) Rogers contributed the articles on 
Bishop Butler (1854), Gibbon, Hume, and 
Robert HaU (1656), Pascal and Paley 
(1859), and Voltaire (1860). In 1858 he 
succeeded to the presidency of the Lanca- 
shire Indepcoident College, with which he 
held the chair of theology until 1871. IDs 
leisure he employed in eoitiDg the works of 
John Howe, which appeared at London in 
1S62-8; 6 vols, 12mo, and in contributing to 

' Qood Words ' and the ' British Quarterly ' 
(for his articles, most of which have been re- 
printed, see infra). His health faiUng, he re- 
tired in 1871 to SilverdaLe, Morecambe Bay, 
whence in 1878 he removed to Pennal Tower, 
Machynlleth, where he died on 20 Aug. 1877. 
His remains were interred in St. Luke's 
Churchyard, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

In Ro^rs a piety, which, though essen- 
tially puritan, had in it no tinge of sourness, 
was united with a keen and sceptical intel- 
lect. He was widely read, especially in the 
borderland between philosophv and theology, 
but he was neither a philosopher nor a theo- 
logian. In criticism ne is seen to advantage 
in the essays on Luther, Leibnitz, Pascal, 
Plato, Des Cartes, and Locke in the same col- 
lection. As a Christian apologist he con- 
tinued the tradition of the last century, and 
was especiaUy influenced by Butler. His 
last work, ' Ijie Supernatural Origin of the 
Bible inferred from itself (the Congrega- 
tional Lecture for 1878), London, 1874, 8vo 
(8th edit. 1893), evinces no little ingenuity. 
His style is at its best in two volumes of 
imaginary letters entitled 'Selections from 
the Correspondence of R. E. H. Qrejson, 
Esq.' (the pseudonym being an anagram for 
his own name), London^ 1857, 8vo ; &d edit. 
1861. He was a brilliant conversationalist 
and engaging companion. 

Rogers married four times : first, in 1880, 
Sarah Frances, eldest daughter of W.N. Ben- 
tham of Chatham, a relative of Jeremy Ben- 
tham, who died soon after giving birth to her 
third child; secondly, in Novembctr 1884, her 
sister, Elizabeth, who died in the autumn 
of the following year, after giving birth to 
her first child. As the law then stood his 
second marriage was not ab initio void, but 
only voidable oy an ecclesiastical tribunal. 
He married thirdly, in 1842, Emma, daugh- 
ter of John Watson of Finsbury Square, 
London; she also died in giving birth to 
her first child, and Rogers married fourthly, 
in 1857, Jane, eldest daughter of Samuel 
Fletcher of Manchester. She died in 1891, 
having endowed 8cholarahii» in memory oi 
her husband at the T<ancasnire Indepenaent 
College and the Owens College, Manchester. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Rogers 
published: 1. 'General Introduction to a 
Course of Lectures on English Grammar and 
Composition,' 1887. 2. ' Essay on the Life and 
Genius of ThcHnas Fuller ; ' reprinted from the 
'Edinbuigh Review' in tne 'Travellers* 
Library ' vol. xv. 1856, 8. ' A Sketch of the 
Life and Character of the Rev. A. C. Simpson, 
LL.D.;' reprinted from the 'British Quar- 
terly Review,' 1867, 8vo. 4. ' Essays ' from 
'GoodWords,'1867,8vo, S.'Essay'introduo- 




taiT to a new edition of Lord Lyttelton's 
* Ohnmrratione on the Gonyenion of 8(. Pftol/ 
1868. Tbe followiiig ertioles are also under- 
stood to be hie work : ' ReliglouB MoTement in 
QeTm»nj\jBamimykB£v&w,JaxiUuy 1846), 
'MAcriage with the Siatar of a Deceaaed Wife' 
(H. Apnl 1858), 'Mecanlay'a Smeehea' (t^. 
Octob^ 1854), * Servetua and GalTin ' (Brit 
Qmarto'^ Beview, May 1849), ' Syatematic 
Theokvy' (i;^. Januaiy 1866), <Nonconfor- 
xnityuLancMhiie ' (&. Joly I860). 

i2flgen^a portrait and a memoir by R. W. 
Dale aie prefixed to the eighth edition of the 
< Svpethaaaan Origin of the Bible/ 1808, 8to* 

[DaM Memoir aboTo mentioned; Macrey 
Ktpff'f SaleetioQ firom the Oorrpspondence of the 
bta Macvey Napier, 1879 ; Evangel Mag. 1877, 
ni M9; Oongzf^ational Tearbook, 1878, p. 847; 
Kotceand Qneriea, 8th aer.n. 286.] J. M. B. 

BOGSBfiL ISAAC (1754^1889), watch- 
maker, aon ox laaac Rogers, Levant merchant 
and watdimaher, was bom in White Hart 
Court, Giaeechiireh Street, on 18 Aug. 1764. 
His father did a good trade in watches in 
foreign markets, and a apeeimen of his work 
is in the Britisk Museum. Educated at Dr. 
Mihier^a aehool, Pecldiam, the aon waa ap- 
prenticed, and in 1776 succeeded, to his 
father^a business at 4 White Hart Court. 
On 2 Sept. 1776 he waa admitted to the free- 
dom <^ uie dockmakers* Company by patri- 
mony, and on 11 Jan. 1790 became a livery- 
Dian, on 9 Oct. 1809 a member of the court of 
MMflitanta, in 1883 warden, and on ^ Sept 
1824 master. In 1802 hemored his business to 
24 LitUe BeB Alley, Coleman Street. ^He was 
also a member of the Levant Company, and 
carried on. an eztensive trade with Turkey, 
^yna, Philadelphia, and the West Indies. 
He desired and constructed two regulators 
—one with a mercurial pendulum, and the 
other with a gridiron pendulttm. Chie of the 
proieetorB of a aodety for the improTement 
of nMTtl architecture, he became treaanrer 
of the society in 1799. He was much inte- 
rested in the promotion of methods of light- 
ing the streets with gas, and on the esta^ 
Mnhinent of the Impwial Gbb Company in 
1818 was elected one of the directors and 
subsequently chairman of the board. In 
eotnunetion with Henry Clarke and George 
Atkins, he derised a permanent accumuu* 
tioD fiud as a means of restoring the finances 
of the Cloekmakers' Company. He died in 
D«eember 1880. Hia portrait is in the com- 
pute collection in the Guildhall Library. 

[E. X. Woods Corioaities of docks and 
VatAea, p. 848; Antten's Former Clock and 
Witdilfakarsyp. 872; Atkins and Orerall'sAc- 
eoistof the Oonvpany of Cloekmakers, pp. 88, 
M,», 148, 178, 185, 215, 282.] W. A S. H. 

(1828-1890)jpolitical economist, eleventh son 
of Qeom V ining Rogers, was bom at West 
Meott; Hampahire, in 1828. Educated first 
at 8ottthami>ton and King's CoUeee, Lon- 
don^ he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 9 March 1848, gra&ated B. A. with 
a fi^t class in Ut hum, in 1846, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1849. An ardent high' 
churchman, he was ordained shortly after 
taking his decree, and became curate of St* 
Paul's, Oxford. In 1856 he also acted volun* 
tarily as assistant curate at Headington, 
near Oxford. He threw himself into paro- 
chial work with energy ; but, losing sympathy 
with the tractarian movement afl^r 1860, he 
resolved to abandon the clerical profession. 
He was subsequently instrumental in obtain- 
ing the Clerical Diaabilities Relief Act, by 
which clergvmen could resign their orders. 
Of this act he waa the firat to avail himself 
(10 Aug. 1870). 

On graduating Rosers had settled in Ox- 
ford, and, while stiu engaged in clerical 
work, had made aome reputation as a auc- 
cessful private tutor in classics and philo- 
sophy. In 1859 he published an 'intro- 
ductory Lecture to the Logic of Aristotle,' 
and in 1865 an edition of Uie Nicomachean 
Ethica. He was long engaged on a ' Dic- 
tionary to Aristotle,' which he abandoned in 

1860 on the refusal of the univeraity press 
to bear the expense of printing it ; the manu- 
script is now at Worcester College, Oxford. 
Later contributions to classical literature 
were a translation of Euripidea' ' Baochs ' 
into Kngliah verae in 1872, and some ' Verse 
Epiatles, Satires, and Epigrama' imitated 
from Horace and Juvenal in 1876. He waa 
examiner in the final classical school in 1857 
and 1858, and in classical moderations in 

1861 and 1862. In the adminiatrative work 
of the university he took a large ahare ; but 
he severely criticised the professorial aystem 
and the distribution of endowments in * Edu- 
cation in Oxford : its Methods, its Aids, and 
its Rewards,'. 1861. In later life, while ad- 
vocating the admission of women to the ex- 
aminationa and the revival of non-collegiate 
membership of the university, he disapproved 
of the offidal recognition by the university 
of English literature and other subjects of 
studv which had previouslv lain outside the 
curriculum. From an early period Rogers 
devoted much of hia leisure to the study of 
political economy, and in 1859 he was elected 
first Tooke professor of statistics and eoonomio 
science at King's College, London. This 
oflBlce he held tul his death, besides acting 
for some yean as examiner in political eco- 
nomy at the university of London. In 1860 




he begd,n his researches into the history of 
agriculture and prices, on which his per- 
manent fame rests. In 1862 he was elected 
by convocation for a term of ^re years 
Brummond professor of political economy 
in the university of Oxford. He zealously 
performed the duties of hb new office, and 
m 1867, when his tenure of the Drum- 
mond professorship expired, he offered him- 
self for re-election. But his advanced poli- 
tical views, and his activity as a speaker 
on political platforms, had offendeid the 
more conservative members of convocation. 
Bonamy Price [q. v.] was put up as a rival 
candidate, and, after an active canvas on 
his behalf, was elected by a lar^e majority. 
Despite his rejection, Kogers Dusily con- 
tinued his economic investigations. He had 
published the first two volumes of his * His- 
tory of Agriculture ' in 1866. There followed 
in 1868 a student's ^Manual of Political 
Economy,' in 1869 his edition of Adam 
Smith's * Wealth of Nations,' and in 1871 an 
elementary treatise on ' Social Economy.' 

One of Rogers's elder brot hers, John Bligh 
Rogers, who was engaged in medical prac- 
tice at Droxford, Hampshire, had married 
Emma, sister of Richara Gobden, on 16 Oct. 
1827. This connection brought Rogers in 
his youth to Cobden's notice, and the two 
men, despite the difference in their ages, 
were soon on terms of intimacy. Rogers 
adopted with ardour Cobden's political and 
economic views, and, though suWquent ex- 
perience led him to reconsider some of them, 
he adhered to Cobden's leading principles 
through life. He was a freauent visitor at 
Cobden's house at Dunsford, and Cobden 
visited Rogers at Oxford. After Cobden's 
death Rogers preached the funeral sermon 
at West Lavington church on 9 April 1666, 
and he defended Cobden's general political 
position in 'Cobden and Modem Political 
Opinion,' 1878. He was an early and an 
active member of the Cobden Club. Through 
Cobden he came to know John Bright, 
and, although his relations with Bright 
were never dose, he edited selections of 
Brieht's public speeches in 1868 and 1879, 
ana co-operated with him in preparing Cob- 
den's speeches for the press in 18^0. Under 
such influences Rogers threw himself into 

Jolitical agitation, and between 1860 and 
880 proved himself an effective platform 
speaker. He championed the cause of the 
ISorth during the American civil war, and 
warmly denounced the acts of Governor 
Eyre in Jamaica. In the controversy over 
elementary education he acted with tne ad- 
vanced section of the National Education 
League. In 1667 he contribttted an article on 

bribery to ' Questions for a Reformed Parliar 
ment.' He was always well disposed towards 
the co-operative movement, andpresided at the 
seventh annual congress in London in 1875. 

Having thus fitted himself for a seat in 
parliament, Rogers was in 1874 an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for Scarborough in the 
liberal mterest. From 1880 to 1885 he re- 
presented, together with Mr. Arthur Cohen, 
Q.C., the borough of South wark. After the 
redistribution of seats by the act of 1885 he 
was returned for the Bermondsey division. 
He took little part in the debates of the 
House of Commons, but on 10 March 1886 
moved and carried a resolution recommend- 
ing that local rates should be divided be- 
tween owner and occupier. He followed 
Mr. Qladstone in his adoption of the policy 
of home rule in 1886, and consequently 
failed to retain his seat for Bermondsey at 
the general election in July of that year. 

Before and during his parliamentary career 
Rogers lectured on history at Mr. Wren's 
'coaching' establishment in Bayswater. But 
he still resided for the most part at Oxford, 
and continued his contributions to economic 
literature. In 1888 he was appointed lecturer 
in political economy at Worcester College, 
and on the death of his old rival, Bonamy 
Pkice, in 1888, he was re-elected to the 
Drummond professorship at Oxford. He 
died at Oxford on 12 Oct. 1890. 

Rogers married, on 19 Dec. 1860, at Peters' 
field, Anna, only daughter of William Pes« 
kett, surgeon, of Petersfield ; she died with- 
out issue in 1653. On 14 Dec. 1864 Rogers 
married his second wife, Anne Susanna 
Charlotte, second daughter of H. R. Rey- 
nolds, esq., solicitor to the treasury, by 
whom he had issue five sons and a daughter. 
A portrait by Miss Margaret Hetcher is in 
the possession of the National Liberal Club, 
the library of which owes mudi to his 
counsel, and another by the same artist is in 
the hall of Worcester College, Oxford. 

It is as an economic historian that Rogers 
deserves to be remembered. C^ minute and 
scholarly historical investigation he was a 
keen aavocate, and to his diief publica- 
tion, 'History of Agriculture and Prices,' 
English historical writers stand deeply in- 
debted. No similar record exists for any other 
country. The f uU tide of the work was ' A 
History of Agriculture and Prices in Eng- 
land from the year after the Oxford Parliar 
ment (1259) to the commencement of the 
Continental War (1798), compiled exitirel:^ 
from original and contemporaneous records. 
Vols. i. and ii. (1259-1400) were published 
at Oxford in 1866, 8yo; vols. iii. and iv. 
(1401-1582) in 1882 ; vols, t, and vL (1583- 




1702) in 1887 ; while Tok. yii. and Tiii. (1702- 
1793), for wliich Rogers had made lar^e col- 
lections; are being Diepazed for pubbcation 
bj hif fourth eon, Mr. A. G. L. Kogers. 

Bogen pttbUahed both the materials which 
he ertsacted £rom contemporary records and 
tbe aTerages and the oonelusions he based 
upon theoi. The matwials are of permanent 
Taloeybat some of his conclusions nave been 
asaaikd as inaccnrate. He sought to trace 
tbe inflnence of eoonomic forces on political 
AOTements, and appealed to history to illus- 
trate andeondemn what he regarded as eco- 
nomic <«n^i*i<»»- But he seems to have over- 
estuoated the prosperous condition of the 
Engliah labourer in the middle ages, and to 
kave somewhat exaggerated the oppressive 
eieets of legislation on his position in the 
terenieenth and eighteenth centuries. Mr. 
Frnieiic Seebohm proved that Rogers neatly 
underestimated the effects on the rural popu- 
lation of the * black death ' of 1349 (eL Fori- 
nigktbf Review^ iL iii. iv.) ; Dr. Cunningham 
has Aown that Bogers seriously antedated 
the eoomutation of viUein-service, and mis- 
apprehended the value of the currencnr in the 
foortcMoth and fifteenth centuries (Growth 
<fEii$luh Industry and Ccfmimerce^ passim). 
But it shoold be recognised that much of 
Boffm's vast work is that of a pioneer 
maxingxoads through an unexplored country. 
To abSzact eoonomio theory Boeers made 
no important contribution. He objected to 
tbe method and to many of the conclusions 
of the Rieardian school of economists, but 
he never shook himself free from their con- 
ceptiona. Nor had he much sympathy with 
the historical school of economists of the 
type of Boeeher. 

Several of Rogers's other publications were 
largely based upon the 'History of Apicul- 
ture and Prices.' Of these the most impor- 
tant was ' 93bc Centuries of Work and Wages ' 
(2 vols. London, 1884, 8vo; new edition re- 
need in one volume, London, 1886, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1890, 8to). Ei^t chapters of his < Six 
Centuries ' were reprinted separately as ' The 
HistOTT of Work and Wages,' 1886, 8vo. 
Ola < FSnt Nine Years of the Bank of Eng- 
land,' Oxford, 1887, 8vo, and his article < Fi- 
nance ' in the ' Encylopndia Britannica,' 9th 
edit, are valuable contributions to financial 
history. The former reprints a weekljr regis- 
ter discov e red by Bogers of the prices of 
htnk stock from 1694 to 1703, with a narra- 
tire showing the reasons of the fluctuations. 

Bof^eis a£o published : 1. < Frimoflpenituie 
•ad EataiV &e., Manchester, 1884, 8vo. 
2. * Historical Gleanings : a series of sketches, 
Montague, Walpole, Adam Smith, Gobbett,' 
London, 1869, 8to ; 2nd ser. Wiclif, Laud, 

Wilkes, Home Tooke, London, 1870, 8vo. 
S. *Paul of Tarsus: an inquiry into the 
Times and the Gospel of the Apostle of the 
Gentiles, by a Graduate' [anon.J, 1872, 8vo. 
4. ' A Complete CoUeetion of the Protests 
of the Lords, with Historical Introductions,' 
&c., 3 vols. Oxford, 1876, 8vo. 6. < Tbe Oor- 
r^pondenoe of the English establishment, 
with the Purpose of its Foundation,' London 
[1876], 8vo. 6. 'Loci e Libro Veritatum. 
Passages selected from Gkiscoyne's Theo- 
loffical Dictionary . • / 1881, 4to. 7. ' En- 
siu^ in America: its Prospects in English 
Apnculture,' London, 188S, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
with a new introduction on the progress of 
ensilage in England during 1888-4, London, 
1884, 8vo. 8. <The British Citisen: his 
Bights and Privileges,' 1886 (in the People's 
Library.) 9. 'HoUand' (Story of the Nations 
series), 1888, 8vo. 10. 'The Belations of 
Economic Science to Social and Political 
Action,' London, 1888, 8vo. 11. ' The Eco- 
nomic Interpretation of History,' &:c., Lon- 
don, 1888, 8vo; there are translations in 
French, Gbrman, and Spanish. 12. ' Oxford 
Oity Documents . . . 1268-1666' (Oxford 
Historical SocietyV Oxford, 1891, 8vo. 
18. ' Industrial and Commercial History of 
England,' a course of lectures, edited by his 
fourth son, Mr. A. G. L. Bogers, London, 
1892, 8vo. 

JosBPH BoesBS (1821-1889), medical 
practitioneri elder brother of the above, for 
fort^ jeKt^ activelv promoted reform in the 
administration of tne poor law. Commencing 
practice in London in 1844, he became super- 
numerary medical officer at St. Anne's, Soho, 
in 1866, on the occasion of an outbreak of 
cholera. In the following year he was ap- 

Eointed medical officer to the Strand worx- 
ouse. In 1861 he gave evidence before the 
select committee of the House of Commons 
on the supply of drugs in worirhouse in- 
firmaries, when his views were adopted by 
the committee. In 1868 his zeal for reform 
brought him into conflict with the guardians, 
and the president of the poor-law board, 
after an inquiry, removed him ^m office. 
In 1872 he became medical officer of the 
Westminster infirmary. Here also the 
guardians resented his efforts at reform and 
suspended him, but he was reinstated by 
the president of the ^oor-law board, and 
his admirers presented him with a testimonial 
consisting of three pieces of plate and a 
cheque for 160/. He was the founder and 
for some time nresident of the Poor Law 
Medioal Officers' Association. The system 
of poor-law dispensaries and separate side 
wards, with proper staffs of medical atten- 
dants and niuaes, is due to the efforts of 




Rogers and his colleaguea. He died in 
Abril 18H9. His '-Reminiscences' were 
^ited l^ his brother, J. B. Thorold Rogers. 

[RenA de Laboulaye's Thorold Rogen*, i.e8 
Th^riaHtnrlaPropriM(l891); Timee, 10 April 
1880 14 Get 1890; Aoademy, 1890» ii. 841; 
Athensum, 1890, ii 512; auardian, 1890, ii 
1600; Bksotnomio Beyiew, 1891, toL I Na 1; 
Dr. Rogen's RemiuisceacM ; Foitter*8 Alrnmii 
Oxon. 1716-1886. iii. 1219.] W. A. S. H. 

BOGERS, JOHN (1500 P-1566), first 
martyr in the Maritfq persecution, bom about 
1500 at Deritend' in the parish of A^ton, 
near Birmingham, wa3 son of John Rogers 
a loriner, of Deritend, bj his wife, Ma^erv 
Wyatt (cf. R. K. Dbjstt, ij^hn Rogers of Den- 
land, in ' Transactions of- Birmingham Ar- 
6h8Bological Section' [Midland Institute] 
1896). After being ^ucited at Pembroke 
HaU, Cambridge, he graduated B.A. in 1526. 
Heis doubtless the John Rogers who was pre- 
sented on 26 Dec 1532 to i& London rectory 
of Holy Trinity, or Trinity the Less, now 
united with that of St. Michael, Queenhitbs. 
He resigned the benefice at the end of 1584, 
when he seems te have proceeded to Ant- 
werp to act as chaplain to the English mer- 
chant adventurers there. He was at the 
time an orthodox catholic priest, but at Ant^ 
werp he met William Tindal, who was en- 
gaged on his translation of the Old Testa- 
ment into English. This intimacy quickly 
led Rogers to abandon the doctrines of Rome; 
but he enjoyed Tindal*s society only for a 
few mcuaths, for Tindal was arrested in the 
spring of 15S5, and was burnt alive on 
6 Oct. next year. The commonly accepted 
report that Rogers saw much of Coverdale 
during his earlv sojourn in Antwerp is re- 
futed bv the tact that Coverdale was in 
Englanaat the time. Rogers soon proved 
the thoroughness of his conversion to pro- 
testantism by takinff a wife. This was late 
in 1586 or early in 1587. The lady, Adriana 
de Wey den (the surname, which means * mea^ 
dows,' Lat. prata, was anglicised into Pratt), 
was of an Antwerp family. ' She was more 
richly endowed,* says Fox, ' with virtue and 
soberness of life than with worldly treasures.' 
After his marriage Rogers removed to Wit- 
tenberg, to take charffe of a protestant oon- 
Sregation« He rapidly became proficient in 

There seems no doubt that soon after his 
arrest Tindal handed over to Rog^n his in- 
complste translation of the OldTestament, 
and that Rogers mainly oocnpied himseli 
4uring 1596 in preparing the English version 
of the whole biole for the press, including 
lindsl's translation of the New Testament 
whidi had been already publialied for the first 

time in 1526. Tiuflarsouuiumnriptdrsftofthe 
Old Testament reached the ena of the Book 
of Jonah. But Rogers did not include that 
book, and only employed Tindal's rendering 
to the close or the second book of Chronicles. 
To complete the tranidation of the Old Tes- 
tament and Anocrypha, he borrowed, for the 
most part without alteration, Miles Cover- 
dale's rendering, which had been published 
in 1585. His sole original contributkm to 
the translation was a version of the ' Prayer 
of Mauasses* in the Apocrypha, which he 
drew from a French Bible printed at Neu- 
chatel by Pierre de Wingle in 1585. The 
work was printed at the Antwerp press of 
Jacob von Meteren. The wood-engravings of 
the title and of a drawing of Adam andEve 
were struck from blocks which had been used 
in a Dutch Bible printed at Liibeck in 1588. 
Richard Grafton [q. v.] of London purchased 
the sheets, and, uter presenting a copy to 
Cranmer in July 1587, obtained permission 
to sell the edition (of fifteen hundred copies) 
in England. The title ran: 'The Bvble, 
which IS all the Holy Scripture : in whych 
are contayned the Olde and Newe Testament 
truly and purely translated into Englysh by 
Thomas Matthew, MDXXXVII. Set forth 
with the kinges most gracious Lyce[n]ce.' 
The volume comprised 1,110 fblio pages, 
double columns, and was entirely printed in 
black letter. Three copies are in the British 
Museum. A second folio edition (of greater 
rarity) appeared in 1588, and Robert Red- 
man is credited with having produced a 
16mo edition in five volumes in 1540; of 
this no copy is known. It was twice re- 
printed in 1549 : first, by Thomas Raynalde 
and William Hyll, and again by John Day 
and William Seres, with notes by Edmund 
Becke [(}. v.] Nicholas Hyll printed the latest 
edition in 1551. 

Although Rogers's responsibility for the 
translation is small, to him are due the valu- 
able prefatory matter and the marginal notes. 
The latter constitute the first English com- 
mentary on the Bible. The prefatory matter 
includes, firstly,'TheKalendar and Almanack 
for xviii yeares' from 1588; secondly, * An 
exhortacyon onto the Studye of the Holy 
Scripture gathered out of the Byble,' signed 
with Rogers's initials ' I. R.' (the only direct 
reference to Rogers made in the volume); 
thirdly, ' The summe and content of all the 
Holy Scripture, both of the Old and Newe 
Testament; ' fourthly, a dedicatiott to King 
HeniT, sifped 'Thomas Matthew;' fifthly 
I a table of the pry u c y p a ll matters oonteyne^ 
in the Byble, in whyeh the readers may 
fynde and praetyse many commune places,' 
occupying twenty-aix fouo pages, aAd eom- 




Mning tke einnoteriBtics of a dicdonarY. a 
eoiieoniaiiap,aad aoomiBeiitary; and sixthly, 
' Hm nuMaof all the bokes in the Byble, and 
a hri^ ralMnall of the yeaiM passed senoe 
tbe bqayDnTn^s of tiie woride onto 1638.' 
in eke MialJe m the princrf pall matters * the 
paesagM in the Bible which seemed to Rogers 
to eovote the doctrines of the Romish churdi 
aie ^BTf lolly noted. An introductory ad- 
dress to the reader prefisces the apoorynhal 
boofcs, which are deseribed as uniuspizea. 

Bj adopting tiie peendonym 'Tliomas Mat- 
thew ' on the tttlflHpage, and when signing 
the dedieation to Hniry VIII, Rogers ofoubt- 
Isas hoped to p roser ve himself from Tindal's 
fate. He was thenceforth known as ' Rogers, 
aUrng Matthew/ and his bible was commonly 
quoted as ' Matthew's Bible/ 

It waa the eecond complete printed version 
in Kngiiah, Gorerdale's of 1686 being tbe 
flist. Rogera'a labours were largely uMd in 
the prrparation of the Great Bible (1639- 
IM}\ on which was baaed the Bishop's Bible 
(1568)^ Che latter being the main foundation 
oi the Authorised Version of 1611. Hence 
Rqgean maj be credited with haying effeo- 
tivtdy aided in the production of the classical 
Eagliah translation of the Bible (J. R. Dobb, 
Old Bihksj 1888, pp. 113 eeq. ; £adtb, Eng- 
Uak BibUp L 309 sqq. ; Ahdjebsok, Annals of 
ike B^iM Bible, u 619 sq.) 

Rogns returned to London in the summer 
of 16iBu For a time he resided with the pub- 
lisher, Edward Whitchurch, the partner of 
Richaid Ghrafton, and Whitchuroh published 
lot hiB ' A Waying and Considering of the 
Interim, hy the honour^worthy ana highly 
Itfamed Phillip Melancthon, translated into 
Englyshe by J ohn Rogers.' Rogers's preface 
is dated 1 Aug. 1648. ;The Interim ' was 
(he name applied to an edict published by the 
Emperor Charles V's orders in the diet of 
AngBbuiv on 16 May 1648, bidding protes- 
tantsooiuarm to catholic practices. Accord- 
ing to Foxe's storyi which maybe true,^ tho ugh 
Mme details are suspicious» Ro^rs in 1660 
declined to use his mfluence with Cranmer, 
srehbiahop of Canterbunr, to mreyent the 
saabaptiat, Joan Bocher, m>m suni»ring death 
by brnning; Rogen told the friend who in- 
tsreeded with him for the poor woman that 
detth at the stake was a gentle punishment. 
' Wi^ perhaps/ the friend retorted, pro- 
phetiealy'y ' yon may ret find that you your- 
self shall have your hands full of this so 
mtle £Tt' (FozjB, Commeniarii Berum in 
2«Ua OeUarmn^jf. 202). 

On 10 MaT 1660 Rogers was presented 
■multaneoiiBiy to the rectory of St. Mar- 
guet Moyaea and the vicarage of St. Se- 
pskhre^ both in London. They were crown 

livinffs, but Nicasius Yetswiert, whose 
daughter married Rogers's eldest son, was 
patron of St. Sepulchre pro hoc viae. Ob 
24 Aug. 1661 Rogers was appointed to the 
talUable prebend of St. Pancraa in St. Paul's 
Cathedral by Nicholas Ridley [q. v.l, bishop of 
London. With the prebend went the rectory 
of ChigweU, but this benefice brought no 
pecuniary benefit. Ridley formed a high 
opinion of Ro^rs's zeal. He wrote some- 
what enigmatically to Sir John Cheke, on 
23 July 1661, that he was a preacher ' who 
for detecting andconfutingof the anabaptists 
and papists in Essex, botn by lus preaching 
and by his writing, ia enforced now to bear 
Qirist's cross.' Subsequently the dean and 
chapter of St. Paul's appointed him divinity 
lecturer in the cathedral But Roffers's atti- 
tude to the government was not wholly com- 
placent. The greed of the chief courtiers 
about Edward Vl excited his disgust, and 
in a sermon at Paul's Cross he denounced 
the misuse of the property of the suppressed 
monasteries with such vi^ur that ne was 
aummoned before the pnvy council. He 
made an outspoken defence, and no further 
proceedings are known tp have been taken. 
But at the same time he declined to conform 
to the vestments, and insisted upon wearing 
a round cap. Consequently, it would appear, 
he was temporarily suspended from his post 
of divinity lecturer at St. Paul's. According 
to an obscure entry in the ' Privy Councu 
Register' in June 1663, orders were then 
issued by the council to the chapter to ad- 
mit him within the cathedral, apparently to 
fulfil the duties of divinitjr-lecturer. In 
April 1662 he secured a special act of par- 
liament naturalising his wife and such of 
his children as had Been bom in Qermany. 

On 16 JuW 1553, the second Sunday after 
the death of Edward VI and the day before 
Mary was proclaimed queen, Rogers preached , 
by order of Queen Jane's council, at Paul's 
C&oss. Unlike Ridley, who haa occupied 
that pulpit the previous Sunday, he con- 
fined nimself to expounding the gospel of the 
day. On 6 Aug., three days after ^ueen Mary's 
arrival in London, Rogers preached again at 
the same place. He boldly set forth * such 
true doctrine as he and others had there 
taught in King Edward's days, exhorting 
the people constantly to remain in the same, 
and to beware of all pestilent Popery, idola- 
try, and superstition/ For using such lan- 
Siage he was summoned before tne council, 
e explained that he was merely preaching 
the religion established by parliament. 
Nothing followed immediately, out Rogers 
never preached again. On the 16th he was 
again summoned before the counciL The 




register described him as ' John Rogers aUas 
Matthew/ He was now ordered to confine 
himself to his own house, within the cathe- 
dral close of St. Paul's, and to confer with 
none who were not of his own household. 
About Christmas-time his wife, with eight 
female friends, paid a fruitless visit to Lord- 
chancellor Ganuner to hea his enlamment. 
He had been deprived ox the emoluments 
of his benefices. The St. Pancras prebend was 
filled as early as 10 Oct. 1663, and, although 
no successor was inducted into the vicarage of 
St. Sepuldure until 11 Feb. 1665, Sogers de- 
rived no income from it in the interval. On 
27 Jan. 1554 Rogers was, at the instigation 
of Bonner, the new bishop of London, re- 
moved to Newgate. 

With Hooper, Lawrence Saunders, Brad- 
ford, and other prisoners, Rogers drew up, 
on 8 May 1554, a confession of faith, which 
adopted Oalvinistic doctrines in their ex- 
tremest form (Foxb). Thenceforth Rogers's 
troubles rapidlj increased. He had to pur- 
chase food at his own cost, his wife was rarely 
allowed to visit him, and petitions to Gardiner 
and Bonner for leniency met with no response. 
In December 1654 Rogers and the other im- 
prisoned preachers, £S)oper, Ferrar, Taylor, 
Bradford, Philpot, and Saunders, petitioned 
the king and queen in parliament for an op- 
portunity to discuss freely and openly their 
religious doctrines, expressing readiness to 
sufSr punishment if they failed fairly to esta- 
b^h uieirposition. Foxe states that while 
in prison Ifogers wrote much, but that his 
papers were seized bjr the authorities. Some 
'of the writings ascribed to his friend Brad- 
ford may possiblv be by him, but, beyond 
his reports of nis examination, no lite- 
rary compositions by him belonging to the 
period of his imprisonment survive. The 
doggerel verses * Give ear, my children, to my 
words,' which are traditionally assigned to 
Rogers while in prison, were i^ally written 
by another protestant martyr, Robert Smith. 

In December 1554 parliament revived the 
penal acts against the loUards, to take effect 
from 20 Jan. following. On 22 Jan. 1555 
Rogers and ten other protestant preachers 
confiined in London pnsons were brought 
before the privy council, which was then 
sitting in Gardiner^s house in Southwark. 
To Gardiner's opening inquiry whether he 
acknowledged the papal creed and authority, 
Rogers replied that he recognised Christ 
alone as tne head of the church. In the 
desultory debate that followed Rogers held 
his own with some dexterity. Gardiner de- 
clared that the scriptures forbad him to dis- 
pute with a heretic. * I deny that I am a 
neretie,' replied Rogers. 'Prove that first, 

and then ^Usfro your text,' From only one 
of the coimcifiors nresent— Thomas Thirlby, 
bishop of Ely-^d he receive, aocording to 
his own account, ordinary ctvility. Before 
the examinationelosed he was rudely taunted 
with havinff by his marriage violated canoni- 
cal law. On 28 Jan. Oarainal Pole directed 
a commission of bishops and others to take 
prooeediuffs against persons liable to prose- 
cution under the new statutes against heresy. 
On the afternoon of the same day Rogers, 
Hooper, and Gardmaker were earned to St. 
Saviour's Ohurch, Southwark, before Gar- 
diner and his fellow-commissioners. After 
a discussion between Roffers and his judges, 
in which he maintained his former attitude, 
Gardiner ^ve him till next day to consider 
his situation. Accordingly, on 29 Jan. he 
was a^in brought befbreGarainer, who heard 
with impatience his effort to explain his 
views of the doctrine of the sacrament. As 
soon as he closed his address, Gardiner sen- 
tenced him to death as an excommunicated 
person and a heretic, who had denied the 
Christian character of the church of Rome 
and the real presence in the sacrament. A 
request that his wife ' might come and speak 
with him so long as he lived ' was brusquely 
refused. A day or two later, in conversation 
with a fellow-prisoner, John Day or Daye 
[q. v.], the printer, he confidently predicted 
the speedy restoration of protestantism in 
England, and suggested a means of keeping 
in readiness a band of educated protestant 
ministers to supply future needs. While 
awaiting death his cheerfulness was undimi- 
nished. His fellow-prisoner Hooper said of 
him that ' there was never little fellow better 
would stick to a man than he [i.e. Rogers] 
would stick to him.' On Monday morning 
(4 Feb.) he was taken from his cell to the 
chapel at Newgate, where Bonner, bishop of 
London, formally degraded him from the 
priesthood by directing his canonical dress to 
be torn piecemeal from his person. Imme* 
diately afterwards he wis taken to Smithfield 
and burnt slive, within a few paces of the 
entrance-gate of the church of St. Bartho- 
lomew. He was the first of Mary's protes- 
tant prisoners to suffer capital punishment. 
The privy councillors Sir Robert Rochester 
and sir Richard Southwell attended as 
official witnesses. Before the fire was kindled 
a pardon in official form, conditional on re- 
cantation, was offered to him, but he refused 
life under such terms. Count Noailles, the 
French ambassador in London, wrote : ' This 
day was performed the confirmation of the 
alliance between the pope and this kingdom, 
by a public and solemn sacrifice of a preaching 
doctor named Rogers, who has been burned 




«IiTe for being a Lnthenn ; but lie died per- 
eifltiiig in hie opinion. At thia conduct the 
greeteil put of the people took snch plea- 
cue tfcat tkej wem not afraid to make him 
flMBjexclaniationa to strengthen his courage, 
fiven hia children aaaiated at it, comforting 
him in sneh a manner that it seemed as if 
he had been led to a wedding' {Ambauades^ 
tqL it.^ Ridley declared that he rejoiced at 
Roean end, and that news of it destroyed 
* a fampidi heayineas in his heart.' Bradford 
wTote that Rogers broke the ice yaliantly. 

Then is a portrait of Bocers in the 
' HenMlogia/ which isreprodacea in Chester's 
'Biography' (1861). A woodcut representing 
kis execution is in Foxe's 'Actes and 

By his wife, Adriana Pratt or de Way den, 
Bogen had, with three daughters, of whom 
Susannah married William Short, grocer, 
eight 80DS--Daniel(1638F-1591)rq.T. J, John 
(see bdow), Ambrose, Samuel, Philip, Ber- 
nard, Augustine, Bamaby . Numerous fami- 
liM, both in England and America, claim 
deaont from Bo^rs throu^ one or other of 
these sons. But no yalid genealogical eyi- 
denoe is in existence to substantiate any of 
these daims. The names of the children of 
Rogers's sons are unknown, except in the 
case of Daniel, and Daniel left a son and 
daughter, whose descendants are not trace- 
able. Aecording to a persistent tradition, 
Richaid Bmn (1560P-1616) [a. y.], in- 
cumbent of Wethersfield, and the mther of a 
large fkmily, whose descent is traceable, was 
a grandson of the martyr Rogers. Such 
argumoit as can be adduced on the subject 
rendefs the tradition untrustworthy. More 
yalae may be attached to the daim of the 
funihr of Frederic Rogers, lord Blachford 
[q. y.j, to descend from John Rogers ; his 
ndigree haa been satisfactorily traced to 
Vincent Rogers, minister of Stratford-Ie- 
Bow, Middlesex, who married there Dorcas 
Young on 25 Oct. 1586, and may haye been 
the martyr's grandson. Lord Blachford'e 
'fiunily,' wrote the fpenealofpst. Colonel 
€3ie8Cer, ' of aU now living, either in Eng- 
land or America, possesses the most (if not 
the only) reasonable claims to the honour 
of a direct descent from the martyr.' 

The second eon, John Rogebs (1540 P- 
10Q8?), bom at Wittenberg about 1540, 
cane to England with the family in 1548, 
and was naturalised in 1552. He matricu- 
ktcd as a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Gambridge,on 17 Ma^ 1558, graduated B.A. 
ta 1562- 3, and M^.m 1507, and was elected 
a feUow. He afterwards migrated to Trinity 
Oolkge^ where he became a scholar. In 1574 
ha was created LLJ)*i And (m 21 Noy. of ' 

roL. xyn. 

that year was admitted to the College of 
Advocates. He alsojoined the Inner Temple. 
He was elected M.P. for Wareham on 
28 Noy. 1585, 20 Oct. 1586, and 4 Feb. 
1588-9. Meanwhile he was employed on 
diplomatic missions abroad, at first conjointly 
with his brother DanieL In August 1580 
he waa sent alone to arrange a treaty with 
the town of Elving, and afterwwrds went 
to the court of Denmark to notify the king 
of his election to the order of the Garter ; 
thence he proceeded to the court of Poland. 
In 1588 he was a commissioner in the Netiber- 
lands to negotiate the ' Bourborough Treaty ' 
with the IKike of Parma, and his fru^ility m 
speaking Italian proyed of great seryice. 
Later in 1588 Rogers went to Embden to 
treat with Danish commissioners respecting 
the traffic of Englidi merchants with Russia. 
From 11 Oct. 1596 till his resignation on 
3 March 1602-8 he was chanc^or of the 
cathedral church of WeUs. He married Mary, 
daughter of William Leete of Eyerden, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Cassandra Rogers, who married 
Henry, son of Thomas Siuris of Horsham, 
Sussex, was possibly his daughter. He must 
be distinguisned from John Rogers, M.P. for 
Canterbury in 1596, and from a third John 
Rogers, who was knighted on 28 July 1608. 
The former was of an ancient Dorset family ; 
the latter of a Kentish family (Coopeb, 
AtheruB Cantabr, ii. 885; Chbbtbb, John 
Robert J pp. 285, 271-4 ; Notes and QuerieSf 
8th ser. xi. 806). 

[There is an elaborate biography, embraciiig 
a genealogieal account of his family, by Joseph 
Lranuel Chester, London, 1861. foze, who is 
the chief original authority, gave two aoeounts 
of Bogeis which difler in some detail. The first 
appeared in his Remm in ESodesia Pars Prima, 
Basle, 1669 ; the second in his Aetes and Monu- 
ments, 1668. The Latin yereion is the faller. 
An important source of information is Rogers's 
own account of his first examination at SouUi- 
wark, which was diseoxered in manuscript in hui 
cell after his death by his wife and son. Thii 
report was imperfectly printed, and somewhat 
garbled by Fooce. A completer transcript is 
among Foxe's manuscripts at the British Mn- 
senm (Lanadowne MS. 889, ff. 190-202), which 
Chester printed in an appendix to bis biography. 
See also Cooper^s Athens Cantabr. i. 121, 646 ; 
Strype*s Annals ; Anderson's Annals of the Bible; 
ColTile's Warwiekahire Worthies ; Tanner^s 
Bibl. Brit.] S. L. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1572P-16d6), puritan 
diyine, a nntiye of fissex, was born about 
1572. He waa a near reiatiye. of Richard 
Rogers (1550P-1618) [q. y.lwho proyided 
for his education at Cunbridfge. Twice did 
the ungrateful lad sell his books and waste 
the proceeds. His kinsman would haye dia« 




caaided him but for his wife's intereeamdn. 
On a thiid trial Rogers finished his university 
career -with credit. In 1592 he became yicar 
of Honingham, Norfolk, and in 1608 he suc- 
ceeded LawTMice Fairdou^, father of Samuel 
Fairclough [q. v.], as yicar of HaTcrhill, 

in 1606 he became vicar of Dedham, 
Essex, where for over thirty years he had 
the repute of being ' one of the most awaken- 
ing preachers of the age.' On his lecture days 
his church OTorfidwed. Cotton Mather re- 

Ca sayinff of Ralph Brownrig [q. v.] that 
vs wonla ' do more good with his wild 
notes than we with our set music' His 
kotuie was suppressed from 1620 till 1631, 
^n the ground of his nonconformity. His 
anbseqnent oomplianee was not strict. GKlas 
Fizmin [q. v.], one of his converts, ' never 
flaw him wear a surplice/ and* he only occa- 
sionally used the prayer-book, and then re- 
Siated portions of it from memory. He 
ed on 18 Oct. 1686, and was buried in the 
ohccTG^yard at Dedham. There is a tomb- 
stone to his memory, and also a mural monu- 
ment in the church. His funeral sermon was 
preached by John Knowles (1600 P-16d5) 
[q. v.] His engraved portrait exhibits a worn 
face, and depicts him in nightcap, ruff, and 
fiill beard. Matthew Newcomen^q.-vJ suc- 
ceeded him at Dedham* Nathaniel ltog«rs 
[q. v.] was his second son. 

fiepabliehed: 1. < The Doctrine of Faith,' 
&c., 1627, 12mo ; 6th edit. 1684, 12mo. 2. < A 
T^reatise of Love,' &&, 1629, 12mo ; 8xd edit. 
1687, limo. Posthumous was 8. < A €K)dly 
and Froitftd Exposition upon . . . the Firtt 
Epistle of Peter,' ftc, 1660, fol. Brook 
ttssi^s to him, wfthbut date, 'Sixty Me- 
morials of a Gk>dly Life.' He prefkced ' Gods 
Treasurie displayed,' &c., loSO, 12mo, by 
F.B. (Francis Bunny P) 

[Brook's lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 421 
so.; Cotton Mather's Mngnalia, 1702. iii. 19; 
Cfabmy's Account, 1713, p. 298; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of Eo^and, 1779, ii. 191 sq. ; 
Davids's Annals of £yang. ll^onoonf. in Essex, 
1863, pp. 146 sq.; Broime's Hist. Congr. Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, 1877, p. 603.] A. G. 

EOGEBS, JOHN (1^27*1666 P), fifth- 
monarchy man, bom in 1/627 at Meesing in 
Essex, was second son of Nefaemii^ Rogers 

[S* ^i ^7. ^"^ ^"^® MaiigMet, sister of Wil- 
liam Collingwood, a clergyman of Essex, who 
was appointed canon oTSt. P^'s after the 
Bsatoration. In eurly life John experienced 
a deep cdayiotioB of sm. Aft«r five years he 
obtained assurance of salration, but not befote 
be had more than once in his despair at- 
tempted his own life. Thenceforth he threw 
in his lac with the most advanoed section 

of puritans, and in oonae^uence was tvmed 
out of doors by his father m 1643. He made 
his way on foot to Cafnfaridge, where he was 
already a atudent of medicine and a serritor 
at King's College. But the civil war had 
broken out, and Cambridge was doing penance 
for its loyalty. King's College Chapel was 
tnmed into a drill-room, and the serrltors 
dismissed. Rogers, almost starred, was 
driven to eat grass, but in 1648 he obtained 
a post in a school in Lord Brudenel's house 
in Huntingdonshire, and afterwards at the 
firee school at St. Neots. In a short time he 
became well known in Huntingdondiiie as a 
preacher, and, returning to Essex, he received 
presbytexian ordination in 1647. About the 
same time he married a daughter of ^ir Ro- 
bert Payne of Midloe in fiLuntingdonshire, 
and became 'settled minister' of Puiieigh in 
Essex, a valuable living. Rogers, however, 
found country life uncongemal, and, en- 
gaging a curate, he proeeMed to London. 
There he renounced his presbyterian ordina- 
tion, and joined the independents. Becoming 
lecturer at St. Thomas Apostle's, he pmehed 
violent political sermons in support of the 

In 1660 he was sent to Dublin by parlia- 
ment as a preacher. Christ Church Oatnedral 
was assigned him by the commissioners as a 
place of worship (Rbid, HtMtory of the Fre^- 
hyterum Ckurck in Ireland, ii. 345). He did 
not, however, confine himself to pastoral 
work, but 'engaged in the field, and ex- 
posed his life freely,' for conscience' sake. A 
schism arising in ms congregation owing to 
the adoption by a party among them of ans- 
baptist principles, he" wearied of the con- 
troversy, and returned to England in 1662 
(«6. ii. 260). In the f(dlowing year his 
parishioners at Purleigh eitod him for non- 
residence, and, much to his sorrow, he lost 
the living. 

Rogers was now no longer the champion 
of parliament. In its quarrel with the army 
it nad alienated the independents whose 
cause Rogers had espoused. Amid the un- 
settlement of men's opinions, which the dis- 
putes of presbyterians and independents 
aggravated, the fifth-monarchy men came 
into being, and Rogeirs was one of the fore- 
most to join them. Their creed anited his 
ecstatic temperament. They believed in the 
early vealisation of the millennium, when 
Chnst was to estabiieh on earth * the fifth 
monarchy ' in fulfilment of tho prophecy of 
the prophet Daniel. According to their 
scheme of government, all political authority 
ou^t to reside in the cburch under the 
guulance of Christ himself. They wished to 
estal^sh a body of delegates ohoaen by the 




tadependent mmd mehyterimL ooBgrantioiiB, 
vetted wHh «bBoial6 authority, tarn detar- 
miniiig all thiiigs br the Word of Qod aione. 
In 1068 Rogers pnoliBhad two ooBtioyeraiAl 
workB — * Bethflheneeh, or Tsbenuude for 
the &my' in wkiek Jba assailed tbe presby- 
tenaoB,«Bd 'SagriryorDoanaes^aym&wing 
nigV m whidL ha attidked the * ungodly 
laws sad lawyers of the.Fonrth Monareby/ 
and sbe tha ooUactum of titihee. The two 
boob indioate the date of his cfaange of 
¥iefw& * Bet Lflhcm ieefa ' is written from the 
aonari independent standpotnti wiule in 
'Sagrir' ha nas daTeloped all tha chaiao- 
tmrifls of a fiftk-moaaichy man. 

The tecible dissolntjon of tha Long pa»- 
liamsnt mat with Rofpers's thonntgh appro- 
hatkm. Beaidee doctrmal di^rances, he had 
penoaal qaacrais witfa aeYeral prominent 
jaeoriierB. Sir John Maynacd [q. ▼.] had ap- 
peared against fainLas advocate for the con- 
(^regarioD at Pnilaigh. Zachaiy C^flbon 
[^q. T.] had anonymous^ attacked his preach- 
ing in a psmp^ilet entitled ^ A Taste of the 
DDctrine of xhomas Apostle;' at a later 
date Crofton VBDawed the oontrovevsy by 
pablifliuiig n xe^y to ' Bethshemesh ' styled 
'Eethalvmeah Clouded.' 

After Cromwell^ ooup cPHat Rogers oo- 
enpifid himaftif with inditing two long ad- 
dresseato that statesman, in wiiieh he reoom- 
Tnended a system of goTemmentYerf similar 
to that which was actually inaugnnted. His 
nttanaoes were no donbt injured by those 
in power. This Aoceed did not sumve the 
dissolatMB of Cromwell's first parliament and 
his assuuipi ion of the titte of Lord Protector. 
By tluit act he destsoTiBd the most cherished 
hopes of the fifth*monarchy men, when they 
seoned almost to have reached iVuition. In 
eonasquanoe the^ kept no terms with the 
coTemmanty and two of them, Peake and 
Powell, ware sommaned before the oonnoil 
and admonished. R<^gers 'addvassed a cau- 
tionary epistle to Cromwell, aad,'flnding that 
the Itetactor paisisted in his coarse, he 
■<wM^fl him openly fiiom the pulpit. Being 
denoaneed as a conspirator in 1064, his house 
was aaarehad and his papers seised (Oai. 
State Fvpen, Dom. 1064, |^ 484). This 
drewtem him another denunciation, 'Mene, 
T^elf Bbtsk : a Latter lamenting over Olirer , 
LovdCraaaweU.' On 28 Mareh he proclaimed 
a solemn di^ ^ humiliation for the sins of 
dtermlan. His asrmon, in which he likened 
Whitehflil to Sodom and demonstrated Ihat 
Ctoofwall had broken the first •eight com- 
mtadaunta {time ptaventing ifais profeftding 
to tbe last two), proonrad his arrest and im- 
priMmient in liAinbeth. On 6 Feb. 1666 he 
VIS koB^t <^K»n priion to appear hefere 

Cromwell. Supported by his fellows ha h^d 
undauntedly by his fonaer utterances, and 
desired Cromwell ' to remember that he nrast 
be judged, for the day of the Lord was near.' 
On 30 March he was remored to Windsor, 
and on 9 Oct. to the Isle of Wight (jOt, 1666, 
pp. 374, 670, 008, 1666-7 p. 13). He was 
released in January 1667, and immediately 
returned to London {ib, 1666-7, p. Id4). 
fle found the fifth -monarchy men at the 
height of their discontent, one conspiracy 
succeeding another. Although some caution 
seems to have been instilled into Rogers by 
his imprisonment, and there is no proof that 
he was actually concerned in any pl«t, yet 
informations were repeatedly laid against 
him, and on 8 Feb. 1668 he was sent to the 
Tower on the Protectors warrant (TsintiiOS, 
▼i. 168, 186, 186, 849, 776 ; Whitelocms, 

E. 672; SoxBBS, State TraetSj Ti. 482; 
iTOTOW, Diary, iii. 448, 494; Mere, Pol 
Nos. 402, 408, 411). His imprisonment, how- 
ever, lasted only till 16 AprH. Four and a 
half months later Cromwell died. The^fth- 
monarchy men followed Sir Henry Vane 
in opposing Richard Cromwell's succession. 
Rogers rendered himself conspicuous by de- 
nouncing the son from the pulpit as vehe- 
mently as* he had formeriy denounced the 
father {JReliguue Baxteriana, i. 101). On 
Richard's abdication the remnant of the 
Long parliament was recalled to power, and 
Rogers rejoiced at its reinstatement as 
sincerely as he had formerly triumphed oyer 
its exjpttlsion. At the same time he involved 
himself in controversy with William Prynne 

tq. v.] Both supported < the good old cause,' 
»ut differed in defining it. Prynne remained 
true to the older ideal of limited monarchy, 
while Rogers advocated a republic with 
Christ himself as its invisible sovereisn. 

Rogers was a source of disquietude even 
to the party he supported, and they took the 
precaution of directing him to proceed to 
Ireland 'to preach the gospel there' {Cdl. 
State Pi^>er8, Dom. 166&-60, p. 36). The 
insurrection of Sir Qeor^e Booth fq. v.] saved 
him for a time from exile in Ireland, which 
was by no means to his taste, and procured 
him the post of chaplain in Charles Pair- 
fax^B regiment. He served through the cam- 
paign against Booth, and at its conclusion 
was relieved of his duties in Ireland (tb. p. 
211). In October he was nominated to a 
lectureship at Shrewsburv {ib. p. 261), hut 
he was again in Dublin by the end of the 
year, and was imprisoned there for a time 
by the orders of the army leaders, after 
they had dissolved the remnant of the Lonff 
parliament. The parliament ordered his 
release immediately on regaining its ascen^ 





denojy and he took advontoge of the oppor- 
tunity to secure himself from the greater 
dangers of the Restoration by taking refuge 
in Holland (ib. pp. 826, 328, 676\ There he 
resumed the study of medicine, ooth at Ley- 
den and Utrecht, and received from the latter 
university the desree of M.D. In 1662 he re- 
turned to England and resided at Bennondsey. 
In 1664 he was admitted to an ad eundem 
degree of M.D. at Oxford. In the following 
year advertisements appeared in the 'In- 
tellig;encer ' and * News of ' Alexiterial and 
Antipestilential Medicine, an admirable and 
experimented preservative from the Plaffue,' 
'made up by the order of J. R, M.D.' The 
phraseology would seem to indicate that 
these advertisements proceeded from his pen. 
No mention of him is to be found after 1665, 
and it is difficult to suppose that so versatile 
and so vivacious a writer could have been 
suddenly silenced except by death. The 
burial of one John Rogers appears in the 
parish register on 22 June 1670, but the 
name is too common in the district to render 
the identity more than possible. 

By his wife Elizabetn he left two sons : 
John (1649-1710), a merchant of Plymouth, 
and Prison-bom, who was bom during his 
father's confinement at Windsor in 1656; 
two other children, Peter and Paul (twins), 
died in Lambeth prison. A portrait of 
Rogers, painted by Saville, was engraved bv 
W. Hollar in 166o, and prefixed to Rogers s 
' Bethshemesh, or Tabernacle for the Sun.' 
There is another engraving by R. Gaywood. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Rogers was the author of: 1. 'Dod or 
Cbathan. The Beloved ; or the Bridegroom 
ffoing forth for his Bride, and looking out 
for his JaphegaDhitha,' London, 1653, 4to 
(Brit. Mus. ) 2. * Prison-bom MomingB^ms/ 
London, 1654; not extant; the introduction 
forms part of 8. ' Jegar SahaduUia, or a 
Heart Appeal,' London, 1657, 4to. 4. <Mr. 
Prynne's Good Old Cause stated and stunted 
ten year ago,' London, 1659; not extent. 
5. * AtanoXiTtiOf a Christian Concertation,' 
London, 1659, 4to (Brit. Mus.) 6. < Mr. Har- 
rington's Parallel Unparalleled,' London, 
1659, 4to. 7. < A Vindication of Sir Henry 
Vane,' 1659, 4to. 8. 'Disputatio Medica In- 
auguralis,' Utrecht, 1662; 2nd edit. London, 

[Edward Regents Life and Opinions of a 
Pifth-Monarchy Man, 1867; Rogers's Works; 
Chester^s John Rogen, the First ]£utjr, p. 282 ; 
Wood's Athene, ed. Bliss, passim ; Wood's Fasti, 
ad. Bliss, ii. 279.] £. I. a 

ROGERS, JOHN (1610-1680), ejected 
minister, was bom on 25 April 1610 at 
Chaoombe, Northamptonshire; his &ther| 

John Bogen, reputed to be a grandson of 
the martyr, John Rogers (1500P-1550) 
[^. v.], and author of a ^ Discourse to Chris- 
tian Watchfulness,' 1620, was vicar of 
Chacombe from 1587. On 80 Oct. 1629 he 
matricuUkted at Wadham OoUege, Oxford, 
ffradnated B. A. on 4 Dee. 1682, and M. A. on 
27 June 1685. His first cure was the rec- 
tory of Middleton Cheney, Northampton- 
shire. In 1644 he became rector of I^igh, 
Kent, and in the same year became perpetusl 
curate of Barnard Castle, Durham. AH these 
livings appear to have been sequestrations. 
After the Restoration, Rogers, having to 
surrender Barnard Castle, was presented by 
Lord Wharton to the vicarage of Croglin, 
Cumberland, whither he removed on 2 March 
1661. He had been intimate with the Vanes, 
whose seat was at Raby Castle, Durham, 
and visited the 3roun^ Sir Henrv Vane in 
1662, during his imprisonment in the Tower. 
In consequence of the Uniformity Act 
(1662) he resigned Croglin. 

Rogers, who had private means, henceforth 
lived near Barnard Castle, preaching wherever 
he could find hearers. During the indulgence of 
1672 betook out a licence (18 May) as congre- 
gational preacher in his own house at Lar- 
tington, two miles from Barnard Castle, and 
another (12 Aug.^ for Darlington, Durham. 
Here and at StocKton-on-Tees he gathered 
nonconformist congregations. In Teesdale 
and Weardale (among the lead-miners) he 
made constant journeys for evan^lising 

Surposes. Calamy notes his reputation for 
iscourses at ' arvals ' (funeral dinners). He 
made no more than lOL a year by his preach- 
ing. In spite of his nonconformity he lived 
on good terms with the clergy of the dis- 
trict, and was friendly with Nathaniel Crew 
[q. v.], bishop of Durham, and other digni- 
taries. His neighbour, Sir Richard Cradock, 
would have prosecuted him, but Cradock's 
ffranddaughter interceded. He died at Start- 
forth, near Barnard Castle, on 28 Nov. 1680, 
and was buried at Barnard Castle, John 
Brokell, the incumbent, preaching his funeral 
sermon. He married Grace {d, 1 678), second 
daughter of Thomas Butler. Her elder sister, 
Mary, was wife of Ambrose Barnes [q. v.] 
His son Timothy (1658-1728) is separately 
noticed. Other children were Jonathan, John, 
and Margaret, who all died in infancy ; also 
Jane and Joseph. He published a catechism, 
and two < admirable ' tetters in * The Virgin 
Saint ' (1673),a religious biography (Calaxt). 

[Oalamy's Aeeount, 1 718,pp. 1 61 sq. ; Calamy s 
Continuation, 1727, i. 226; Walker^B Sufferings 
of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 101; Palmer's Non- 
conformist's Memorial, 1802, i. 879 so. ; Chester*! 
John Rogers, p. 280 ; Hutchinson's HtsU of Dor- 




kam, 18SS, iii. 300; Sharp's Life of Ambrofee 
Baniea(Neveastl« Typogr. Soe.), 182S; SartaM** 
Hiirt. of Dnrliaiii, 1840, ir. 82; Axehsologia 
^'"^, 1800, XT. 87 aq* » Po*t«r*» Alanmi Oson. 
1801, in. 127.] A. O. 

BOOSRS, JOHN (167»-1739), divine, 
•on of John Roger8,yicar of Eynsham, Oxford, 
wae bom at EynaKam in 1679. He was edu- 
cated al NewCoUege School, and was elected 
scholar of Corpus Christt College, Oxford, 
wheooe he matriculated on 7 Feb. 1693, gn^ 
duating B J^ in 1697, and MA. in 1700. He 
took orders, but did not obtain his fellow- 
ship by soceeesion until 1706. In 1710 he 
proceeded B.D. About 1704 he was presented 
to the vicarage of Buckland, Berkshire, where 
he was popular as a preacher. In 1712 he 
became lecturer of St. Clement Danes in the 
Strand, and afterwards of Christ Church, 
Newgate Street, with St. Leonard's, Foster 
Lane. In 1716 he teceiTed the rectory of 
Wrinston, Somerset, and resigned his fel- 
lowship in order to marrj. In 1719 he was 
appointed a canon, and in 1721 sub- dean of 
Wells. He seems to have retained all these 
appointaients until 1726, when he resigned 
the lectnxeship of St. Clement Danes. 

Rogers ndned considerable a^lause by the 
part that he took in the Ban^rian contro* 
versT, m which be joined Francis HareTq. t.] 
in the attack on fiishop Benjamin Hoadly 
[a. T.l In 1719 he wrote ' A Discourse of the 
Viflthleand Inyisible Church of Christ' to 
prove that the powers claimed by the priest- 
hood were not inconsistent with the su- 
nremscy of Christ or with the liberty of 
Christians. An answer was published b^ 
Dr. Arthur Ashley Sykes [q. y.j, and to this 
Rogers replied. For this performance the 
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by di- 
ploma at Oxford. 

In 1726 he became chaplain in ordinary 
to Qeorge H, then Prince of Wales, and 
about the same time left London with the 
iateiitkm of spending the remainder of his 
h£e at Wrington. £i 1727 he published a 
Tolume of eight sermons, entitled 'The 
Necessity of Diyine Reyelstion and the 
Truth of the Christian Religion,' to which 
was prefixed a prefiue containing a criticism 
of the 'Literal Scheme of Prophecy con- 
sidered/ by Anthony Collins [q. y.j, the deist. 
Ihisprelace did not entirely sattsf^'hisfriends, 
snd diewfrom Dr. A. Marshall a critical letter. 
Samuel Chandler [q. y.], bishop of Lichfield, 
iadaded sonae remarks on Dr. Rogers's pre- 
face in hie ' Conduct of the Modem Deists,' 
asd CoUine wrote 'A Letter to Dr. Rogers, 
OS occasion of his Eight Sermons.' To Ml of 
theaa Rogers replied in 1728 in hb < Vin- 
4icitm of the Ciyil Establishment of Reli- 

S'on.' Iliis work occasioned * Some Short 
sfleetions,' by Chubb, 1728, and a pre&ce 
inChandWs 'History of Persecution,' 1786. 

In 1728 Rogers, who was deyoted to 
country life, leluctantly accepted from the 
dean and diapter of St. Fwra the yicsrsge 
of St. Giles, Cripplegate, but held theliying 
little more than six months. He died on 
1 May 1729, and was buried on the 13th at 
Eynsham. His funeral sermon was preached 
by Dr. Marshall, and was the occasion of 
' Some Remarks,' by Philalethes— Le. Dr. 
Sykes. Many of his sermons were collected 
and published in three yolumes after his 
death by Dr. John Burton (1696-1771) [q. y.] 

Rogers is a clear writer and an able 
controyersialist. He makes no display of 
learning, but he was well acquainted with 
the writiuffs of Hooker and Norris. After 
his death were were published two works by 
him, entitled respectiyely * A Persuasiye to 
Conformity addreesed to theDissenters' (Lon- 
don, 1736) and 'A Persuasiye to Conformity 
addressed to the Quakers,' London, 1747. 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Life, by Dr. J. Bur- 
ton ; Funeral Seraion, by A. Marsha ; Re- 
marks, by Philalethes; Foster's Alumni Ozon.l 

£. 0. M. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1740P-«1814), Irish 
seceding diyine, succeeded Dr. Thomas Clark 
(d. 1792) [q. y.] in 1767 as minister at Cshans, 
CO. Mona^han. In 1781 he published ' An His* 
torical Dialogue between a Minister of the 
Established Church, a Ponish Priest, a Presby- 
terian Minister^and a Mountain Minister' 
(Dublin), in which he discussed the attitude 
of the reformed and the seceding presby- 
terians towards the ciyil power. On 16 Feb. 
1782 he attended the great meeting of yolun- 
teers held in the presbyterian chujrch at Dnn- 
gannon, and was one of the two members 
who opposed the resolution expressing ap- 
proyal of the relaxation of the penal laws 
against Roman catholics. In 1788 he dis- 
cussed in public at Cahans with James M'Gar- 
ragh, a licentiate of the reformed presby- 
terians, the question whether the authority 
of a non-coyenanting king ought to be ac- 
knowledged. Rogers argued in the aflfirma- 
tiye as champion of the seceders (Rbid, JnkA 
Pretkyterian Churehf ed. Killen, iii. 473-4). 
Both sides claimed the yictory. 

In 1796 Rogers was appomted professor 
of divinity for the Irish burgher synod, and 
was clerk of the synod from its constitution 
in 1779 to his death. He continued to reside 
at Cahans as minister, and deliyered lectures 
to the students in the meeting-house. When 
an abortiye attempt had been made to unite 
the burgher and anti-burgher synods of the. 




ehaicb, Eogen delivered b^otehis 
owd'^jpiodAt Cookitown in 1808 a remark* 
able^ Bpeeoht in which he clearly explained 
the dauflee of the failure, and maintained that 
therlrkh anti-burgher synod ou^fat not to be 
dapnadfant an the parent body in Scotland. 
The^' union was not effected until 1818. 
Bogera diad on 14 Aug. 1814, leaving a son 
J^n^ who was minister of Glascar. 

He published, in addition to sermons and 
the/w^rkftoited, ' Dialogues betweenStudents 
at the College, Monaghan,* 1787. 

f Baid's Hkt. of Presbyterian Church is Ire- 
Isnd (EiUen), 1867, iii. 364, 426 ; Witherofwr's 
Hist, sod Lit. Hem. of Presbyt. in Ireland, 2nd 
sea. 1880, vL 247 ; Latimer^ii Hist, of the Insh 
Presbjt. 1693,.pp. 169, 173.] £. C. M. 

BOOBRSi JOHN (1778-1860), divine, 
boni/ at Plymouth on 17 July 1778, was 
eldest son of John Rogers, M.P. for Penryn 
and Helston, by his wife Margaret, daughter 
of' fVanoea BasseU Rogers was educated at 
Helston fframmar school, at Eton, and at 
Trinity College, Oxford. He matriculated 
on 8 April 1797, graduated B.A. as a pass- 
man in ISOl, and M.A. in 1810. Having 
been ordainea to the curacy of 8t. Blazey, 
he became rector of Mawnan, the advowson 
of which belonged to his family, in 1807. 
Ih 1620 he was appointed canon residentiary 
of. Exeter, In 1882 he succeeded to thd 
Ptanose vad Helston estates of about ten 
thrtisand acres, comprising the manors of 
Pamrose, Hislston, Carminow^ Winrisnton, 
and. various other estates in Cornwall, in- 
chiding seteral mines. The Penrose lands 
iMtoi been acquired in 1770 by his grsndfather, 
Hiq^h Rogers, sad the Helston in 1798 by 
his father. Rogers resigned his rectory in 
ld88<. He died at Penrose on 12 June 1866, 
and was buried at Sithney, where there is a 
■moment to himi 

BooBia married, first, in 1814> Mary, only 
dflnghtoB of John Jqpe, rector of St. Ives snd 
vkisr of St. Cleerf and, secondly, in 1843, 
Ghnoef eldest dau^ter of G. S. Fursdon of 
Fnorsdon, J)evonshire ; she survived him, and 
died in> 1862 (Oent. Mag. 1862, i. 289). By 
hiB fivitwife Rogers hsd issue fi^^ sons and 
aibnghter. His eldest son, John Jope ( 1 81^ 
1680), was M.P. for Helston from 1860 to 
16B6 ; the latter's eldest son^ Captain J. P. 
Roffers, is the present owner of Penrose. 
* fiogers was a popular and energetic land- 
lord, and a good botanist and mineralogist. 
As Isid of the Tresavean mine, he took an 
aotivB past in forwarding the adoption of the 
first manheagtne, the introduotion of which 
in the deep minas, in place of the oldper^ 
y dirnlnr ladders, proved an important r»* 
ran.. Haeontributedseverslpapttsto'the 

'TransactMnaof the Bo^vl Geologieal So- 
oiety o^GocniwalL' 

He' WBS,^ however, MmIBlj distinguished as 
a HebrewandrSyriac sdwlar. In 1812, when 
Frev prepared the edition of the Hebrew 
BihlfrpublaBhad by the newlyformed Society 
for Piromotittg the GonFsrtton of the Jews, 
the gpeneral sapervision of the work was 
entnrnsted to Rogem. His own works, in 
addition to sermons and occasional papers, 
were: 1. 'What is the Use of the Piaver 
Book P' London, 1819i 2. < Scripture Proofs 
of the Cateehism,' London, 1832. 8. < Re- 
marks on Bishop Lawth!s Principles in cor- 
recting tho Text of the Helurew Bible,' 
Oxford, I8S2. 4. ' The Book of Psalms in 
Hebrew, with Selections from various Read- 
ings and from tdie anoLsnt Versions,' Oxford 
and London, 1683-4. 6. < On the Origin and 
Regulations of Queen Anne's Bounty,' Lon- 
don. 1836. 6. < Ressons why a new Edition 
of tne Pesehito Version should be published,' 
Oxford snd London, 1849. Afewdaysbefm 
his death he completed his last artide on 
' Vttriffi Lectiones of the Hebrew Bible' for 
the ' Joomal of Sacred Lliersture.' 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1688, i. 290; Eton 
Sebool Lists; PostBir'aAhmnii Oson. 1716-1880 ; 
Boas»*sOslIeetConiabisnsia,c829; Boasosnd 
Coartnpy'sBibUotheBaOom. p. 686 ; Gent. Hag. 
1866, ii. 248; Joamal of Saered Ltteiature, 
18d7> iv. 240^4] K. G. M. 

ROGERS^ J08IAS (176&.I796), captain 
in the navy, wns bom at Lymington, Hamp- 
Bhire> when hia father would seem to have 
had ft liu»e interest in the ssltems. In Oo- 
tobeir 1771 he entered the navy on board 
the Arethnsa with Captain (aftnrwarda Sir) 
Andrew Snape Hamond, wham he followed 
to the Roebudc in. 177i6. Ll March 1776 he 
was sent away in charge of a prixe taken in 
Delaware Bsj, and, being driteen: on shore in 
a gale, &11 into the hands of the American 
enemy. He was cnrtiedi with nsuch roush 
treatment,, into the intemer, and datained^r 
upwazds of a yeas,, when he sneoeeded in 
making hia esca^.aBd^ after many- dangers 
and sdventures^in getting^on board hisship, 
which happened to bo at the time bfing in 
theDelawarOb For the next fifteen oreighteen 
months he wss very actively employed m 
the Roebuck's boats or tendem, captnring or 
burning small vessels lurking in uie creeks 
along ue Ntnlii American ooesty or landing 
oa foraging expedctions. On 19 Oct. 1778 he 
waa pimneted to the raak of IsBntOnant, 
and after serving in several dlSbient ships, 
and duBftinifuiahing himself at:the'seduetioii 
of Obailestown in Msy 1780, he was, on 
2 Dec. 1780^ promoted to the command of 
tke Oenemi Moilky a pnsa fitted oni as a 




sloop of war with eighteen gUBS. After 
commaiiding her for sixteen monthB, in which 
time hB took or aesisted in tahing more than 
sixty «f the enemy't ships, on 7 Aj)ril 1782 
the Geaeral Monk, while chasmg six small 
privalesn round Cue May, got on shoiw, 
and was captured after a stout defence, in 
which the henteaant and master were killed 
and Bogea himself seyerely wonnded^ He 
was shutly afterwards exchanged, and ar* 
rired in England in Septemher, still suffer- 
ing fnmi his wound, from 178S to 1787 he 
eoBmanded the Speedy in the North Sea, 
lor the preTention of smoggling, and from 
her, on I Dec. 1787| he was adTanoed to post 

In 1700 Roffers was flag captain to Sir 
John Jerris (afterwards Earl of St^ Vinoent) 
[q. T.] in the Prince. In 1703 he was ap- 
pointed to the Qaebec frigate, and in her, 
after a few months in the North Sea and off 
Donldxk, he joined the fleet which went out 
with Jerris to the West Indies. He served 
with diitinctioa at the reduction of Mar- 
tinique and Guadeloupe in March and April 
179^ ^""^ ^"^*0 afterwards sent in command 
of a aqnadrui of frigates to take Cayenne. 
One of the frigates, however> was lost, two 
ethers parted company, and the remainder 
of Ua fofee was unequal to the attempt. 
Rogsn then rejoined tne admiral at a time 
WMB ydkw l!lTer was ngin? ui the fleet, 
azid the Quebec, having spared seyerely, 
was aent to Halifax. By the heginninff of 
the ftUowing year she was back in the West 
IndiM «id was under orders lor hmae^ when, 
at f^i^f^*, where he was conducting the 
de ftte of the town sffainst an inaosrection 
of the dayee, he died of yellow ferer on 
24 ApvO 1795. He was married and left 
issua A monument to his memory was 
eieotod by his widow in Lymington parish 

{Tbyboeks, logi, 6e., is the PuUie Becord 
Ofliee. The Memoir by W. Gilphi (Svo^ 180S} 
is stt undisefimiBating eulogy by a perMnal 
fmad, ignorant «f naval aflSum. J J.K.L. 

BOQBSBA NATHANIEL (1508-166/1^, 
diviaa^sooond son of the puntun John Bogers 
(1572 Meae) [g. tJ, by his flrst wife, wss 
bcnn at Hayerhill, Essex, in 1608i He was 
edacstad at Dedham grammar school and 
EnoMiniel GoUag^i OsmbridM which he 
entered as a siaar on May 16 14^ graduating 
B. A in 1617 and M.A. 1621. l^oi two yean 
^ was domeatio chaphdn to some Mson of 
tmaikf and ibm went as curate tx> Ihr. John 
Bidkham at Booking, £ssex. ThereRogevs, 
vfcsse ohief frieoda w«re Thomas Hcraker 
^.T.^ tha lectwer of Chehns&idy add other 

Essex puritans, adopted decidedly puritao 
views. His rector finally dismissed him for 
performing the burial office over ' an eminent 
person' without a surplice. G^es Firmin 
q. y.J, who calls Rogers ' a man so able and 
udicious in soul-work that I would havo 
trusted my own soul with him,' describes his 
preaching in his 'reverend old fathei^s' pul- 
pit at Dedham affainst his father's interpre* 
tation of faith, while the latter, 'who de#r^ 
loved him,' stood by. 

On leaving Boobng, he was for five years 
rector of Assing^ton, Sufiblk. On 1 Juot 
1686 he saUed with his wife and family for 
New England, where thev arrived in No* 
vember. Rogers was ordained pastor of 
Ipswich, Ma^aehueetts, on 20 Fob. 1638y 
when he succeeded Nathaniel Ward as 00- 

Saator with John Norton (1606-1668) [q. r.] 
^n 6 Sept. he took the oath of freedom at 
Ipswich, and was soon appointed a member 
of the synod, and one of^a body deputed to 
reconcile a difference between the lejBfiJists 
and antinomians. He died at Ipswich ou 
8 July 1655, aged 57. 

By his wife Margaret (d. 28 Jan. 1656), 
daughter <^ Robert Crane of CoggeshalL 
Essex, whom he married in 1626, Refers had 
issue Mary, baptised at Ooggeshall on 8 Feb* 
1628, married to William Hubbard fq. ▼.} ; 
John (see below) ; and four sons (Nathaniel 
Samuel^ Timothy, and Esekiel) bom in Ipa* 
wioh, Massachusetts. The youngest was left 
heir bv his unole Esekiel R^ers [q. v.] 
Rogerss desoendants in America at the 
present time are more numerous than those 
of any other early emigrant family. Among 
them was the genealogist^ Col<mel Jceeph 
Lemuel Chester Tq. v.] 

Rogers published nothing but a letter in 
Latin to the House <^ Commons, dated 
17 Dec, 1648, urging church reform ; it wae 

J printed at Oxford in 1644. It contained a 
ew lines of censure aa the aspersions of the 
king in a number of * Mercurius Britannicus,' 
to which that newspaper replied abusi velj^ ou 
12 Aug. 1644.. He also lett in mannscitpt a 
treatise in Latin in favour of eonffregatiomsl 
church covemi&ent, a portion ca which is 
printed by Mather iu the ' Magnalia.' 

JOHK RooBBs (1680-1684), the eldest son, 
bantised sjt Ccggeshall) Essex, on 28 Jan. 
1680, emigrated with his father to New Eagw 
land in 1686. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1640 in theology and medicine, 
and commenced to practise the latter at Ips- 
w]ch« But he i^lierwazda became sssKtant 
to his father in the church of the ^me place, 
and abandoned medicine. He was onosen 
president of Hsrvard iii April 1682, to suQ* 
oeed Urian Oak^s [q. ri(9rm inaogurale^ i« 




1688, but died on 2 July 1684, aged 63, and 
was Bucceeded by Increase Mather [q. t.I 
By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of General 
Dehison, he left a numeroiisfamily in America, 
three sons bein^ ministers, the youngest, John 
Rogers of Ipswich, himself leaving three sons, 
all ministers. 

[Sprague's Annals of the American Pulptt, i. 
87 ; Chester's John Kogers, 1861, p. 246 ; preface 
to Firmin's Beal Christian; Davids's Hist of 
ETangel. Nonconform, in Essex, p. 148 ; Mather's 
Magi^i ed. 1868, i. 414-28 ; Neal's Hist, of 
Pnritans, ii. 252; McClintock and Strong's 
Encyd. of Bibl. and Ecclos. Lit. ix. 64 ; Felt's 
Hist, of Inewich, Mass. p. 219 ; Beaumont's Hist, 
of Coggewall, p. 217 ; I>ale'8 Annals of Cogges- 
hall, p. 166; Essex ArchsoL Trans, iv. 198; 
Mercnrius Britannicns, August 1644; Win- 
throp's Hist, of New England, 1853, i. 244 ; 
Gage's Hist, of Bowley, Mass. p. 15 ; Mass. Hist. 
Collections, iv. 2, 8, v. 240, 274, tI. 554 ; Harl. 
MS. 6071, ff. 467. 482 ; Kegisters of Emmanuel 
College, per the master. For the son see 
McClintock and Strong's Encyd. of Bibl. and 
Eccles. Lit. ix. 63 ; Sprague's Anonls of Amer. 
Pulpit, i. 147; Sawige's Gencal. Diet, of First 
Settlers, lit. 664, where the question of Rogers 
of Dedham's descent from John Rogers the martyr 
is discussed; Harl. MS. 6071, f. 482; Allen's 
American Biogr. Diet.] C. F. S. 

B0QER8, NEHEMIAH (1698-1660), 
divine, baptised at Stratford on 20 Oct. 1603, 
was second son of Vincent Rogers, minister 
of Stratford-le-Bow, Middlesex, by his wife 
Dorcas Young^whose second husband he was. 
Timothy Ro^ (1689-1 660 .p) [q.v.] was his 
elder brother. Vincent Rogers was probably 
a grandson of John Rogers (1600 P~l 660) 

Sq.y.] the martyr (Cuissteb, John Bogers, &c. 
861,p.262seq.) Nehemiah was admitted to 
Merchant Taylors' School on 16 Nov. 1602, 
and entered as a sizar at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, on 21 March 1612, and graduated 
M.A. in 1618. He also became a fellow of 
Jesus College. He was appointed assistant 
to Thomas Wood, the rector of St. Margaret's, 
Fish Street Hill, London, where he officiated 
until 18 May 1620. Through the influence 
of the widow of Sir Charles Chibom, serjeant- 
at-law, he was then appointed to the vicarage 
of Messing, Essex (u^rittian Otrtetie, dedi- 
cation). On 26 May 16S2 he was present'ed 
by Richard Hubert to the sinecure rectory 
of Great Tey, Essex, and he further received 
from the king the lapsed rectory of Gatton 
in Surrey, an advowson which be presented 
as a firee gift in 1636 or early in 1686 to the 
president and fellows of St. John's, College, 
Oxford. The living was worth more than 
100/. a year, and a letter from Archbishop 
Laud says it was given to the coUc^ out of 
friendship for him by ' Mr. Nehemiah Regersi 

now a minister in Essex, and a man of goo<f 
note ' ( Works, Oxford, 1860, vii. 242}. On 
1 May 1686 Rogers was presented fay the» 
king to a stall in Ely Cathedral. He ex- 
changed the lirinff of Ureat Tey withThomaa 
Wykes for that of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate^ 
in 1642. Upon Wykes's death Rogers we* 
sented his eldest son, Nehemiah, to the Tey 
rectory on 16 Aug. 1644. The Messing living 
he appears to have resigned before May 164S. 

Rogers was as uncompromising a royalist 
as a fnend of Laud's was likely to be. About 
1643 he was sequestered of both rectory and 
prebend. The vestry of St. Botolph'a on 
28 Feb. 1668 petitioned the Protector for 
liberty to the inhabitants to choose a mini- 
ster in place of Rogers, but none apnears to 
have been appointed. Rogers haa many 
influential friends, and he obtained leave to 
continue preaching in Essex during the 
Commonwealth, mainly through the efforts 
of Edward Herries of Great Baddow, to 
whom one of his works is dedicated. For 
six years he was pastor to a congregation at 
St. Osyth, below Colchester, and next took 
up his abode for three years at Little Braxted, 
near Witham, where his friends Thomas 
Roberts and his wife Dorothy provided him 
with ' light, lodging, and fynng.' By thena 
he was appoint^ in 1667 or early in 1658 
to the livm^ of Doddinghnrst, near Brent- 
wood. He aied there suddenly in May 1660, 
and was buried there. 

Rogers married Margaret, sister of Williant 
CoUingwood, canon of St. Pftul's after tho 
Restoration, and had a daughter Mary, 
buried 1642, and at least three sons : Nehe- 
miah (1621-1688), John Rogers (1627- 
1666 P) [q. v.l and Zachary. The last gra- 
duated B.A. from Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, 1648, was vicar of Tey 1661-1700, 
and of Chappel from 1674 A portrait of 
Nehemiah Rogers, engraved by Bemingioth 
of Leipsig, with a German mscriptioni is 
mentioned by Colonel Chester. 

Rogers wrote abl^ on the parables, in a 
style learned and ndl of quaint conceits. 
His expositions have become exceedingly 
scarce. The titles of his publications run : 
1. * Christian Curtesie, or St.PavlsVltimiim 
Vale,' London, 1621, 4to. 2. 'A Strange 
Vineyard in Palmstrina,' London, 1628, 4to. 
3. 'The Trve Convert, containing thiee> 
Parables : the Lost Sheepe, the Lost Groat 
[which Watt misreads ror lost goat], and 
the Lost Sonne,' London, 1682, 4to. 4. ' The 
Wild Vine, or an Exposition on Isaiah*8> 
Parabolical! Song of the Beloved,' London, 
1682, 4to. 6. ' A Visitation Sermon preaehed 
at Kelvedon, Sep. 8. 1681,'London, 1682, 4to. 
6. * The Penitent Citiien, or Mazy Magdalen** 




Co&TenooV London, 1640. 7. ^The Qood 
aamiTJUii/ London, 1640. 8. <The Fast 
Friend, or a Friend at Midnight/ London, 
1066, 4to. 9. 'The Figgless Fibres, or 
the Doome of a Barren and Unfrmtful Pro- 
teskm layd open,' London, 1669, 4to. 

[Pre&ees and dedications to Roger's irorks ; 
Chestor^s John Bogers, 1861, pp. 252, 277; 
Walker's Saileringi^ ii. 22, S42; KenneU's Re- 
gister, pp. 61 8, 919 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. 
ril 79, 179 ; Keweoozt's Repert. £ocles. i. 813, 
n. &7% 678 ; MeClintock and Strong^s Eneycl. of 
Sedss. lit. iz. 64; Ranev's Oatalogne, 1678; 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 360; Malcolm's 
Loodininm RediTiTom, i. 831 ; Bentham's £lj 
CathsdnJ, p. 258 ; Willis's Surrey of Cathedrals^ 
il 3S6; Darling's Cyclopedia BibL ii. 2581; 
Watt's BibL Brit; Roisters of Emmanuel Col- 
lege, per the master, of the Cambridge Unirer- 
atf iUgistrj, per J. W. Clark, esq., and of Dod- 
diaghnnt, per the Rev. F. Stewart ; Robinson's 
Ksrehast Taylors* Reg. pp. 45, 132.] C. F. S. 

(1786P-1853), painter, was bom at Plymouth 
about 1786, and educated at Plymouth gram- 
mar school under John Bidlake [q. yJ Like 
his fellow-pupil, Benjamin Robert Haydon 

fe.T.l he was encouraged in his taste for art 
Bidlake, who took more interest in the 
artistic talent of his pupils than in their 
regular studies. Bidlake sent Rogers to study 
in L<mdon, nnd maintained him for several 
rears at his own expense. He returned to 
Plymouth, and painted views of Mount Edg- 
cnmbe and Plymouth Sound, choosing prin- 
cipally wide expanses of water under sunlight 
or golden haie, in imitation of Claude. Many 
of these are at Saltram, the seat of the Earl 
of Morley. A larse picture by him, ' The 
Bombanunent of A^ers,* has been engraved. 
He exhibited ninety-one pictures between 
1806 and 1851, chiefly at the Royal Academy 
and British Institution. He etched twelve 
plates for ' Dartmoor,' by Noel Thomas Car- 
rington, 1826. He was elected a member of 
the Artists' Annuity Fund in 1829, at the 
age of forty-three. After residing abroad 
fofr some years, he died at Lichtenthal, near 
Baden-Baden, on 26 June 1853. 

[Gent. Mag. 1868, ii. 424 ; Redgrave's Diet. 
«€ Artists; Qxavcs's Bict. of Artists ; Athenaema, 
80 Jaly 1858.] C. D. 

BOOBBS, BIGHARD (1682 M697), 
dean of Gnaterhury and suffragan bishop of 
Dover, mm of Balnh Rogers (d. 1669) of 
Sutton Yalenee in Kent, was bom in 1682 
or 16S8b Hk aiater Catharine married as her 
seeoBd husbnnd lliomas (^mnmer, only son 
oC the arehbiahopf and his oousin. Sir Edward 
BogeE% eomptroller of Queen Elisabeth's 
kNMslioldl, ifl separately notioed. Bichaxd 

is said to hare been a member of Ohrist'» 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M. A. 
in 1662 and KD. in 1662. On 18 March 
1666*6 he was admitted B.A. at Oxford, 
and in May 1660 he proceeded M. A. During 
the reign of Queen Mary he is said to havo 
been an exile for religion. Soon after Elin- 
beth's accession, probably in 1669, he was 
madearchdeacon of St. Asaph, and on 11 Feb. 
1660-1 was presented to the rectory of Great 
Dunmow in Essex, which he resigned in 
1664. He sat in the convocation of 1662- 
1663, when he subscribed the Thirty-nine 
Articles and the reonest for a modification 
of certain rites ana ceremonies. He also 
held the livings of Llanarmon in the diocese 
of St. Asaph and Little Oanfield in Essex, 
which he resigned in 1666 and 1666; the 
rectory of 'Pasthyn' in the diocese of St. 
Asaph he retained till his death. In 166& 
he was collated to the prebend of Ealdland 
in St. PftuFs Cathedral, resigrning the arch- 
deaconry of St. Asaph. On 19 Oct. 1667 
Archbishop Ftoker presented him to the 
rectory of Great Chart in Kent, and on 
12 May 1668 the queen nominated him, on 
Parker*8 recommendation, to be suffragan 
bishop of Dover. In 1669 he was nlaced on 
a commission to visit the city and aiocese of 
Canterbury, and he received Elizabeth when 
she visited Canterbury in 167S. In 1676 
Parker aj^pointed him oyerseer of his will, 
and left him one of his options. On 16 Sept.. 
1684 he was installed aean of Canterbury,, 
and in 1696 he was collated to the master- 
ship of Eastgate hospital in Canterbury, anJ 
to the rectory of Midley in Kent. In De- 
oember he was commissioned to inquire into 
the number of recusants and sectaries in his 
diocese. He died on 19 May 1697, and waa 
buried in the dean*s chapel in Canterbury 
Cathedral. B^ his wife Ann (d, 1618) he- 
left several children, of whom i^ancls (d, 
1688) was rector of St. Margaret's, Canter- 
bmy. The sufiragan bishopric of Dover lapsed 
at his death, and was not reyived until the 
appointment of Edward Party (18dO-1890> 
[q. v.] in 1870. 

[Brit. Mas. Addit. MS. 8S984, ff. 18, 21 
rietters from Rogers) ; Todd's Aceoant of the 
beans of Canterbox;^, 1703, pp. 60-65 ; Cooper^s 
Athena Cantabr. ii. 224; Boase's Beg. Univ. 
Oxon. i. 231 ; Foster's Alnmni Oson. 1600-1714 ; 
Waters^s ChesUrs of Obicheley, ii. 806 ; Parker 
Corresp. pp. 370, 476 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1660-97; Willis's Survey of the Diocese of St. 
Aiapb; Hastcd's Kent. iii. 101, 588, 690, 680; 
Neweoart's Bep. Eccf. ; Le Neve's Fssti, ed. 
Hardy; Strype's Works, passim; Wood's Athentt> 
ChcoD. ii. 777 ; Notes and Qaeries, 2nd ser. ii. 87.1 





EQGEBS, JaiCHARD (1560P-1618),pari. 
tandiyinei bom in 1550 or 1551, was son or 
grandson of Bichard Bogere, steward to the 
earls ci Warwick. He must be distinguished 
fiM»n Bichard Bogers (1^^ P-1597) fq. v.], 
dean of Canterbu^. He matriculated as a 
sisar of Christ's College, Cambridge, in No- 
vember 1566, and grtMuated B.A» 1570-1, 
M.A. 1574. He was appointed lecturer at 
Wethersfield, Essex, about 1577. In 1683 
he, with twentj'Six others, petitioned the 
priTj council againstWhitgifb^ three articles, 
and against jSishop Aylmer's proceedings 
on them at his visitation ('Second part 
of a I^egister,' manuscript at Dr. Williams's 
Library, p. 880 ; Bboos, Puritans^ ii. 276 ; 
David, Nonoan/ormity in Etmx, p. 78). Whit* 
gift suspended all the petitioners. After a 
suspension of eight months Bogers resumed 
his preaching, and was restcoed to his mini- 
stry through the intervention of Sir Bobert 
Wroth. Kogers espoused the presbyterian 
movement under Cartwright, and signed the 
Book of Discipline (N^al, JPuritanSf i. 387). 
He is mentioned W Bancroft as one of a 
classis about the firaintree side, together 
witli Culverwell, Gifford, and others (Bav- 
OBOfT, Dangerous BotitionSf p. 84). In 1598 
and 1603 he was aocordm^ly again in 
trouble ; on the fonner oecasion bdbre the 
ecdesiaiticsl commission, and on the latter 
for refusiiu[ the oath er ofido {Baker MS8, 
zi. 344; Bbook, Puritans, ii. 232). He 
owed lus restoration to the influence of 
William, lord KnoUys, and acknowledffed 
his protection in several passagea of nis 
diary (quoted in Datid, u.s.) Under the 
episcopate of Bichard Vaughan [q. vj, bishop 
of London between l€i04 and 1^7, he en« 
joyed much liberty; but imder Vaughan's 
successor, Thomas Kavis [q. v/], he was affain 
persecuted. Bogeradied at Wethersfield on 
21 April 1618, and was buried on the right 
side of the path in Wetherafield chucchyiuxi 
leading to the nave of the church (see his epi* 
taph in Congregational Mag, new ser. April 
1826). Bogem waa the father of Daniel 
<157d-1652) and Ezekiel Bogers, both of 
whom are separately noticed, and the imme- 
diate predecessor at Wethereield of Stephen 
Marshall [q. v.] 

Bogers wrote: 1; 'Beaven treatises con- 
taining such directions as is gathered out ot 
the Holie Scriptures,^ 1603 ; 2nd edit Lon- 
don, 1605, dedicated to. King James ; 4th 
edit. 1627, 8tV0> 2 pai:ts; 5th edit, 1630, 4to, 
An abbreviated version, called 'lliePrac<;ice 
of Christianity, 'is dated 1618^ and was o^n 
reissued, 2. ' A garden of spirituaU flowers^ 
planted b; B[ichardl B[ogersl, W[illl P[er- 
kins], B{ichard] QfreenhamJ, M. M., and 

Greorg«l Wfebbe], London, 1612 8vo, 1622 
l&io, 1632 12mo, 1643 12mo (2 parts), 1687 
12mo(2parts). 3. 'Certaine Sermons, directly 
tending to liiese three ends. First, to bring any 
bad person (that hath not committed the same 
that is unpardonable) to true conversion; 
secondly, to establish and settle all sudi as 
are converted in faith and repentance^ 
thirdly, to leade them forward (that are ao 
settled) in the Christian life . • . whereunto 
are annexed divers . . . sermons of Samuel 
Wright, B.D.,' London, 1612, 8vo. 4 'A 
Oommentiiry upon the whole book of Judset, 
preached first and delivered in sundrie lec- 
tures,' London, 1616, dedicated to Sir Edward 
Coke. 6. 'Samuel's encounter with Saul, 
1 Sam. chap, xv. . . . preached and penned by 
that worthy servant of GK)d, Mr. Bichard 
Bogers,' London, 1620. 

[David's NoncoDformity in Bssax, p. 108; 
Chester'fl John Bogers, pp. 288, 24d; Stale 
Papers, Dom. ; Granger's &ogr. Hist ; Firmin's 
Beal Christian, p. 67, 1 670 edit. ; Kennett'e Chro- 
nic, t>^ ^98 ; Bogers's Works in the British Mu- 
seum.] W. A. S. 

was bom in 1727 at Dunbarton, New Hamp- 
shire, where his father, James Bogers, was 
one of the first settlers. He gained great 
celebrity as commander of * Boeers's rangers' 
in the war with the French in North America, 
1755-60, and a precipice near Lake George 
is named 'Bo^ers's Slide/ after his escape 
down the precipice from the Indians. On 
18 March 1/58, with one hundred and seventy 
men. he fought one hundred French and six 
hunared Indians, and retreated after losinfi" 
one hundred men and killing one hundrea 
and fifty. In 1759 he was sent by Sir Jefieiy 
Amherst from Crown Point to destroy 
the Indian village of St. Frauds, near Si 
Lawrence Biver, and in 1760 he was ordered 
to take possession of Detroit and other western 
posts ceded hj the French after tiie fhll of 
Quebec, a mission which he accomplished 
with success. He soon afterwards insited 
England, where he steered from neglect and 
poverty; but in 1765 be found means to print 
his ' Journals,' which attracted Geor^ Ill's 
favourable notice. In 1766 the king ap- 
pointed him governor of Mackinaw, Michi- 
gan. On an accusation of intriguing with 
the Spaniards, he was sent in irons to Mont- 
real and tried b^ oourt^mortlaL Having 
been acquitted, hein'1769 revisited Engisnd, 
where he was soon imprisoned lor debt. 
Subeequently he became a colonel in the 
British army in America^ and raised the 
'queen'ft rangers.' His printed ciranlar to 
recruits promised them ^ifaeii* proportion of 
aU rebel land&^ On 21 Oct, 1776 he escaped 




beia^ taken prisoner by. Lord Sdrling at 
MamaniBeek. Sooa shet he went to Eng- 
liflidf lad in 1778 he wae proaeribed and 
baniahad by the piovineial congiea fl of New 
HaMpahire. He died in London in 1800. 
Among his works are : ' A Concise Acoonnt 
oi North America,' and * JoumalB/ giving a 
gnfhioaeeonint of hla early adventures as a 
saager, London, 1766, 8vo, and edited by 
FranUin B. Hough, Albany, 1888. (The 
'Jouinals' aia a£o condensed in Stark's 
* Hmrrinianaaoaa of the French War,' 1881, 
and in the « Memoir of John Stark,' 1860). 
*PaiKteaoh, or the Savagea of America: a 
Tragedy,' by Bogers in Terse, appeared in 
17<n, 8fo; only two ooptee arelmown to 
eziot, one La the posaeasion of Mr. Francis 
Fukman, and the othev in the British Mu- 
samn libnvy;; Bogera'a ' Biaxy of the Siege 
of Detmik' was first edited by F. B. Hough 
at Attny in 18ea 

[SihiWs Amer. Loyalists; Byerson's Amer. 
Loyalists; Applebon's Cyd. toL ▼. ; Brit Mas. 
Gat; FkiliBan's Works, pasBim; Dtiyckinck*s 
Cf6L Y«i. i.; Allibeae's IMot Tol. ii.] B. H. 8. 

BOG£BB, SAMUEL (1768-1865), poet, 

was bom at Stdce Newington on 90 July 

1763. The fiunily is said to have been on- 

ginaBy Welsh, witii a dash of French blood 

thieaak Ihe mamage of the poet's great* 

gnaufehes, the &at •aoaeeatox of whom theise 

is mnjrwasdj witii a la^ ^am Nantes* The 

poeta iSither, Thomas Bogen, was scm of a 


shire, mmi: tItBoaKh his mother waa related to 

Riehaid Bayne Mmght [q. v.J; he went in 

youth to Lcnadon, to toke part m the manage- 

■Kut of a wazehouse iui which his &ther was 

a partner with Daniel Badford of Stoke 

XewingtODv ih 1760 Thomas married Daniel 

Bedlbrafa damg^iteF Maty, and was taken into 

1 1^ fbUowing year. Daniel 

deaeeaded through his mother 

_ Etenxy, was treasurer of the pees- 

cimgiegation at Stoke Newington, 

aadan^inftisata friandof Dr. Price and other 

Botabln peSBons/conneoted with it. Hiason-* 

in4asr,. whose Cunilv connections had been 

tocy aad 'hkffh dknroh, embreeed liberal and 

Boncanfianiiie*' principles, and the ehildnan 

wen bcondbt' cp as dissentera. 

Samael Kctfam received his education at 
|riTBte sefaoobiB Haciniey and Stoke New- 
naton^ at die former of which hecontraoted 
a n&low friandahip witli WiMiam Maltby 
[q. T.] ^Hie Newington master, Mr. Burgh, 
ifterwapda gMBdiim.priTatB leaaQne in laling- 
toD, mod: a aJB i ciaod a highly beneficial influ- 
oiee i^oa liiaB. He lost his mother in 1776.- 
fiii amn eboioa of a Tosation had been 

ureabyterian ministry, hut his Jather, who 
nad in the meantime become a banker in 
Gomhill, in partnership with a gentleman of 
the namex>f Welch, wished him to entev the 
bank, aaid< he complied. His intellectual 
taatea found an ouUet in a determination to 
acquire fame as an author. During long hoU*- 
days at the seaside, necessitated by indif* 
ferent health, he read widely and £uain 
liarised himself with Johnson, Goldsmith, 
and Qray, who remained his models throuffh** 
out his life« He went, with his Mend Maltoy, 
toproffer his personal homage to Dr. Johnaon, 
but the 3routn8' courage &ued, and they re* 
treated without venturing to lift the knocker. 
In 1781 he contributed seTeral short essays 
to the ' Gentleman's Magaaine,' and the fol^ 
lowing year wrote an unacted opera, * The 
Vintage of Burgundy,' of which some frag* 
ments remain, in 1786 he j^blished, anony- 
mously, ^ An Ode to Superstition, with some 
other Fbems.' An elder brother, Thomas, died 
in 1788, and his share in the bank's manage- 
ment and profits became considerable. In 
1789 he visited Scotland, where he received 
especial kindness from Dr. Bobertson, the 
historian, and made the acquaintanoe of 
almoat every Scottish man of lettera, but 
heard nothing of Robert Bums. In 179L 
he visited France, and in 1792 published, 
a^n anonymoualy, the poem with wIucIk 
his name as a poet is, on the whole, most 
intimately associated, 'The Pleasuxesof 
Memory/ The child of ' The Pleasures of 
Imagination' and the parent of ' The PleaBUies 
of BS>pe,' it entirely hit the taste of the day; 
By 1806 it had ffone through fifteen editions, 
two-thirds of tnem uumMring firom one to 
two thousand copies each. 

Bogers's father died in June 1798. His 
eldest brother, Daniel, had offended his ftthev 
by marrying hia cousin ; the family share m 
the bank was bequeathed to Samuel, and he 
found himself poasessed of fire thouaand a 
year. Without immectiately giving up the 
fiuttily honse on Newington Gbeen, he took 
chambers in Paper Buildings,andlaid himself 
out for aoeietyk He had already many lita- 
raiy acquaintances ; and now constmined by 
hereditary connections and his own well-con- 
sidered opinions to chose his friends mainly 
from the opposition, he became intimatis 
witib Fox, Sheridan, and £b>me Tooke* 
Another fnend who had mora inflnence upoak 
him than any of the reat was Bichard Sharp 
Pq. v.], generally known as ' Gonveisatioii 
Sharps' one of the best literary judoea of hia 
time. In 1796Bogexe wrote an enilogae for 
Mra. Siddona, asumcieiit proof of the position 
which he had- gained as a poet, a positi(H& 
wlich was even raised . by the ' £^Mmft to* 




Friend/ puUifllied in 1798. InlSOShetook 
advantage of the peace of Amiena to pa^r a 
Tisit to Parisi which exercised an important 
influence upon a taste which had been 
•lowly ffrowing up In him — ^that for art. 
With this he had been inoculated about 
1705 by his brotheF-in-laW| Sutton Sharpe, 
the friend of many painters; and he had 
already, in 1800, been concerned with 
others in bringing over the Orleans gallery 
to England. Br 1802 the Tictories ot 
Bonaparte had filled the Louvre with the 
artistic spoils of Italy, and Rogers^s pro- 
longed studies made him one of the first of 
connoisseurs. He proved his taste in the 
following year by building for himself a 
house in St. James's Street, Westminster, 
overlooking the Green Park. FUxman and 
Stothard took a share in the decoration, but 
all detaila were superintended by Rogers, 
who proceeded to adorn his mansion, modest 
enou|^h in point of sijee, with pictures, en- 
gravings, antiquities, and books, collected 
with admirable judgment. His younger 
brother, Henry, now relieved him almost 
entirely of business cares, and he henceforth 
lired wholly for letters, art, and society. Ex- 
cept for the absence of domestic joys, which 
he afterwards lamented, his position was en- 
viable. He had won, in the general opinion, 
a hi^ place among the poets of his age, not 
indMd without labour, for no man toiled 
harder to produce less, but with more limited 
productiveness than any poet of note, ex- 
cept the equally fastidious Gray and Camp- 
bell. He might have found it difficult to 
maintain this position but for the social 
prestige which came to him at a critical 
time through his new house and his re- 
fined hospitality. 'Rogers's first advances 
to the best society,' says Mr. Hay ward, ' were 
made rather in the character of a liberal 
host than of a popular poet.' Gradually 
he came to be regarded as a potentate in 
the republic of letters. Except when violent 
politicid antipathies intervened, every one 
sought his acquaintance ; and the mora age 
impaired his originally limited productire 
faculty, the more homage he received as the 
Neetor of living poets. Apart from the ex- 
(^uisite taste, artistic and social, which dia- 
tmguished both his house and the company 
he ^thered around him, his infiuence rested 
mainljP' upon two characteristics, which at 
first sight seemed hardly compatible— the 
hittemeas of his tongue and the kindness of 
his heart. Everybody dreaded his mordant 
saicaam ; but everybody thou^^t first of him 
when either pecuniary or personal aid was to 
be invoked. When some one complained to 
Oampbellof Rogers's spiteful tongue^' B<»row 

five hundred pounds of him,' was the reply, 
* and he will never say a word against you 
until you want to repay him.' Gan^belldid 
not speak without warrant; his experienoe 
of Rogers was equally honourable to both 

The history of Rogers's life henceforth, 
apart from hia travels and the gradaal 
growth of his art collections, is maimy that 
of his publications and of his beneficent in- 
terpositions in the afiairs of clients and 
friends. The latter are more numereus than 
his verses. He soothed the last illness oi 
Fox; he was the good angel of the dying 
Sheridan ; he reconciled Moore with Jeffrey, 
and negotiated his admission as a contributor 
to the ' Edinburgh Review ; ' under his roof 
the quarrel between Byron and Moore was 
made up; he procured Wordsworth his di»- 
tributorehip ot stamps by a seasonable hint 
to Lord Lonsdale ; he obtained a pension for 
Cary (the translator of Dante, wno had re- 
nounce his acquaintance), and regulated as 
far aa possible the literary affairs of that 
impracticable genius, Uffo Foscolo. In com- 
parison with these good deeds the acerbity 
of his sarcasms appears of little account. 
Sometimes those were prompted hj just re- 
sentment, and in other cases it is usually 
evident that the incentive to their utterance 
was not malice, but inability to suppress a 
clever thing. It would no doubt have been 
an ornament to Rogera's chavncter if he had 
possessed in any corresponding meaaure the 
power of saving amiable and gracious thinss, 
and his habitiudlv censorioua attitude fruly 
justified the remark of Moore, a sincere friend, 
not unconscious of his obligations : * I always 
feel that the fear of losing his good opinion 
almost embitters the possession of it.' How 
generous Rogers could be in his estimate of 
the productions of othen appean from his 
declaration to Crabb Robinson, tlutt every 
line of Wordsworth's volume of 1842, not 
in general very enthusiastically admired, was 
'pure gold.' He could be equally kind U> 
young authore coming into notice, such aa 
Henry Taylor. So unjust was Lady Dnf- 
ferin's remark that he gave what he did not 
value — ^money — ^but withheld what he did 
value — praise. Rogers's poems met with n>- 
spectful treatment from his contemporaries, 
Byron, in particular, claiming him, with 
several other much atronger poets, as ft 
champion of sound taste against the Lake 
school, now a conspicuous example of a ver- 
dict reversed. 

His fint production of importaaee alter 
settling in Westminster was his fragmentary 
epic on 'Columbus' (1810, but iMrivately 
printed two years earlier)* The subject waa 




too ETdaoiis for htm, and the poem was 
placed by himaelf at the bottom of hia com- 
poeitiona. It ahows, however, that he was 
not imaffected hj the spirit of his age, for 
the Tersification is much fireer than in ' The 
Pkasures of Memory.* It was severely cas- 
tigated by William Ward, third viscount 
Du^y, in the ' Quarterly/ and Rogers re- 
torted by the classical epigram : 

Wsid has no heart, they say ; bnt I denjr it. 
His An a heart — ^he gets his speeches by it. 

' Jacqueline ' appeared in 1814 in the same 
volume as Byron's 'Lara,' a questionable 
conpanion, the wite declared, for a damsel 
careful of her character. The poem is of 
little importance except as proving^ that 
Boffera could, when he chose, write in the 
style of Scott and Byron. Successful, too, 
waa 'Himian Life' (1819), which Rogers 
justly prefer r e d to any of his writings. A 
visit to Italy in 1816 had suggested to him 
tfaeidea of a poem descriptive of that country, 
w^hkh Byron had not then handled in the 
fourth canto of ' Childe Harold.' The poems 
have nothing in common but their theme ; 
yet it may have been awe of his mighty rival 
that made Rogers, always cautious and fasti- 
dious, so nervous respectinff the publication 
<if his ' Italy.' It appeared anonymously in 
1S22; the secret was kept even from the 
publidier, and the author took care to be out 
of the country. No such mystery, however, 
attended the publication of the second part 
IB 1828. The book did not take. Rogers 
destroyed the unsold copies, revised it care- 
fully, engaged Turner and Stothard to illus- 
trate it, and republished it in a handsome 
edition in 1890. The suocesa of this edition, 
as well as of a similar issue of his other 
poems in 1834, was unequivocal, and he soon 
Teeovered the 7,000/. he had expended upon 
them. The tardy success of the volume 
oeeasioned, among many other epiflprams, 
Lady Bleasington's mot, that ' it would have 
been diahed were it not for the plates.' All 
hia works, except 'Jacqueline, were pub- 
lished at hia own expense. 

An interesting incident in Rogers's life 

was lua visit to Italy in 1822, when he spent 

some time with Byron and SheUev at Pisa. 

Shelley he respected; Byron fell in his 

esteem, and would have declined still mors 

if he had then known that Byron had already 

in 1818 penned a bitter lampoon upon him. 

Byron boaated that he induced Ro^rs in 

1S28 to sit upon a cushion under which the 

mper containing the malignant lines had 

kenthmat. They partly remted to Roffers's 

fidavenMis appearance, the ordinary tneme 

sf jest among his detmctors, but greatly ex- 

aggerated. *^ He looked,' says the ' Quarterly ' 
reviewer, 'like what he was, a benevolent 
man and a thorouffh {gentleman.' 

In 1844 the placid course of Rogers's 
existence was perturbed by a startling blow, 
a robbery at his bank. Forty thousand pounds 
in notes and a thousand pounds in gold 
were abstracted on a Sunday from a safe 
which had been opened with one of its own 
keys. The promptitude of the measures 
taken prevented the cashing of the stolen 
notes, the bank of England repaid their value 
under a guarantee of indemnity, and after 
two years the notes themselves were re- 
covered by a payment of 2,600/. Rogers 
manifested admirable fortitude throughout 
this trying business. * I should be asluuned 
of myself, he said, * if I were unable to bear 
a shock like this at my age.' He was also 
consoled by universal testimonies of sym- 
pathy : ' It is the only part of your fortune,' 
wrote Edward Everett, ' which has gone for 
any other objects than those of benevolence, 
hospitality, and taste.' In 1850 he had 
another proof of the general respect in the 
offer of the laureat€«hip on the death of 
Wordsworth, which was declined. Shortly 
afterwards^ he met with a severe accident by 
breaking his leg. From that time his health 
and faculties waned, but, cheered by the 
devotion of a niece and the constant atten- 
tions of friends, he wore on until 18 Dec. 
1855, when he tranquilly expired. He was 
buried in Homsey churchyard, with his 
brother Henry and his sister Sarah, the latter 
of whom, his special friend and confidant, 
he survived only a year. His art collections 
and library, when sold at Christie's after his 
death, produced 50,000/. (see 'Sale Cata- 
logue' and 'Catalogue of Purchasers' by 
M. H. Bloxam, in the British Museum). 

Rogers was not a man of exceptional 
mental powers or moral force, but such of 
his characteristics as exceeded the average 
standard were precisely those which contri- 
bute most to tne emMllishment of human 
life. They were taste^ benevolence, and wit. 
His perception and enjoyment of natural and 
moral beauty were very keen. In other re- 
spects he was the exemplary citixen, neither 
heroic nor enthusiastic, nor exempt from 
frailties, but filling his place in the commu- 
nity as became hb fortune and position. 

Ilogers's title to a place among the repre- 
sentatives of the most brilliant age— the 
drama apart — of English poetry cannot now 
be challenged, but his rank is lower than 
that of any of his contemporaries, and his 
position is due in great measure to two for- 
tunate accidents : the establishment of his 
rsputatiott before the advent, or at least 




the Teco^ition, of more potent spirits, 
and the intimate association of his name 
with that of gireatar men. He has, haw- 
eyer, one peculiar distinction, that of /ex- 
emplifying beyond almost any other poet 
what a moderate poetical enaowment can 
effect when prompted by ardent ambition 
and ffuided vy renned taste. Among the 
counuess examples of splendid gifts marred 
or wasted, it is pleasing to find one of medio- 
erity derated to something like distinction 

a fastidious care and severe toil. It must 
o be allowed that his inspiration was 
genuine as £Etr as it went, and that it emsr 
aated from a store of sweetness and tender- 
ness actually existing in the poet's nature. 
This is proved by the great superiority of 
'Human Life' to 'The Pleasures of Me- 
mory.' The latter, composed at a period of 
life when the author had reaUr little to 
remember, necessarily, in spite Oi occasional 
beauties, appears thin and conventional. The 
former, written after half a century's ex- 
toerience of life, is instinct with the wis- 
«0m of one who has learned and reflected, 
and the pathos of one who has felt and 

Rogers's own portrait, after a drawing by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, is prefixed to sevend 
editions of his works. It exhibits no trace 
•of the ' wrinkles that would puzzle Cocker.* 
There was also an oil-painting by Lawrence 
of the poet and one oy Hoppner (sst. 46). 
The bust by Dantan suggests a likeness to 
the senile visage of Voltaire. The sketch 
by Maclise, though described by Goethe as 
a ' ghastly caricature,' was regarded by many 
of me poet's friends as a faithful likeness. 

[Hogers pervades the literary atmosphere ot 
the first half of the nineteenth century; its 
memoirs, jonmals, and oorrespondenoe teem with 
allusions to him. Moore's Diary is probably the 
most important soaree of this nature, bat there 
is hardly any book of the class relating to this 
period from which some information cannot be 
^ned. The moat important part of it, how- 
ever, is gathered np in The Early Life of Samneil 
Hogers (1887) and Kogers and his Contempo- 
raries (1889), both by P. W. CUyden, two ex- 
cellent works. See also Mr. Clayden's Memoir 
of Samuel Sharpe, Bogers's nepnew. A very 
satisfactory abridged memoir by this nephew 
18 prefixed to the edition of Rogers's Poems pub- 
lished in 1860. His recollections of the conver- 
sation of others^nblitohed after his death by 
another nephew, William Sharpe, in 1856, supply 
renriniscenoes of Fbz, Bnrk«, Porson, Grattaa, 
Talleyrand, Scott, Erskine, Qrenirille, and Wei- 
iingtoo. Rogers's table-talk, edited by Alex- 
aader Djoe in 1860, tiiongh not directly oon- 
«emed with himself, preserves much of Burke's, 
Vqx% and Horns Tooke's conversation. Of the 

numerons notices in periodicals, the more imr 
portent are that by Ahra&am Hayward in the 
Edinburgh Review for July 1856, and that by 
Lady Eastlake in the Quarterly for October 
1888. The most elaborate criticism upon him 
as a poet is perhaps that in the National Re- 
view by William Caldwell Rosooe, reprinted in 
his essays, acute but sometrhat too depreciatory. 
See also SaintsbmVs History of the English 
Literature of the iHineteenth Getttury, and The 
Maclise Pertrait Oalleiy, ed. Sates^ pp. 18 «{.] 

R. a. 

BOQEBS, THOMAS (d. 1616), motes* 
tant divine, was a etadentof Ohrist Cnurcb, 
Oxford, in 1571, and graduated B. A. 7 July 
1573, andM.A. 6 July 1676 (Oiak, O.^orrf 
£eff,) He was aubsequently (11 Dec 11^1) 
rector of Homingsheath or Horringer, Suf- 
folk. Browne's statement (Cbn^ivij^a^Mma/imi 
in Surre^t p. 50) that he miffered auspensioB 
along vTith Dr. Bound in 1663 seems to be 
due to a confusion with Kiohaxd Bogers 
(1660-1618 P) [q. v.] Bogera was the great 
opponent of Bound in the Sabbatarian con- 
troversy (Cox, Literature of the Sabbath 
Question, i. 146, 149, 212 ; Fullbb, Gkurck 
Hiitory, v. 81, 215 ; Stbtpb, Orindal, p. 453). 
His numerous religious publications were 
held in high esteem among adherents of his 
own views in his own and later times. 
Bogers became chaplain to Bancroft, and 
aided him in his literaiy work* He died 
at Homingsheath in 1616. He was buried 
in the chancel of hia church there, 22 Febb 

Bogers's ohief works were two Tolumes on 
the English deed, respectively entitled 
' The English Creed, Wherein is contained in 
Tables an Exposition on the Artioies which 
every Man is to Subscribe ttnto/ London, 
1679 and 1686, and <The EngHsh Oreede, 
consenting with the True, AuHcientt Oatho- 
lique and Apostolique Church/ London^ pt. i. 
1585, fol., pt. ii. 1687, fol., and 1^7, 4ta 
This latter snbsequently appeared in another 
iarm as an expositkm of the Thirty-nine 
Articles, entitled 'The Faith^ Doctrine, and 
Religion professed and protected in the Realm 
of England and Dominions of the amxke, ex- 
pressed in Thirtv-nine Artielea/ Cambridge, 
1607 4to ; London, 1621 4to, 1629 44)o, 1633 
4to, 1668 4to, 1661 4to ; Cambridge, 1 691 4to ; 
abstnuQta are dated 1666 4to, 1776 8vo. 
This book, which wtis praised by Toplady, 
Bickereteth, and Other evangelieal ^ivjnee, 
was reprinted in 1854 by tihe Parker Society 
<cf. Wood, Atkenee Oamu \L 163). AlIdio^ 
eonally popular were Bqgers's tranalation .of 
'The imitation of Chriet' (London, 1580, 
12mo; often rqninted till 163^) and lus 
<0f die Endeof this World and the Seeond 




Coming of Obrffit^* ftc. rtranslated from the 
Lstin of S* a (3«reren [London, 15771 4to, 
1578 4to, 1589 4to. 

Other original publications b^ him were : 
1. 'A Philosophical Discourse, entituled the 
Anttomie of the Minde/ black letter, Lon- 
don, 1576, 8yo. 2. ' General Session, con- 
tidning an A-fologr of the Comfortable Boe- 
trme eonceming the End of the World and 
the Second Coming of Christ,' London, 
1681, 4to. a < A Golden Chaine tiUien out 
of the Rich Treasure House, the Psalms of 
King Dayid . . / 1687, 8to, with * The 
Pearls of King Solomon gathered into 
Common Places — taken from the Proverbs 
<^the8ud Kipff.' 4. 'Historical Dialogue 
touching Antienrist and Popery,' London, 
1589, 8vo. 6. ' A Sermon upon the 6, 7 and 
8 Yenee of the 12 Chapter of St. Pauls 
Eptsde mto the Romanes [in answer to a 
sermon bj T. Gartwright on the same Text],' 
London, 18 April 1590, 4to. 6. ' Miles Chris- 
tianas, or a Just Apolone of all necessarie 
• « . writers, speciallie of them which 
. . . in a . . • Deffamatorie Epistle [by 
M. Mosse] are unjustly deprayed,' 1690, 4to. 
7. ' Two Dialc^es or Conierences (about an 
old question lately renued . . .) concerning 
knwMing in the Tory act of receiving the 
Sacramental bread and wine in the Supper 
of the Lofrd/ London, 1608, 4to. 

R«gei8*8 numerous translations included 
'A Genenl Discourse against the damnable 
Sect <]£ Uauiers, Sec, [from the Latin of 
Ceesr PhilippusV 1678, 4to ; ' The Enemie 
of Seenzitle . . . f from the Latin of J. Haber- 
manny 1680 l2mo, 1591 12mo ; 'The 
Faith of the Church Militant . . . described 
in this Exposition of the 84 Psalme by . . . 
N. Hemmmgius . . .' 1581, 8to; 'St. Augus- 
tine's Praiers,' London, 1681, with *St. 
Augustine's manual;' 'A pretious Book 
of HeaTenlie Meditations by St. Augustine,' 
London* 1600 12mo, 1612 12mo, 1616 
ISmo, 1829 12mo, dedicated to Thomas 
Wilson, D,C.L. ; ' Of the Foolishness of 
Men in puttin^^ off the Amendement of their 
lives from Daie to Daie [from the Latin of 
J. Birius]' (1682 P), 8to ; * A Methode unto 
Mortification : called heretofore the Con- 
tempt of the World and the vanitie thereof. 
Wntten at the first in the Spanish [by D. 
de IBstellA], afterwards translated into the 
Italian, Emj^h, and Latine Tongues,' Lon- 
don, 1906, i:2mo ; ' Soliloqnium Anim£B . . . 
fbj Thomas k Kempis],' 1616 12mo, 1628 
l-imo, 1640 12!mo. 

Hacfitt al0o identifies him with the Tho- 
n&i Rogers, atithcr of ' Celestial 1 Elegies of 
the (Goddesses and the Muses, deploring the 
desth of Franees, Countesse of Hertford/ 

London, 1698; reprinted in the Boxburghe 
Club's ' Lamport GFarland,' 1867. In Harleian 
MS. 8366 is <The Ambassador's Idea,' a 
work finished by T. Rogers on 18 July 1638, 
and dedicated to Jerome, earl of Portland* 
It does not appear to hare been printed. 

S Authorities as in text; Hazlitt's Handbook 
I CoUectioos, passim.] W. A S. 

EOOEBS, THOMAS (1680-1604), di- 
Yine, son of John and grandson of Thomas 
Rogers, successively rectors of Bishop's 
Hampton (now Hampton Lucy), Warwiek- 
shire, was bom at Bishc^'ji Hampton on 
27 Dec. 1660, and educated at the fi«e aohool 
there. He entered Trinity College, Oxford, 
matriculating, on 15 Maj^ 1675-6, under 
the tutorship of John W^illis. He shortly 
afterwards transferred himself to Hart Hall,, 
and graduated thence on 23 Oct. 1679, and 
M. A. on 5 July 1682 (FoffTB^fAlumm Oxm. ; 
Wood, Fasti, li. 888; AthtruB Onm. iv. 400). 
He took holy orders, and on Xx>w Sunday 
1688 performed in St. Manx's Church the 
part of rq)etitioner of the K>ur Easter ser- 
mons; he was inducted in April 1600 to^ 
the small rectoiy of Slapton, near Towcester 
in Northamptonshire. He died of small-pox 
in the house of Mr. Wright, a sehoolmsAter, 
in Bunhill Fields, on 8 June 1694. He was 
buried in the church of St. Mary Overy,. 
Southwark (Wood j Coltilb, WarvnoksMre 

Roff»8 wrote : 1. ' Lux Occidentalis, or 
Providence displayed in the Coronation of 
£ang WilliAm and Queen Mary and their 
happy Accession to the Crown of England, 
anoi other remarks,' London, 1689,4to (poem 
of twenty-eight pages under the running 
title of < The Phoenix and Peacock '). 2. ' The 
Loyal and Impartial Satyrist, containing 
eight miscellany poems, viz. (1) '' The 
Ghost of an English Jesuit,'' &c. ; (2) < Look- 
iuff on Father Peter's Picture ; " (8) " Ecce- 
bolius Britannicus, or a Memento to the 
Jacobites of the higher order,"' London, 
1693, 4to. 8. 'A Poesy for Loyers, or the 
Terrestrial Venus unmask'd, in four poems, 
viz. (1) "The Tempest, or Enchanting 
Lady;" (2) " The Luscious Penance, or the 
Fasting Lad^,"' &o., London, 1698, 4to. 
4. 'The Conspiracy of Guts and Brains, or an 
Answer to toe Twin Shams,' &c., London, 
1693. 5. 'A True Protestant Bridle, or 
some Cursory Bemarks upon a Sermon 
preached [by William Stephens, rector of 
Sutton in Surrey] before the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen of London on 80 January 
1698, in a Letter to Sir P. D.,' London, 1694. 
6. 'The Commonwealths Man tinmasqu'd, 
or a just Bebuke to the Author of the ''^Ac- 




•count of Denmark/* in two parts/ London, 
1694, 8yo ; a wearisome and bif^oted tirade 
against the advanced whig principles em- 
bodied in the book of Ko^rt Molesworth, 
first Tiscount Molesworth [q. v.l There is a 
prefatory epistle addressed to William IIL 

[Wood's Athena Ozon. ed. Bliss, iv, 401» 
giving a list of minor pieces by fiogers which 
appear to be no longer extant ; Golyile's War- 
wickshire Worthies ; Bodleian Libr. Gat; Bogers's 
Works in Brit. Mus. s,t. Bogers, Thomas and 
B. T.] W. A. S. 

ROGERS, THOMAS (1760-.1832),divine, 
"bom at SwiUington, near Leeds, on 19 Feb. 
1760, was youngest son of John Ro|^rs, vicar 
of Sherbum, Yorkshire, who is said to have 
been a lineal descendant of John Rogers 
fq. v.], the martyr. On leaving Leeds 
mmmar school he entered Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1779, graduated B.A. in 
1783, and was ordained deacon on Trinity 
Sunday in that year. After beinj; succes- 
sively curate of Norton-cum-Galby in Leices- 
tersmre, Ravenstone in Derbyshire, and at 
^t. Mary's, Leicester, under Thomas Robin- 
-son (1749-1813) fg. v.], he was appointed 
headmaster of the Wakefield grammar school 
•on 6 Feb. 1795. In December of the same 
year he was allowed to hold with this office 
the afternoon lectureship of St. John'6,Wake- 
field. Rogers conducted some confirmation 
classes in 1801 in Wakefield parish church 
with such success that a weekly lectureship 
was founded in order to enable him perma- 
nently to continue his instruction. His 
Sunday-evening lectures were thronged, and 
raised the tone of the neighbourhood, where 
Teligious feeling had long oeen sta^ant. In 
1814 he resigned the mastership of the 
•grammar school, and in 1817 became chap- 
Iain of the West Riding house of correction 
in Wakefield. He efiected many reforms in 
the prison. He died on 13 Feb. 1832, aged 
71, and was buried in the south aisle of the 
parish church. His wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Robert Lon^ of Norton, whom he married 
in 1785, died in 1803, leaving six children. 

Besides 'Lectures on the Liturgy of the 
Church of England ' (London, 1804, 2 vols, 
^vo ; 3rd edit. 1816), he composed a manual 
of ' Family Rrayers,' 1832. 

[Memoir by his son, the Bev. Charles Bogers, 
1832; Peacock's Hist, of the Wakefield Gram- 
mar School, 1892, pp. 148-6 ; Walker's Cathe- 
dml Chnich of Wakefield, 1888, pp. 187-9, 223.] 

J. H. L, 

ROGiaElS, TIMOTHY (1580-1650 P), 
puritan divine, eldest son of Vincent Rogers, 
rector of Stratford-le-Bow, Middlesex, was 
bom «t Stratford, and baptised there on 

30 March 1589. His father is supposed to 
have been agrandson of JohnRoger8(1500?- 
1556) [q. V.J Nehemiah Rogers [q. v.] was 
his younger brother. From the title-page of 
Timothys 'Roman-Catharist,' it appears that 
he was preacher at Steeple, Essex, in 1 621 , but 
he does not seem to have held the vicarage. 
In 1623he becameperpetual curate of Pontes- 
bright or Chapel, Essex, and held this living 
till 1650. On 19 Aug. 1636 he was appointed 
to the vicarage of All Saints', Sudbury, Suf- 
folk. How long he hdd this preferment is 
not certain. In 1648 he was a member of 
the twelfth or Lexden classis in the presby- 
terian organisation for Essex, and in the 
same year he signed the 'Testimony' of 
Essex ministers as ' pastor of Chappel.' He 
probably died in I60O. His son Samuel wan 
admitted vicar of Great Tey, Essex, on 
27 Jan. 1637-8, on the presentation of his 
uncle Nehemiah. 

Rogers published: 1. 'The Righteous Man's 
Evidence for Heaven,' &c., 1619, 8vo(Watt) ; 
8th edit. 1629, 24mo; 12th edit. 1637, 12mo; 
also Glasgow, 1784, 12moi and in French, 
'L'H6ritage du Ciel,' Amsterdam, 1703, 8vo. 

2. < The Roman Catharist,' &c. (1612), 4to. 

3. ' Good Newes from Heaven,' 1628, 24mo ; 
3rd edit. 1631, 12mo. 4. < A FaithfuU Friend 
true to the Soul . . • added, the Christian 
Jewell of Faith,' 1653, 12mo. 

[Moraot's Bssez, 1768, ii. 208; Chester's John 
Rogers, 1861, pp. 252, 275 sq. ; David's Erang. 
l^oneonformity in Essex, 1863, pp. 294 sq.] 

A« O. 

ROGERS, TIMOTHY (1658-1728), non- 
conformist minister, son of John Rogers 
i (1610-1680) [5. v.], was bom at Barnard 
' Castle, Yorkshire, on 24 May 1658. He was 
educated at Glasgow University, where he 
matriculated in 1 673, and afterwards studied 
under Edward Veal [q. v.] at Wapping. His 
entrance into the ministry was as evening 
lecturer at Crosbv Square, Bishopsgate. 
Some time after lo82 he was prostrated by 
hereditary hypochondria, from which he re- 
covered in 1690, and then became assistant 
to John Shower [q. v.], minister of the pres- 
byterian congregation in Jewin Street, re- 
moved in 1701 to the Old Jewry. His services 
were highly accept-able, but his hypochon4ria 
returned, and in 1707 he left the ministry, 
retiring to Wantage, Berkshire, where he 
died in November 1 728 ; he was buried in the 
churchyard there on 29 Nov. His portrait 
is in Dr. Williams's Library ; an engraving 
from it by Hopwood is in Wilson. John 
Rogers, his grandson, was minister at Poole, 
He published, besides single sermons, in- 




dading funeral sermouB for Robert Linager 

{16^X Anthony Dunswell (1692), Edmund 

HiU(ie92), Edward Rede (1094), M. Hassel- 

bom (1696), and Elizabeth Dunton (1(597) : 

1. 'FracUcal Discourses on Sickness and 

Recover^/ &c., 1690. 8vo. 3. ' A Discourse 

concerning . . . the Disease of Melancholy ; 

in three part«/ &c., 1691, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1706, 

8to ; Sid ed. 1806, 12mo (with life by Walter 

Wilson), He prefaced the 'Works' of 

Thomas Gouge (1666 P-1700) [q. v.] 

[Lift by Wilson, 1808 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Chnrehes of London, 1808, ij. 321; Canton's 
life and Enors, ed. Nichols ; information from 
W. Imies Addison, esq., assistant clerk of Senate, 
Glasgow ; extract from bmial register of Wan- 
tage parish.] A. O. 

ROGEBS, WILLIAM (J. 1580-1610), 
engraver, was the first Englishman who is 
Imown to have practised copperplate en- 
graving. It is not known where he studied 
the art, but it was probably in the school of 
the Wieriz family at Antwerp. That Rog^ers 
was an Englishman is shown oy his signing 
one of hiseneravings ' Angluset Civis Lond? 
He engraved some portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth, which are very scarce. Of one of them, 
a fnll-length portrait in royal robes, only one 
impression in ita complete state is known; 
tIus is now in the print-room at the British 
Museum. Another portrait, with allegorical 
figunSy is signed and dated 1589, and another 
bouRB the inscription ' Rosa Electa.' Rogers 
alsoengraved the large picture of Henry V HI 
and his fSunilv attributed to Lucas de Heere, 
now at Sudeley Castle. Of thisprint only 
three impressions are known. Rogers en- 
graved numerous portraits, title-pages, and 
niustrations for books, among these being the 
titles to Linschoten's ' Discours of Voyages 
into ye Easte and West Indies,' 1596, and 
to ^ John Harington's translation of 
Ariosto's ' Orlando Furioso ' (1591), the cuts 
in Broughton's ' Concert of Scripture,' 1596, 
«Qd the portraits in Segar's ' Honor, Mili- 
tary and Civile' (1602), and Milles's < Cata- 
logue of Honour, or Treasury of True 

Rogers's work shows him to have been a 
trained artist in the art of engraving. He 
is mentioned by Francis Meres [q. v.] in 
his <Pklladis Tamia,' 1598: 'AsLysippus, 
PraxiteleSy and Pyrgoteles were excellent 
engraven, so have we these engravers: 
Eogersy Christopher Switser, and Cure.' 

rWalpole's Anaed. of Fainting (ed. Womnm); 
OdDoooghWs Gat. of Portraits of Queen Elisa- 
beth ; fiomley's Gat. of Engraved British Por- 
ttaits; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.; 8trutt*s Diet. 
<if£D^vexs; Ganlfield's Caloographiana.] 

L. a 

JQL xra. 

BOGEBS, WILLIAM (1819^1896), edu- 
cational reformer, bom in Bloomsbury on 
24 Nov. 1819, was the son of William Lo- 
rance Rogers (d. 1838), a barrister of Lin- 
coln's Inn and a London police magistrate, 
by Qeorgiana Louisa, daughter of George 
Daniell, Q.C. His father, who owed ms 
appointment as magistrate to Sir Thomas 
Plumer [q. v.], was the second son of Cap- 
tain John Rogers, by Eleanor, a niece of Sir 
Horace Mann [q. v.], and was a direct 
descendant of Captain Thomas Rogers, who 
distinguished himself by repelling the assault 
of a Biscay privateer upon a transport ship 
under his command in 1704 (London Gazette* 
8 Feb. s.a.) 

William was sent to Eton in September 
1830, and was four years under the sway of 
Dr. Keate (JReminUcenceSy pp. 8-15). From 
Eton he went to Oxford, matricuUting from 
Balliol College on 8 March 1837, a^ gra- 
duating B.A. in 1842 and M.A. in 1844. 
While at Oxford he obtained no academical 
distinction, but became well known on the 
river. He had in May 1837 rowed in the 
Eton boat against Westminster. He took 
an active part in founding the Oxford Uni- 
versity Boat Club, and rowed number four 
in the fourth contest between Oxford and 
Cambridge in 1840. On leaving Oxford he 
went with his mother and sisters on an inte* 
resting tour abroad, staying mainly in Flo- 
rence, and on his return entered the university 
of Durham (October 1^42) for theological 
training. Though he had often said that 
nothing would induce him to become a 
London clergyman, he was ordained to his 
first curacy— at Fulham— on Trinity Sunday 
1843. Rogers, by his independence, soon 
displeased his vicar, who, in the summer 
of 1845, induced Bishop Blomfield to appoint 
him to the perpetual curacy of St. Thomas's, 
Charterhouse, a parish containing ten thou« 
sand people, with an income of loO/. In 
this district^ which he denominated ' Coster- 
mongria,' Rogers remained for eighteen years, 
and devoted himself earnestly to the work 
of ameliorating the social condition of his 
parishioners by means of education. At 
Balliol he had formed intimacies with many 
who subsequently rose to high places in 
church and state, including Lord Coleridge, 
Stafford Northcote, Lord Ilobhouse, Dean 
Stanley, Jowett, Archbishop Temple, and 
many others, and he ' eternally dunned ' his 
friends, as he admits, for his great educa- 
tional work, but never for his own advance- 
ment. Within two months of his arrival 
he onened a school for ragamuffins in a black- 
smith's shed. In January 1847 he opened a 
large school building, erected at a cost of 




1 ,750/., * which,* he says, ' I soon put together.' 
In five years* time he was educating eilght 
htihdred parish children at the new school, 
burwas determined to extend his operations. 
He was encouraged by the sympatny of the 
Marquis of Lansdowne, president of the 
councD, who in 1852 laid the foundation of 
new buildings in Goswell Street, completed 
in the following year at a cost of 5,600/. 
Bogers had obtained 800/. from the councQ 
of education ; the remainder he raised by his 
private exertions. But before the debt was 
extinguished he had projected another new 
school in Gk)lden Lane, and contrived to 
extract nearly 6,000/. from the government 
for the purpose. This was opened by the 

Erince consort on 19 March 1867. Before 
e left St. Thomas's, Charterhouse, the whole 
parish was a network of schools f cf. .Re»u- 
m»;encesBXkdL the official reports on the schools 
published by Rogers successively in 1861, 
1854, 1866, and 1857). 

In June 1858 he was appointed by Lord 
Derby a member of the royal commission to 
inquire into popular education. The com- 
misdion recommended the extension of the 
state grant on the basis of school attendance, 
and nie formation of county and borough 
boards of education. Upon the passing of 
Forster*8 Act, for whicn the commission 
had somewhat cautiously prepared the way, 
Rogers was in 1870 returned at the head 
of nie poll as a representative of the London 
school board. Meanwhile, in 1857, he had 
been appointed chaplain in ordinary to the 
queeil, and in 1862 Bishop Tait, formerly his 
tutor at Balliol, gave him a prebendal stall 
at St. Paul's, but * with no provender attached 
to it.' In the following year, however, Tait 
presented him to the rectory of St. Botolph's, 
bishopsgate, of which Rogers tookpossession, 
as sixty-third rector, in June 18o3. There 
he devoted himself largely to the foundation 
of middle-class schools. His advocacy of 
secular education in these schools, and the 
relegation of doctrinal training to parents 
and clergy, earned him the sobriquet of ' hang 
theology Rogers, and much bitter opposition 
from the religious newspapers. But the work 
went on, and the Cowper Street middle-class 
schools were built at a cost of 20,000/, His 
next important work was the reconstruction 
of Alley n's great charity at Dulwich, of which 
he was appointed a governor in 1867. The 
sale of a portion of the estate to the London 
And Chatham and London, Brighton, and 
9onth Coast railways for 100,000/. enabled 
the board, which was ^catly under Rogers's 

fuidance, to. satisfy his aspirations, and on 
1 June 1871 the new school wito opened by 
the Prmce of Wales. At the same time, hi 

Bisho|ffigate, Rogers wias active in l^e re* 
storation of the church of St. Botolph, and 
at all times, both in his own and a<]yoining 

garishes, the erection of baths and wash- 
ouses and drinking fountains, the extension 
of play^unds, and the ]>rovi8ion of cheap 
meals, industrial^ exhibitions, picture ci- 
leries, and iVee libraries had his heartiest 
support. His labours in his own parish culmi- 
nated in the opening of the Bisnopsgate In- 
stitute ([which combined many of these aids 
to civilisation) upon 24 Nov. 1894. Upon 
the same day This seventy-fifth birthday) a 
presentation 01 his portrait, by Arthur S. 
Cope, and of a gift ot plate was made to him 
at the Mansion House, in the presence of tha 
prime minister (l^rd Rosebiery), the lord 
chancellor, the lord chief justice, the lord 
mayor, and manv other distinguished friends. 
He died at his Iionse in Devonshire Square 
on Sunday, 19 Jan. 1896, and was buried at 
Mickleham, Surrey, on 23 Jan. His sister 
Georgiana, the companion of his ministerial 
life, died at Mickleham on 24 May 1896^ 
aged 76. 

A man of great social gifts, of broad views^ 
and irrepressible humour, Rogers, like his 
lifelong friend Jowett, dispensed a large 
hospitality. Many persons were ready to 
detect the inconsistency between his indifle* 
rence to church doctrine and his position as 
a beneficiary of the national church. But 
his geniality overcame those of his opponents 
with whom he came into personal contact 
(' He may be an atheist,' sam one, ' but he is 
a gentleman*), while the great results he 
achieved disarmed the hostility of the re* 

[The outlines of Hogers*8 life are graphically 
sketched in his Reminiscences, with portrait^ 
London, 1888, 8 to, compiled by the Rev. R. H» 
Hadden, formerly carate at St. Botolph's. See 
also Foster's Alumni Ozon. 1715-1888; Times, 
24 and 27 Jan. 1 895, and 26 ITay 1896 ; QnaTdtan, 
27 Jan. 1896; Spectator, 29 Jan. 1896; Illus- 
tzated Lcmdon News (with j^oirtmit), 36 Jam 
1898.] T. S. 

1876), wood-carver, was bom at Dover on 
10 Aug. 1792. He showed an early taste 
for drawing and modelling, and was appren- 
ticed by his patrents in 180/ to one McLauch- 
lan of Printing House S<|uare, London (after- 
wards master of the Shipwrights' Company). 
Although possessed of much original skIII of 
his own, he was attracted at an earlvojge hy 
the beautiful wobd catvinflritnd ibodfelling' of 
Grin ling Gibbons fq . v.^ Hi^ enthusiasm -Wn^ 
fdrthei^ stimulatea by an old -^ood-fcarver 
among his fellow-wo^keirs, who in Kis youth 
had worked at Burghley House, where h& 




bad been ftBsoeifttdd with ttssn dnrpfoyed on 
tke cttmngB in St. PaaFs Cathedral under 
Gibbons himself. RqfierBdeirotedbieetadies 
to the works of QiohonB^ and* thazoaghlY 
masttttad Uiat earrsir's art* Gaining much 
repatatimi, he was eMtploiyed by the royal 
family on canrings for OantcNi Monse, Ken- 
sington Pabhee, and the Pa'vilion at Brighton. 
His OTogiese was aesMted by the oollectioa 
whica he made of fine spedtteas of art In 
1848 he exeeated eotne of his best hnown 
esrrings — ^thoee in the chuvdi of St. Mary*at- 
Hill in the city. In 1660 he was elected on. 
the committee for carrying oiit the scheme of 
the Gh«at Exhibition, mA receired a oomr 
mtsnon ficom tho qaeen to car^e a eradle in 
boxwood in the Itallaa style, which was ex« 
hibited and much admired at the eodiihition 
in 1851. Rogers was awarded bdth a prise 
snd asertioe medal. Among his innomerable 
wood esrrings may- be mentioned those exe*- 
cated for the pance of the sultan, Abdul 
Med^ySt Cbnstantinople, and the church of 
St. Michael, Oomfail), m the otty. While it 
esnnot be said that his works reproduce the 
consammate genius of Gibbons, they hare 
great merit in themseltes, and are sufficiently 
SQceessfnl in their imitation to deceive the 
hkexperienced eye. Rogers carried his devo- 
tion to the art of Gibbons far enough to 
deviseamodeof preservingGKbbons's carving 
from the ravages of worms and age. His 
method was completely successful, and among 
the earvinga thos rescued from destruction 
maybe noted those at Belton Hoase, Grant- 
ham, at Melbory, at Chatsworth, and at 
Trinity College, Grunbrid^e. Rogers reoeived 
a pension of 60/. on the civil list, and after a 
longand sucoeesf al career, he died on 21 March 
1875, in his eighty-third year. He married, 
in AprQ 1824, Miss Mary Johnson, and left a 
Domerous familvy of whom William Harry 
Rogers (1825-1873) showed great talents in 
designing ; Edward Thomas Rogers (1880- 
18S4), and Mary Elisa Rogers (b, 1827), who 
resid^ for many yeans in the East, and wrote, 
among other assays on oriental life, a well- 
known work, entitled 'Domestic Life in 
Pakatine ' (1862). His youngest son, George 
Alned Rogers {b. 1837), who still survivee, 
wa? the only son who adopted his father^s 
profession. A portrait (with a memoir) of 
Rogers appealed in the ' lUostrated London 
News ' for 4 April 1876. 

[Private information.] L. 0. 

ROOtSBS, WOODES (d, 1782), sea- 
«sp^ain and iWyv e tti o r of the Bahamas, was 
in 1708 appmiKied captain tfi the Duke and 
e')nmiander-in-chief ai the two ships Duke 
isc! Dacheas^privatoiiiMHof'^var fitted out by 

some merchants of Bristol to eruise agaixtst 
the Spaniards in the South Sea. Amon^ the 
owners, it is stated, were several ouakecs 
(Sethb, Memmrs of BruM, ii. 659), and 
Thomas Dover [q. v.], who sailed with the ex- 
pedition as second captain of the Duke, presi^ 
dent of the council and chief medical officer. 
William Dampier fq. v.] was master of the 
Duke and pilot of the expedition, Rogers,. it 
would seetn, having no personal fxneidence 
of the Pacific. The crew were or -varied 
ohaaracter, about a third weire foieigneiSj and 
a large proportion of the rest,, landsmen-^ 
' tailors, tinkers, pedlars, fiddUesiy and hay*- 
makers.' The ships themselves were ' very 
crowded and pestered, their holds full of 
provisions, and between decks encumbered 
with cables, much bread, and aUogethsr in 
a very unfit state to- engage an enemy/ 
Thev sailed from King Koad on 2.Ang. 
170o, and, after touching al Cork, steered for 
the Canary Islands, Rogers,, on the way, 
suppressing a dan^ous mutiny by seising 
the ringleader — ^with the assistance of the 
ofiicers, who were unusually numeroue — and 
making ' one of his chief oomrades whip him, 
which method I thought best IcHr breaking 
any unlawful friendship amongst them.' Off 
Tenerife they captured a small Spanish bark 
laden with wine and brandy, which they 
added to their own stores, and touching at 
St Yinoent of the Cape Verd Islands^ and 
Angra dos Reis on the coast of Bvaul, they 
got round Cape Horn in the beginning of Ja- 
nuary 1708-9, being driven by a vk>lent stotm 
as far south as latitude 61° 68'| ' which/ wrote 
Rogers, ' for aught we know is the furthest 
that any one has yet been to the southward.' 
But the men had suffered greatly from cold, 
wet, and insufficient clothing, and Rogers re- 
solved to make Juan Fernandez the exact 
position of which was still undetermined, 
but which he fortunately reached on 81 Jan. 

It was dark when they came near the 
land, and seeing a light, they lay to, think- 
ing that it might come from an enemy -s 
ship. In the morning, however, no strange 
ship was to be seen, and Dover, going on 
shore in the boat, brought off a man dr^sed 
in goatskins and speaking English with 
difficulty. This was the celebrated Aleian- 
der Selkirk [q. v.l, who had been marooned 
there more than four years before, and, being 
now recoffnised by Dampier as an old ship- 
mate ana good sailor, was appointed by 
Rogers a mate of the Duke. 

Alter refitting at Juan Femandea, they 
cruised off the coast of Peru for some months, 
capturing several small vessels and one 
larger one-^in attacking which RogenTs 
brc^her Thomas was killed by a shot through 





the bead — and sackinff and ransoming the 
town of Guayaquil. They then went north, 
and on 21 Dec., off the coast of California, 
captured a rich ship from Manila, in en- 
gaging which Rogers was seyerelv wounded 
hj a bullet in the mouth, which smashed 
his upper jaw and lodged there, causing him 
much pain till it was extracted six months 
later. From the prisoners he learnt that 
another ship, larger and richer, had sailed 
from Manila in companywith them, but had 
separated from them. This they sighted on 
the 26th, but it was not till the ^th that 
their tender, the Marquis, an armed price, 
and the Duchess were able to engage her, 
the Duke being still a long way off, and 
nearly becalm^. They were beaten off 
with much loss, and when, on the next day, 
the Duke got up to her, she too was beaten 
off, Rogers receiving another severe wound, 
thu time in the foot, ' part of my heel bone,' 
he says, * being struck out and ankle cut 
above half through.' After this they crossed 
the Pacific, refitted and took in some fresh 

! provisions at Guam, and again at Batavia 
June 1710). In the beginning of October 
thej sailedf for the Cape of Good Hope, 
which thejy reached on 27 Dec., and, sailing 
thence with the Dutch convoy in Apri^ 
arrived in the Downs on 1 Oct. 1711. 

In the following year Rogers published 
his journal under the title of * A Cruising 
Voyage round the World' (cr. 8vo, 1712; 
2na ed. 1718), a work of great interest and 
of a quaint humour that renders it delight- 
ful reading. In many respects the voyage 
was a notable one, but in none more than 
in this, that with a mon^l crew, and 
with officers often insubordinate and even 
mutinous, good order and discipline were 
maintained throughout; and though many 
men were lost by sickness, especially from an 
infection caught at Guayaquil, they suffered 
little or notning from scurvy, the disease 
which in the next ^neration proved so fatal 
to seamen. Financially, too, the voyage was 
a success, and seems to have placed Rogers 
in easy circumstances, so that m 1717 he was 
able to rent the Bahama Islands from the 
lords proprietors for twenty-one years. At 
the same time he obtained a commission as 

He arrived at Nassau in July 1718, when 
he found that the place and the islimds 
generally were a nest of pirates, to the 
number, he estimated, of more tlum two 
thousand. These, under the leadership of 
Charles Vane and Edward Teach [q. y.l re- 
sented the prospect of disturbance by a ! 
settled government. Moreover, with the 
crews of his own ships, private men-of-war 1 

and the inhabitantsof Nassau— whose loyalty 
was doubtful — ^Rogers could muster only 
three hundred anuM men. And the situa- 
tion was rendered more difficult by a Spanish 
protest against the legal occupation of the 
islands, and threats of an attadc by fifteen 
hundred Spaniards. Rogers bore up against 
the difficulties with undaunted courage, 
set the nirates at defiance, and in Decem- 
ber 171o hanged ten of them on his own 
responsibility, without any valid commis- 
sion. A few months later he ' was forced 
to condemn and hang a fellow for robbing 
and burning a house.' ^If/ he added, 'for 
want of lawyers our forma are something 
deficient^ I am fully satisfied we have not 
erred in j ustice.' But the home government 
ffave him no support, he had no money, no 
force, and the king's ships would not come 
near him ; and in the end of February 1720-1 
he left for England, his place being tem- 
porarily filled by * Mr. Fairfax, a kinsman of 
Colonel Bladen V presumably Martin Bladen 
[a. v.] The government sent out a successor, 
George Phenney, who maintained himself for 
eight years, at the end of which he was 
superseded by Rogers, who arrived on 25 Aug. 
1729 with a commission dated 18 Oct. 1728, 
appointing him ' captain general and go- 
vemor-in-chief over the Bahama Islands.* 
He died at Nassau on 16 July 17S2 (Gent 
Mag, 1732, p. 979). He was married and 
left issue. 

[The chief authority is Roger8*s Cruising 
Voyage round the World. The original edition 
is extremely rare, but there is one copy in the 
British Museum (G. 15783) ; another copy, from 
the library of Qeorge HI, which appears in Uie 
Catalogue (303 h. 8), is in reality only the title- 
page and introduction, bound up with the se- 
oond volume of E. Cooke's Voyage to the South 
Sea (1712). Cooke was first lieutenant of the 
Duchess and afterwards captun of the Marqois, 
and published his account of the voyage, in two 
volumes, just before Rogers. It is altogether an 
inferior book; its second volume is for the 
most part a hjdrographical description of the 
ports visited. The account of Bogem's later 
life is to be found in the correspondence in 
the Public Record Office, Board of Trade, 
Bahamas, vols. i. ii. and iii. ; see also Notes and 
(Queries. 4th ser. z. 107t referring to Sloane MS. 
4469, No. 29.] J. K. L. 

1859), poet, was bom at Manchester on. 
20 Jan. 1809. At the age of thirteen he 
left school and began work in a mercantile 
firm, but was afterwards placed with a soVi- 
citor. Law being distasteful, he opened in 
1834 a bookshop in Manchester, which he 
carried on until 1841. The next few^ years 
were devoted to literaiy work, and in 1849 




lie was appointed regifltnr of the Manchester 
cemeteiy at Harpnniey. He was a clever 
amateor actoTy was president for some years 
of the Manchester Shakespearean Society, 
and was for a short time on the staff of 
the Manchester Theatre Boy aL In youth he 
had written a play in three acts, called ' The 
Baron of Manchester/ which was produced 
at a loal theatre. He also lectured on lite- 
rary sad educational suhjects. 

Fram early years he was an eager, desul- 
tory reader, and soon became a writer of 
Terse, but had enough discretion to destroy 
most of his juyenile efforts. He first ajH 
peered in print in 1826 in the 'Manchester 
(xuardian,^and in the following year wrote 
for the * Liyerpool Kaleidoscope/ In 1828 he 
joined John Hewitt in editing the * Fhodniz, 
or Manchester Literary Journal,' a creditable 
nerfonnance, which lasted only a few months. 
He was joint-editor of the * falcon, or Jour- 
nal of Literature,' Manchester, 1881 ; and 
edited the ' Oddfellows' Macncine' from 1841 
to 1848; the ' Ghaplet, a Poetical Offering 
for tiie Lyceum Baxaar,' 1841, and the * Fes- 
tire Wreath,' 1842 (both published at Man- 

Cfanmic rheumatism disabled him about 
1856 from continuing his duties as registrar. 
He afterwards kept a tavern in Newton 
Street, Ancoats, Manchester, and in 1857 
was master of a school at Accrington. In 
the succeeding year he was awardeoa fforem- 
ment pension of 60/. ; then he retirea to the 
Isle of Man, where he died on 16 Oct. 1869, 
and was interred at Eark Braddan, near 
Boi^las. His wife was Mary Anne, bom 
Horabin, by whom he left several chUdren. 

His aeparatepablications were: 1. 'Bhyme, 
Romance, and Reyery,' London, 1840; 2nd 
edit. 1852. 2. *A Voice from the Town, 
and other Poems,' 1843, 8. 'The Wandering 
Angel, and other Poems,' 1844. 4. 'Poetical 
Works,' I860, with portrait. 6. * Flowers 
Cor all Seasons' ^verses and essays), 1864. 
6. * Musings in Many Moods,' 1869, which 
contains most of the poems in the preceding 
Tolumea. His works, though pleasing, lack 
originality and vigour. 

[Oddfellowfl^ Quarterly Magazine, Jannasy 
1847 (with portrait); Procter^s Literary Rami- 
niseaaeesy 1860 (portrait); Procter's Bygone 
MsDcheater; Manchester Weekly Times Supple- 
ment, S June 1871 (article by J. Dawson); 
lithgov's life of J. G. Prince, p. 182 ; informa- 
tion suppUed by Mr. a. C. Yates, F.S.AJ 

BOOST, PETEB MARK (1779-1869), 
^Tsician and sayant, bom in Broad Street, 
8oho, London, on 18 Jan. 1779, was only son 
of John fi<]get,a natiYe of Geneya, who was 

pastor of the French protestant church in 
Threadneedle Street. His mother, Oathe- 
rine, was onl^ surviying sister of Sir Samuel 
Romilly. His father died in 1783 at (^eya, 
and he was brought up by his mother, from 
whom he inherited his systematic habit of 
mind. Mrs. Roget took up her reeideDce in 
Kensington Square in the fSeunily of a Mr. 
Ohauyet of Gteneya, who kept a priy ate school, 
which young Boget attended. He studied 
mathematics on his own account unaided, 
and made considerable progress. In 1793 
the mother and her ohildran remoyed to 
Edinburgh, where Roget, then fourteen 
years old, was entered at the uniyersity. 
In the summer of 1796 he went for a tour 
in the highlands with his uncle Rom^ 
and M. Bumont, the Mend of Mirabeau. He 
entered the medical school of the Edinburgh 
Uniyersity in the winter session of the same 
year, and after recoyering in 1797 from an 
attack of typhus feyer, which *he caught in 
the wards of the infirmary, he graduated 
M.D. on 25 June 1798, being then only nine- 
teen years of age. The title of his graduation 
thesis was ' De Ohemic» Affinitatis Legibos.' 
He was subsequently a pupil in the London 
medical schools of Baillie, Oruikshank| Wil- 
son, Heberden, and Home. 

In 1798 R<^et proyed his powers of obser- 
yation by writing a letter to Dr. Beddoes 
on the non-preyalence of oonsunoption among 
butchers, fishermen, &c., which Beddoes pub- 
lished in his ' Essay on the Causes, &c., of 
Pulmonary Oonsumption' (London, 1799). 
In 1799 he sent to Dayy a communica- 
tion on the effects of the respiration of the 
newly discoyered gas, nitrous oxide, and 
the communication appeared in Dayy's * Re- 
searcheus' (1800). In October 1800 Roget 
spent six weeks with Jeremy Bentham, wao 
consulted him upon a scheme which he was 
deyising for the utilisation of the sewage of 
the metropolis. In 1802 he became travel- 
ling tutor to two sous of John Philips, a 
wealthy merchant of Manchester. In the 
summer they proceeded to Gheneya, having 
for their trayelling comnanion Lovell Edge- 
worth, half-brother to Maria Edge worth, the 
authoress. The tour terminated owing to the 
rupture of the peace of Amiens, and Roget 
was detained at Gleneya as a prisoner on 
parole. He successfully pleaded his rights as 
a citizen of Geneva by virtue of his descent 
from Gbnevese ancestors, and was released. 
After a long detour, made necessary by the 
military operations of the French, he and 
his pupils sailed for England, reaching 
Harwich on 22 Nov. 1803. After a brief 
visit in 1804 to Edinburgh with a view to 
pursuing his studieS|he became private physi- 



oiatt^to the MarauiBof Lansdowne, whom he 
Moompanied to KoiTogate and Bowbod. 

iln his twenty-eizth year, on the death of 
Dr. Dhomas Perciral [(]. v.], Roget was ap- 
pointod in d806 physician to the infirmaiy 
art Mancheitari and he became one of the 
fouttitos of the Manchester medical school. 
In the-spiitig^of 1606 he gave a course of lee- 
tnreS'on phrjraiology to the pupils at the infir- 
mary. In ^foD«mo6r 1606 he accepted the ap- 
pointment of private seoretary to Charles, vis- 
count ^Howiok (afterwards Earl Grey), then 
(brdgn «ecretary ; but, dialiking the duties, 
'he* resigned in a month and returned to Ifan- 
ehester. While in London he had attended 
«>me< of Abemethy's lectures at St. Bartho- 
lomew^^ Hospital. In 1807 he delivered a 
popular course of lectures on the physioloffy 
of the animal 3dngdom at the rooms of tne 
'Mcncheeter Philosophical and Literary So- 

• uiety, of which he was a vice-president. In 
'October 1608 he resigned his post at the 

infirmary and migrated to Lonaon. There 
he puMued a career of almost unexampled 
aotm/ity for nearly half a century, engaging 
with indomitable energy in scientific lec- 
turing^ in work connected with medical 
and (Soientiflc aocieties, or in scientific re- 
search. In London he first resided in Bev- 
-nard' Street, Russell Souaxe, whence he re- 
moved 'to 16 Upper Bedford Place. 

Admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Pbysioians on. 6 March 1809, Roget delivered 
in 'the spring of that and toe foUowing year 
Popular lectures on animal physioloffy at the 
kussell Litemryond Scientific Institution in 
BloomsbuTf . In October 1609 he projected 
the Northern Dispensary, which was opened 
in' the following June with Roget as its phy- 
sician. The active duties of this office he 
' performed gratuitously for eighteen years. In 
1810 he began to lecture on the theory and 
prajetiee of physic «t the theatre of anatomy in 
'Grea(t Windmill Street, in conjunction with 
Dr. John Cooke, who two years afterwards re- 
signed him his share of the undertaking. He 
tlMfn delivered 'two courses of lectures a year 
until 1816. In 1820 he was appointed phy- 
si^iAn to the Spani^ embassy, and in 18:^ 
physician to the Milbank penitentiary during 
an enidemic of dysentery. In the autumn 
of 1826 he oommenced lecturing at the new 
medical school in Aldersgate Street. His 
introductory lecture was published. In 1827 

• be was commissioned by the government to 
iuQitire into the water-supply of the metro- 

- polis, and published a report nextyear. la 
18dd he was nominated oy John fuller, the 
founder, tlie first holder of the Fullerian 

' pr6fee9ovship ef physiology at the Royal 
institution) wherci as at the London Institu- 

tion, he had already lectured frequently on 
aninaal ph^ology. He held the Fullerian 
professorship for three vears, and in his lec- 
tures dumng 1635 and X88($ confined himself 
to the external senses. 

Meanwhile some of Kof?et's enezgy had 
been devoted to other fields. He always 
cultivated a native i^ttude for mechanics. 
In 1614 he had oontnved a slidiog rule, sp 
graduated as to be. a measure of the powers 
of numbers, in the same manner as the spale 
of Qunter was a meaaure oC their ratios. It 
is a logo-logavithmic rule, the elide 0i whiqh 
b the. common logarithmic ect^ n^e tbe 
fixed line is gnaduated lupon the logarithnis 
of logarithms. His pap^ thereon, wliicii 
also describes other ingemoue forms of the 
instrument, was communicated by Dr. Wol- 
laston to the B|^ftl Society, and read on 
17 Nocr. 1814. llie conununication led, on 
16 March 1615^ to his election as a fellow of 
the society. On 80 Nov. 1827 he succeeded 
Sir John Herschel in the office of secretary 
to the sodetv, ratiiing ^ 1649. He not only- 
edited, while secretary, the 'Proceedings' 
both of the society andcouncil, but piepsjred 
for publication the abstracts of papers. 
This labour he performed from 1827 to his 
retirement. Jie was &ther of the Royal 
Society Club at the time of hie death. 

On many other litecairy and soientific so- 
deties Roget-s active mind left its impress. 
From lail to 1827 he acted as one of the 
secretaries of the Medieo^hirurgical So- 
ciety ; he WBS one of the earliest promoters 
of the society, aod was vice-president in 
1829-30. He was a founder of the Society 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and 
wrote for its ' Library of Useful Knowledge ' 
a series of treftttses on 'electricity,' 'gal- 
vanism,' 'magnetism,' and 'dlectro-magnet- 
ism,' durinff 1627, 1828, and 1631. On 
24 June 1631 he was eleetedi apeoiali ffra^ 
tia, fellow- of the Eoyal College of Physi- 
cians, and in the following ICay he delivered 
the Gulstonisn lectures on 'The Laws of 
Sensation and Pero^ion.' He held the 
office of oeosor in the ooUege in 1834 ftnd 
1636. Roget was a ifirequent attendant at 
the meetings of the .British Association for 
over thirty years, and .at an eariy meetings 
filled the ^air of tlie physiological section. 
He wrote in 1634 one of the ^idffewater 
treatises on ' Animal and •Vegetable Phy- 
siology considered with reference to Natural 
Theology ;* it was reissued in 1839, 1640, 
and 1802. 

In 1887 and th6 subsequent ysazs he took 
an active part in the establishment of t^e 
university of London, of the senate of which 
he remained a msonber until his death ; in 

Roget 151 Rokeby 

June 1889 he was appointed examiner in 
phyuoUwf and comparative anatomy. 

After 1840 lie retir^ from professional 
practice and at first mainly dayoted himself 
to compiling liis useful ' Thesaurus of English 

the * Philoaophical Transactions ' (1835;, and 
essays on * Quarantine ' and * Pauper Lunatics ' 
in the 'Parliamentary Beyiew' (1826 and 
1828) . Many memoirs by him apneared in tihe 
'Annals of Philosophy * and ' Meaico-Ghirur«» 

Words and FhraseSy classified and arranged • gical Transactions/ and other periodicals, 
io as to &cilitate the expression of idea& and | [Jackson's Qmde to the literatoM of Botany; 
asast in literary composition ' (1862, oyo). Britten and Boiilg9r*s Biogr. Index of British 
During his life Uie work reached its twenty- , and Irish Botai^i^te ; Allibone's Critical Dic- 
eiffhth edition, and it is still widely used, tiooary of English Literature ; Lancet^ 26 Sept. 
Many generations of literary men and jour* , 1869 ; ProeeediDge of the Boyal Society of 
nalisU h&ye testified to its practical utility. London, yoL xviii. 1869-70.] W. W. W. 
An edition of 1879, embodying Hoget's latest | EQKBBT Baboits. [See Bobiksov, 
oomctions, was edited h^ his son. Riohaiu), first baron 170&~1794 ; R6bik- 

Bf^get always used Feinaiffle's system of son-Mob&ib, Majtxsbw, second baron, 1713- 
mnemonics, and spent mucn time in his ; 1800.] 

last yean in attempts to construct a calcu- ROKEBY, JOHN (d, 1578 P), canonist, 
lating mafihine . He also made some pro- was. probably second son of Sir Robert 
gresB towards the inyention of a delicate Bokeby of Bokeby Morton (flar/. iSbc. i\i*/. 
balance, in whidi, to lessen foction, the xy'i. 268). He joined St. Nicholas's Hostel, 
folcnnn was to De within a small barrel Cambriclge, where he graduated bachelor of 
floating in water. He was fond of exercising civil law in 1580, and doctor in 1638. He 
his iiwenuity in the construction and solu- was engaged as a tutor at Cambridge (Ellis, 
tion of chessproWems, of which he formed a Origmal Letters, Srd ser. ii. 243). On 11 Feb. 
large collection. Some of these figured in ' 1536-7 he was admitted a member of Boc- 
the 'Illustrated London News.' In the tors' Commons (Oootb, Civilians, p. 83), and 

* London and Edinburgh Philosoj^hical Ma- practised in the court of arches and the ez- 
gazine' for April 1840, there is a 'De- | chequer court of York. According to the state* 
ecription of a Method * which he inyented, ment of his nephew, Ralph Rokeby (A 1596, 

* of moying the knight over every square of (see under Rokbbt, Ralm, 1537P-1596; 
the clieaaboard without going twice over and Whitakee, JRichnumdshire, i. 173), he 
any one, commencing at a given square and was counsel for Henry VIII in the divorce, 
enooigatany other given square of a different and so confounded the pope by his canon law 
colour.'' The complete solution of this pro- that Henry offered him the bishomric of 
bkm WiSS never effect^ before. To assist London, which he declined. He became 
persona interest^ed in chess, he contrived and vicar-general of York. According to his 
pttbUihed in 1845 a pocket chessboard, called nephew, he held for thirty^^two years the 
the 'JBoonomic Ghessboaid.' ^ ' post of 'justice' in York. During that 

He died at West Malvern, in the ninety- ' period no sentence of his was anntmed on 
first yewr of his age, on 12 Sept. 1869. In appeal (*.) In May 1641 he was appointed 
1824 lie married the only daughter of ; a commissioner for the visitation ' of All 
Jonathan Hobson, a - Liverpool merchant. Souls' College, Oxfoiid (Stbypb, Crammer, 
>I».RQfiretdiedin the spring of 1833, leaving p. 130). In 1645 he became chaunter or 
two cbiliiren. One of them, John Lewis ' precentor of York, with the prebend of 
Roget, is author of the ' History of the Old Driffield attached. On 7 Sept. 1668 he was 
Water Colour Society ' (1890). A portrait admitted prebendary of Dunham in South- 
of Bx^^ was engraved by Eddis. ' well CathedraL Both these preferments he 

Besides the works mentioned, Roget was held till his death (Wood, Athena Oxon, ii. 
author of many able papers in encyclopsBdias, 719 • Le Nsvb, Fasti), From the accession 

( 1832). He contributed important articles Qarg^ve and others to reforpi the law ofjLhe 
to the ' Edinjbuj^h Review/ especially tl 

cpon Httber's works on an^ and bees (vols, 
u. and JULX.), and wrote in the * Quarterly ' 
on Ampere's ' Ofaqervatioi^s ' (1826). Has 
'«per on the ' Optical X>eo^tion in the Ap- 
jeartDce of the Spokes of a Wheel seen 
i. 4A)agh Vertical Apertures ' was published in 

those marches. Kokeby probably died before 10 Dec 

1578 (cf. Le Neve, iii. 156 with p. 419). 

[AuthoritieB as in text ; Barnet*8 ReformatioD, 
ii. 831 -ft ; C6'>per*s Athens CSantabr. \ Qrindurs 
Remains (Parker SocX p* 161 ; Retrospective 
Revi0w, new 'ser. ii. 484; Hifit MSB. Coxnm« 
lath.^^p. pt. it. p. 84.] ly. A S. 




of requests, bom about 1527| was the second 
•on of Thomas Rokeby of Mortham, York- 
shire, by his wife Jane, daughter of Robert 
Constable of Cliffe in the same county 

JCEetmoimia Rokebeiorumt f. 818). His uncle 
ohn is noticed separately. Another uncle, 
Ralph RokebjT {d. 1566), was called to the 
degree of seijeant-at-law in 1652, fought 
against Wyatt in the following year, and 
declined the chief-justiceship of common 
pleas in 1565, when Sir Richard Morspan 
fq. ▼.] was disabled by insanity. This Ralph 
Kokeoy's son, also named Iu.lph Rokebt 
(d, 1575), was educated at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, and then became a member of 
Lincoln's Inn, where he formed a friendship 
with John Stubbe (1548-1600 P) [q. v.] ; he 
was subsequently appointed secretary of the 
council of the nortn, and was described as 
' the most learned canonist of his time *{CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 159&-1601, p. 205). He 
was buried at the Belfrey chwrch, York, on 
12 March 1594-5. By his second wife, Joan, 
daughter of John Portington, he left a daugh- 
ter, Anne, who became second wife of Sir 
John Hotham [q. v.l Rokeby was author 
of * (Eoonomia Rokebeiorum,' which he 
wrote in 1566 and revised in 1693 (a copy, 
made by Joseph Hunter, who calls it ' a most 
curious piece of family history/ is in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 24470, ff. 294-883, and it 
has been printed in Whitaker's ' Richmond- 
shire,' i. 158-80). 

The subject of this article, Ralph, son of 
Thomas, was educated at Cambridge and 
Lincoln's Lin, where he was called to the 
bar. In 1666 he was sent on the queen's 
service to Ireland, and was recalled 


19 Feb. 1668-9 (i^. Ireland, 1509-1573, p. 
402). On 1 Jan. 1569-70, however, he 
was appointed chief justice of Connaught 
and entrusted with the difficult task of in- 
troducing English law into that province. 
He aoon confessed to Cecil that the people 
of Connaught 'were unwiUing to embrace 
justice,* and urged that ' it must be valiant 
and courageous captains and hardy soldiers 
that must make a way for law and justice, 
or else farewell to Ireland' (t&.) At the 
same time he applied for three months' leave 
in order to many, which was granted avear 
later ; but no marriage took place. £fe is 
said to have represented the borough of 
Huntingdon in the parliament which met on 
2 April 1571, but the official returns are 
wanting. In October 1571 he was recom- 
mended for the lord-chancellorship of Lre- 
land by Loftus, and again in 1678 bv Fitx- 
William, but was not appointed. He be- 
came bencher of Lincoln s Inn in 1572, and 

a master of requests about 1576 ; in 1680 h* 
appears as master of St. Catherine's Hospital^ 
near the Tower (t^. Dom. 1647-^, p. 668). 
He was principally employed in searching 
for and examining papists {^. passim); he- 
served on the special commissions of oyer and 
terminer which indicted William Parry (d, 
1686) [q. v.] in February 1584-6 and Babinff- 
ton in September 1686. Early in 1688 he suB- 
scribed 80/. for the defence of the kingdom 
against the Spanish armada, and in 1589 was 
on a commission for the sale of crown lands. 
He took part in the trials of Philip, earl of 
Arundel, in March 1688-9, of Sir Johir 
Perrot in March 1691-2, of Patrick Cullen 
and of Rodrigo Lopes in February 1598-4. 
He died on 14 June 1596, and was buried m 
St. Andrew's, Holbom, where there is a& 
inscription to his memory. By his will, a 
copy of which is extant in Addit. MS. 24486, 
f. 87, he left sums of 100/. to Christ's Hos- 
pital, to the poor in Greenwich, to the poor 
scholars of Oxford and of Cambridge, to the- 
prisoners in the Fleet, Newgate, Kinff's 
Bench, Marshalsea, and other prisons. He 
appointed Lord-chancellor Egerton his execu- 
tor — an office which is said to have been 
worth 10,000/. to the latter. 

[OSconomia Bokebeioram in Addit. MS. 24470, 
ff. 294-333 ; Gal. State Papers, Dom. and Irish ; 
Familise Minomm G-eQtiain(Harl. Soc.), pp. 687^ 
690 ; Cal. Irish Fiants in 11th Rep. Dep.-Keeper 
of Records in Ireland ; Foster's Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees; Whitaker's Richmondshire, i. 177» 178, 
182; Willis's Kotitia Pari. iii. 81; Dngdale's 
Orig. Jurid. pp. 260-2 ; Lascelles's Liber Mn- 
nerum Hib.; Strype's Works, index; E^rton 
Papers, pp. 110, 308; Daeard's St. Gatherine'fr 
Hospital, p. 85 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the 
TudoTS, ii. 170 ; Retrospective Review, new ser. 
ii. 487 ; Cooper's Athense Oantabr.] A. F. P. 

ROKEBY, Sib THOMAS db (A 1866), 
justiciar of Ireland, was probably son of 
Thomas de Hokebj, who died in 1818. He 
first comes into notice as the squire who,, 
having been a prisoner with the Scots and 
released by them, was ahle to earn the re- 
ward of 100/. per annum offered by the 
young king, Edward III, in Jul^ 1827, to 
the man who should bring him m sight of 
the enemy. Edward knighted Rokeby on 
the spot, and on 28 Sept. made him the pro- 
mised ^nt of lands worth 100/. a year 
(Fcsdera, ii. 717). Froissart, in narrating the 
incident, calls the squire Thomas Housasre^ 
which is the equivalent of Whittaker; but 
the royal grant is conclusive as to Thomas's 
true name. On 17 Jan. 1381 Rokeby was 
going beyond sea with Henry Percy (OaL 
Pat. Bolln, Edward III, ii. 42). In 1886 
he was serving in Scotland, andfromS Jun^ 




to 26 Oet was in command of the rojal 
escort {Qui. Documents rdating to Scotlmd^ 
ii. 367). On 26 Oct. 1386 he received the 
chaig« of Stirling Castle, and in 1838 that 
of .^Unbui^b alM; he letained both offices 
till the zeooTexT of these places by the Scots 
in 1341-3 {ib. u. 1249, 1284, 1328, 1383 and 
pp. 351-8). Dmin^ 1342 Kokebjr was em- 
plojed on the Scottish marches {jb, ii. 1387, 
13^). In the following jear ne was ap- 
pointed sheriff of Yorkshire, an office which 
ne held for seren jears ; he had held it pre- 
Tiottslj in 1837 (Iibake, Eboraeumj p. 352). 
As sheriff of Yo^hire he was one of the 
leaders of the English at the battle of 
Neville's Cross, and ' gave the Scots such a 
diaiij^t as the^r did not care to taste again ' 
(Cftm. de LemerooH, pp. 347-8, 351, I3an- 
natjne Club). Rokeby was charged to bring 
David Bruce to London in December 1346, 
and at the same time had a grant of 200/. a 
rear oat of the issues of the county of 
York for his rank of buineret till provided 
with Imds of that value in Scotlanct or else- 
where {CaL DocumenU relating to 8cotlandj 
H. 1474r^ ; Fadera, iil 98). In 1347 he 
was employed in Scotland, and in 1348 was 
the king^s escheator in Yorkshire (t5. iii. 

In December 1349 Rokeby was made 
justiciar of Ireland. In this office he was 
distinguished by his regard for equity and 
his seal in checking the extortion of 
officials. In the Irish annals, printed in the 
* Chartulazy of St. Mary, Dublin * (ii. 392), 
he is described as ' one tnat did punish ver^ 
well Irishmen and paid yerr well for his 
victuals, and would commonly say that he 
would eat and drink of cups made of timber, 
and pay gold and silver therefor rather than 
to extort the poor' (cf. Book of Howtk, p. 
166). On 8 July 1355 he was succeeded as 
iosticiar by Maurice FitzThomas, earl of 
Desmond [q. y.] Rokeby was a witness to 
t!!« treaties concluded with Edward Baliol at 
Itoxburglieon20Jan.l356. Soon afterwards 
Desmond died, and on 26 July Rokeby was 
again appointed justiciar of Ireland (Fosderaf 
iu. 306, 317-21, 332, 335). He, however, 
died that same year at the castle of Kilkea 
in Kildaie (^Annals of Loch CV,ii. 15; Chart, 
St. Mary, Dublin, ii. 393). Rokeby had 
munerons grants of land for his good ser- 
Tices in Yorkshire, Westmoreland, Ireland, 
and elsewhere (€b/. Pat. Bolls, Edward III, 
il 214, 224, iil. 472 ; Cal Documents relatwg 
to Scotland, ii. 1249; Fxdera, iii. 399). 

According to the accented pedigrees, Koke- 
by was grandfather of Inomas de Rokeby (d, 
1418) [see below] (FosrrBB, Yorkshire Pedi" 
freu; WnmAXSB, Loidis and Ehnet, iL 

253). But these two pedigrees do not agree, 
nor does either seem satinactory. Thomaa 
Rokeby, the justiciar, is commonly referred 
to in^ contemporary documents as ' I'onde,' 
to distinguisn him from Thomas Rokeby 
* le neveu,' the son of his brother Robert. 
Thomas Rokeby ^le neveu' is mentioned 
frequently in connection with his unde 
from 1336 onwards. He served in France 
in 1360, and in 1379-80 was warden of 
Lochmaben Castle {OaL Documents relate 
ing to Scotland, ii. 1236, and p. 367, iii. 
279, 293 ; Fccdera, iii. 332, 483). Thoiqas 
Rokeby, 'le neveu/ was more probably 
grandfather of 

Thomas bb Rokebt (d, 1418), soldier, 
giyen in pedigrees as grandson of the uncle, 
This Thomas represented Yorkshire on the 
parliament of 1406, and was sheriff of the 
county in 1407-8 and in 1411-12. When 
Henry Percy, first earl of Korthumberland, 
crossed the border in January 1408, Rokeby 
held the passage of the Nidd against him,near 
Knaresborough. Northumberland turned 
aside and took up a position at Bramham 
Moor, where Rokeby attacked and routed 
him on 19 Feb. 1408. Rokeby was rewarded 
with Northumberland's manor of Spofforthy 
and with Linton and Leathley for lifenL^^ 
viii. 529, orig. edit.) He served in France in 
1415 and 1417, and, according to Foster, died 
in 1418. By a daughter of Sir Ralph Ewere 
he veas ancestor of the later family of Roke- 
by, several members of which are separately 
noticed {Cont, JEulogium Historiarum, iiu 
411; WALSiKeHAV, Hist Angl. ii. 278; 
Wthtoto, Chron. Scotland^ iii. 2588 ; Gesta 
Henrici Quinti, p. 270 ; Dbakb, Eboracum, 
p. 352 ; Wtmh, Hist. Henry IV, iii. 147, 
164-8 ; Rahsat, Lancaster and York, i. 112)» 

[Cbron. de Melsa, iii. 62 (Rolls Ser.) ; Fcedera 
(Record edit.) ; Book of Howth ap. Garew MSS. ; 
rroissart, i. 61-2, 273-5, ed.LTice; Cal. Inquisit. 
post mortem, ii. 201-2 ; Snrtees Soc. xli. 40 ; 
Bolls of Parliament, ii. 109, 113, 115, 207: 
Whittaker*s Bicfamondshire, i. 162-3; Gilbert's 
Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 206, 211 ; other autho- 
rities quoted.] C. L. K. 

^ ROKEBY. Sir THOMAS (1631 .^-1699), 
judge, second son of Thomas Rokeby of 
Bumby in the East Riding of Yorkshire, a 
Gromwellian officer, who fell at the battle 
of Dunbar on 3 Sept. 1650, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert, and sister of Sir WiUiam 
Bury of Grantham, Lincolnshire, was bom 
about 1631. His father, Thomas Rokeby,. 
was eldest son of William Rokeby of Hotham 
in the East Riding, by his cousin Dorothy, 
daughter of William Rokeby of Skiers, ana 
niece of Ralph Rokeby (d. 1595) [see under 
RoKEBTi Ralph, 1527 P-1596]. 




Tliomas Kokeby, the future judge, was ad- 
mitted on 20 June 1646 a peusioner at 
Catharine Hall, Cambridge, where he ma- 
triculated in the following month^ graduated 
B.A. in January 1649-50, and at Uhrifitmas 
following was elected to a fellowghip ^t hit 
college, which, however, he refiigned in 
Michaelmas 1661. He had meanwhile, 
17 Hay 1660, been admitted a student at 
Gray's Inn, where in June 1667 ha was 
called to the bar, and in 1676 elected ancient. 
A 8t](ong Presbyterian, and possessed of large 
esj^ and innuenpe at York, he exerted 
himself on behalf of the Prince of Orange in 
November 16S8, and on the change of dynasty 
was rewarded with a puisne judgeship in the 
common pleas, S May 16S9, having received 
the de^free of seijeant-at-law fpur days before. 
He was knighted at Whitehall on 31 Oct. 

4 Au^. 1487 he was pr^ented to the rectory 
of Kirk Sandall by the monks of Le w^s, who 
in 1602 nominated hipoi to the vicarage of 
Halifax. In 1496 he was collated to the 
rectory of Thorjpland, Norfplk, and on 6 June 
1601 he was mstituted to the rectory of 
Sproatley, Yorkshire, on the presentation of 
the prior and convent of Bridlington; he re- 
signed the living in February 1502-3, reoeiv- 
ing a retiring pension of 4/. a year, aiid at the 
same time being collated to the stall of St. 
Andrew's at Beverley. In the following June 
he was presented to the free chapel at f'etxy- 

In 1607Hokeby was provided bj Julius II 
to the bishopric of Meath in succession to Joha 
Payne (d, 1606) [q. v.], and was sworn of the 
privy council in J&eland. On 26 Jan. 1511- 
1512 he was transferred to the archbishopric 

following, and was removed on 28 Oct. of Dublin, in succession to Walter Fit«- 
1696 to the king's bench. He was a member simons [q. v.] On 12 May following he sue- 
of the commissions which tried, 23-4 March ceeded Fitzsimona as h>rd chancellor of 
1696-6, Sir John Friend [a. v.] and Sir Ireland. All the authorities state that he 
William Parkyns [q. v.] He aied on 26 Nov. was appointed lord chanceUor in 1498, but 
1699 at his rooms in Serjeant's Inn. His the omcial record is wanting and the state- 
remains were interred on 8 Dec. in the me- ' ment is highly improbable. In 15X4 he 
morialchapel of hisancestor, William Bokeby ! brought to a conclusion the long-standing 
[q. v.], arcnbishop of Dublin, in the church disputes between the archbishop and deaa 
at Sandal, near Doncaster. His wife, Ursula, ' and chapter of St. Patrick's. On 20 Feb. 
daughter of James Dauby of New Building, 1 1515-16 he officiated at the christening of 
Thirsk, survived him, and died on 10 Aug. | the Princess Mary at Greenwich. In 1518 
1737. I he confirmed the establishment of Maynootk 

Rpkeby was a competent judge, and a man College, which had been founded by uerald, 
of profound piety, as abundantly appears earl of Kildare, and drew up rules for its 
from his ' Diary,' edited with a memoir bv ' ^vemm^nt. In the same jet^ ne held an 
Raine, in Surtees Society's Publications, vol. j important provincial synod, ia which he en* 
xxxvii. His portrait was painted by O, ' joined the discontinuance of the use of the 
Schalken. I chalice at mass, the payment of tithes, and 

[Piary and Memoir above mentioned ; Fos<- 1 appraisement or the goods pf persons dying 
ter 8 Gray's Inn Adm. Beg. ; Luttrell's Brief , intestate by two valuers appointed by the 
BeUtion of State Affairs, i. 629, iii. 648, iv. ' * ' ' ' .m-. , .♦ .- . -. 

687 ; Howell's State Trials, xiii. 1, 68, 451 ; Le 
Neve's Pedigrees ^Harl. Soe.) ; Fqs tor's York- 
shire Pedigrees and Faoiilise Minorum Geotium 
(Harl. Soc.)] J. M. R. 

BOKEBT, WILLIAM (d, 1£»21), arch- the parish church. In 1520 he wasappointed 
bishcn) of Dublin, born at Kirk Sandall or archdeacon of Surrey, and in the same year 
Halifax, was the eldest of the five sons of was sent by the Earl of Surrey, on his arrival 
John Kokebv of Kirk Sandall, near Don- in Ireland, to Waterford to mediate betw.een 
caster. Both his parents died in 1606 ; his ' Sir Pierce Butler [q. vj and the Earl of 

bishop; he also prohibited the disposal of 
churcn property by laymcvi, and tho playing 
of football by clergymen, under pei^alty or 
paying three shillings and fourpenee to the 
ordinary, and a similar sum for the repair of 

brother Sir Hicham Bokeby, co^aptroller to 
Wolsey's household and treas\urer of Ireland, 
is buried in the Savoy Chapel, London 

Desmond [cf.,HowA.BD, Thomas, third dukk 
OP KoBFOix]. He died on 29 Nov. 1621, 
and hjs body was buried in St. Patrick's, .\>ut 

{(Ecinumua JRokebeiorum^ f. 311). William ! his heact and bowels lyere interred ;n the 
was educated at Rotherham and at a hostel i choir of the church at Halifax, where tbciy 
in St. Aldate'sjkarish, Oxford, perhaps Broad- have b^en more than o^ce dug up. By kis 

wiU he left 200/, towards building St. 

gates Hall (afterwards Pembroke Ck>llege), 
whore he graduated doctor of cajion law. Ac- 

Ohttich at Beverley, and pro vid,ed for the ^ffc- 

cording to Cqoper {Atherue C^fiU/tjbr. L 25\ | tion of a sepulchral chapel at Sandall, which 
he became CsUow of King's Hall (aftevw^ds i is described as the most perfect specimen 
merged in Trinity C^lego), Cambridge. Ota exfant of what mortuary chapels ^mi to be. 




. [iMtfmMad Papan of Henry YUI, ed. Brewer 
(Than aareial nf Kokeby'* letters, to Wolseyare 
calendsrad), pessim ; CaL Irish State Papers and 
Carev HSS. ; CEconoinia Rokebeiorum in Addit. 
MS. 24470. ff. 310-11 J Ware's Bishops, ed. 
Huiisi Bn^fji Episcopal SuccessioD, i. 234, 
Z26; Gbttpn's Fasti EccLHibemiae; Lascelles^s 
Liber Mqjl Wh, ; Cooper^s AUiens Cantabr. i. 
^•5,6^; Wood's Athense Oxon.; Honck Mason's 
Hisu of Stw FaftridL's; Cogan's Diocese of 
Meatii, p. 82 ; Bodd'a Church Hist. ; Tanner's 
Bibl. BBt-Sxh. ; GooCe's Cirillana, p. 16 ; Coxe's 
Htbamia Angiiftanii; BagwelTs Ireland under 
the TmdotBB L m, 290, 281 ; FAlton's Arch- 
bishops of J)«yi»l|n. pp. 17a^2 ; J. E. O'Flana- 
gan's Load ChaaeaUora of Ireland, pp. 162.7 ; 
FostoK a Yarfcabire Pedigrees; TestamentaEbora- 
coona (Surtaea SocV, t. 141 ; Whitaker^s Loidis 
et Elmeta. p. 383 ; Hmiter's 3onth Yorkshire, i. 
200; P^olson'a Holclsmess; Watson's Halifax, 
p. 387; Blomiefield's Norfolk, rii. 99; Oliver's 
sererUe ; ICknning and Bra/s Surrey ; Foster's 
AluBun QxoiL ; Xanad. MS. 979, ff. 4, 6.1 

A. F. P. 

BOEJB£aJBY, GREGOHY be (U. 1291), 
MMjoK of L^mdon, s native of Rokealey in 
Sent, wfaeaoe he took his name, was the 
licbeal goldmaith of his time, and a great 
wool mavduuit. He appears in the earliest 
exluit list of aldermen of the city of Lon- 
doBf hiftMme being connected with Dowgate 
ward. In 1364, and again in 1270, he served 
the oftce sf sheriff. In the latter year he 
«ad Jus ooilflague, Henry Waleys, caused a 
new pilloxj to be erected in the Ghepe. 
In 1^8 he championed civic purity in a 
▼iolsoifc dispute on the subject of certain 
chartew illegally granted to various city 
failda by the Inte mayor, Walter Hervey. 
Hervey attempted to instigate the craftsmen 
^gninat the more dJacreet section of the citi- 
aensjandaaaaed muchi excitement by collect- 
ing and haranguing moba in the streets. His 
<hait«r8 were,hawever, suppressed and * cried 
ihnHm^ioat the city.' The next year (June 
1274) Rokesley accompanied the mavor, 
Wale^ to a conference with Edward I in 
Paris, «nd in Jnljr again waited upon the 
king at Montrenil in order to advise upon 
terms of peace between the king and the 
Conateaa ii Handera. 

Bokealey was afwointed mayor in 1274, 
and held that of^ee eight times, comprising the 
yeaa 1^4r'128I and 1286. In 1276 he was 
made Ibbd^b. chamberlain, and acted in that 
eapaeitv&r two yean,and for a short period 
he disBoaiBBd the fuactioas of coroner and 
'ptnceouL^ The important post of master 
of the ^fiohange thronghout all England 
was confened upon Rdmsley in 1276. The 
aflioe is otherwiae ideeeribed as that of chief 
^in^or fff the xo^al aint. At this period 

great inconvenience was caused by the abuu* 
dance of dipped coin. This was called in, and 
a new coinage was circulated under Rokesley 's 
superintenoence, consisting of sterling h^ll- 
peunv and farthing, the silver coins being of 
the nnextess commonly known as ' silver of 
Gunthron*s Lane.' 

When Edward was engaged in theoooquest 
of Wales in 1282, Waleys and Eokesley were 
deputed bv the city to take an aid of six thou- 
sand marks to the king. Kext year they, 
with four others, were the citT representa- 
tives at a special parliament held at Shrews- 
bury to conduct the trial of David of Wales. 
Hokesley's eighth mayoralty in 1285 was 
marjied by important events in the histozy 
of London. In the previous year a quarrel 
between two citizens culminated in a duel, 
andoneof them, having dangerously wounded 
his opponent, took sanctuarv in Bow Church, 
where, not long afterwards, his dead body 
was found under circumstances which sug- 
gested foul play. The king having aimointed 
a commission of inquiry, John de Ejrkeby, 
the lord treasurer, summoned the mayor, 
aldermen, and citizens to wait upon him at 
the Tower. This peremptory order seems to 
have been issued in neglect of the standing 
rule that forty days' notice of snch a summons 
should be given. Under ordinary conditions 
the citizens would have donned gay apparel 
and marched in procession from Barldng 
church to the Tower, bearing presents for 
the king's justiciars. On this occasion 
Rokesley went to the church of All Hallows, 
stripping himself of the robes and insignia 
of omce, handed the city seal to Steven 
Aswy, and then proceeded to the Tower as a 
mere private citizen. The lord treasurer was 
highly provoked, and committed Rokesley 
and about eighty other leading citizc^ns to 

5 risen at the feast of St. Peter. The king 
eposed the mayor, and appointed Ralph de 
Sandwich [q. v.] as custos cw the city and its 
liberties. To give a graver colour to the 
offence, it was alleged that the mayor had 
taken bribes of diwonest bakers, who sold 
penny loaves six or seven ounces too light. 
The prisoners were set at liberty in a few 
days, except Aswy, who was lodged in Wind- 
sor Oastle. Rokesley died on 13 July 1291 
{AnneU. I/mdin. i. 99; Robbhts, Oal.Gen, i. 
441), and waa buried in the monastery of the 
Grey Friars. His monument existed in Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, until the great fire. 
A letter by mm is printed in * ArdiSBologia 
Gantiana,' ii. 238-4. 

By his wife, Avioe, Rokesley had two sons, 
Sir Reginald and Sir Riehara, who became 
seneschal of Poitou and governor of Montreuil 
in Ficardy (see Rtii£B| FoMtera^ roL uL 




paasim). The latter^s daughter AgnoB mar- 
ried Thomas, first baron Poynings, and was 
mother of Michaeli second baron Povnings 
[q. v.] Nevertheless the inquisition taken on 
his death affirmed his heir to be Roger de 
Risslepe, son of Gregory's sister Ag^es 
(RoBBBTS, Col. Gen. i. 441). The Kokesley 
arms, which appeared with nearly thirty 
others among tne designs in the windows of 
old St. Paul 8, were azure a fess gules be- 
tween six shields sable, each charged with a 
lion ramnant argent. Bokesley's will, un- 
dated and enrolled in the court of Hustinj^ 
on 25 July 1291 {Calendar^ ed. Sharpe, 1. 
d8-9)| mentions, among other property in 
London, Canterbury, and Rochester, his 
dwellinfl^house, with adjoining houses 'to- 
wards Oomhulle,' charged to maintain a 
chantry in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, 
where his wife lies buried ; a ' former dwelling- 
house ' in the parish of All Hallows at the 
Hay towards tne Ropery, also charged with 
the maintenance of a chantry in that parish 
church. He possessed ei^ht manors in Kent, 
two in Surrey, and one in Sussex (^CaL Inq, 
post mortem, i. 109). After legacies to nu- 
merous relatiyes, he left the residue of his 
estate to the poor. Rokesley had in his life- 
time built on the site subsequently long 
occupied by Ghrist*s Hospital in London a 
dormitory for the iriars minors. 

[Arefaseol. Cantiana, yds. ii. and x.-zyiii. 
pesiim ; Hasted's Kent eontains many errors in 
the account of tho Bokesley family; ParL Writs, 
passim ; Roberts's Cal. Genealog. i. 441, ii. 767; 
John de Oxenedes (Rolls Ser.), pp. 328, 332 ; 
Ajmales Londin. apud Ann. Edw.I and Edw. II 
(Rolls Ser.), passim; Liber Albus, ed. Riley; 
Strype's Stow, 1755, ii. 214-15, 486; Sharpens 
London and the Kingdom, i. 107-22, and au- 
thorities there qnoted ; Maitland's Hist, of Lon- 
don, 1760, i. 105; Simpson's Qleanings from Old 
St. Paul's, pp. 66, 68.] C. W-h. 

1606). [See Rookwood.] 

1842^1 antiquary, bom on 13 Sept. 1786, was 
the fourth and youngest son of Sir Thomas 
Gage, the fourth baronet of Hengrave Hall, 
Suffolk, by his first wife, Charlotte, daughter 
of Thomas Fitzherbert, esq. of Swinnerton, 
Staffordshire, and of Maria Teresa, daughter 
of Sir Robert Throckmorton, bart. He was 
descended in the female line from Ambrose 
Rookwood [q. v.] Educated in the college 
of the Jesuits at Stony hurst, Lancashire, he 
afterwards travelled on the continent. On 
his return he studied law in the chambers of 
Charles Butler (1760-1882) fq. t.], the con- 
veyancer, and he was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn on 10 Feb. IdlS, but he never 

Sractised. He was elected a fellow of the 
ociety of Antiquaries on 6 Nov. 1818, and 
he also became a fellow of the Royal Society. 
In 1829 he was elected director of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and he held that post until 
his death. On the death, 81 July 1888, of 
his brother, Robert Joseph Gage Rookwood 

iwho had taken the name of Rookwood in 
799), he inherited the estetes of the Rook* 
wood family, with their mansion at Coldham 
Hall in the parish of Stanningfield, near Bury 
St. Edmunds, and he received the royal license 
to assume the name of Rokewode. He died 
suddenly on 14 Oct. 1842, while on a visit to 
his cousin, Thomas Fitzherbert Brockholes^ 
at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, and was in- 
terred in the family vault at Stanningfield. 

His works are : 1. ' The History and An- 
tiquities of Hengrave in Suffolk,' London, 
1822, royal 4to, dedicated to the Duke of 
Norfolk. This work is valuable no less for 
its ornamental and useful illiCstrations than 
for its curious details of private historv and 
biography, and of ancient customs and cha- 
racters. 2. ' The History and Antiquities of 
Suffolk, Thingoe Hundred,' London, 1888, 
roval 4to, in a large and highly embellished 
volume, dedicated to the Marquis of Bristol* 

For the Camden Society he edited ' Chro- 
nica Jocelini de Brakelonda, de rebus gestis 
Samsonis Abbatis Monasterii Sancti Ed- 
mundi,' London, 1840, 4to. An English 
translation by T. E. Tomlins appearea in 
1844, under the title of ' Monastic and Social 
Life in the Twelfth Century,' and on Rok&- 
wode's book Carlyle based his ' Past and Pro- 
sent' in 1848 [see Jocelik db BaAK£ix>Ki>3. 

Rokewode was an occasional contributor 
to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' and to the 
' Collectanea Topographica et Genealogical 
In vol. ii. of the latter work he printed an 
ancient genealogy and charters of the Roke- 
wode family. Mis communications to the 
Society of Antiquaries are enumerated in 
the 'uentleman^ Magazine' for 1842, il» 
659. The more important are (a) ' A Dis- 
sertation on St. ^thelwold's Benedictional,'' 
illuminated manuscript of the tenth. 


century, in ' Archseologia,' xxiv. 1-117, with 
thirty-two plates \ {b) 'A Description of 
a Benedictional or Pontifical, called Bene- 
dictionarius Roberti Archiepiscopi,' an il- 
luminated manuscript of the tentli century 
in the public library at Rouen, ib. pp. 118-- 
136; (c) 'The Anglo-Saxon Ceremonial of 
the Dedication and Consecration of Churches/ 
ib. XXV. 285-74; {d) * Remarks on the Loa« 
terell Psalter,' printed, with six plates, in 
the ' Vetusta Monumenta,' vol. vi. ; ^e) ^ A 
Memoir on the Painted Chamber in the 
Palace at Westminster,' printed, with four* 




teen platee, in the same Tolume of ' Vetusta 

A portrait, of which the origfinal by Mrs. 
Gazpenter is at Hengrave Hall, has been en- 
giaTed. There is also an excellent bust by 
fi. C. Locasy which was presented to the So* 
eiety of Antiouaries. A portion of Roke- 
wo^'s Taluable libraiy was sold in London 
on 22 snd 23 Dec. 1848. 

pes. AddiU 19167, f. 865 ; Aungter's Hist of 
Islevtnth, pL 104* ; London and Dublin Orthodox 
JooroaJ, XT. 270; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
p. 8M.] T. G. 

BOLFE, JOHN (1685-1622), colonist, 
craDdfiOD of Eustacius Kolfe, of an old Nor- 
tel fiunily, and son of John Rolfe, who mar* 
liedy on 24 Sept. 1582, Dorothea Mason, was 
baptised at Heacham, Norfolk, on 6 May 
IS65, BepresentatiTes of the Rolfe family 
still oeenpy Heacham Hall. A twin-brother, 
Enstactns, died in childhood. Rolfe married 
in Enffland during 1606, and sailed with his 
wife For Vir^nia in June 1609. On the 
Tojage he was wrecked and cast on the Ber- 
muda where a dau£^ter, who died an infant, 
was bom to him. The parents reached Vii^ 
ginia in May 1610, whereupon the mother 
died. In 1612 Rolfe si^alised himself as the 
first E^lishman to introduce the regular 
cultiva^n of tobacco into Virginia. He was 
thus a letding settler, when, on 6 April 1613, 
wlietlier captivated by the grace and beauty 
of the newly converted savage or, as his 
fellow-eolonist Hamor wrote, * for the good 
of the plantation,' and in spite of personal 
ficniplesy it is impossible to say, he married 

Pocahontas, or Matoaka (1595-1017), was 
a younger daughter of Powhattan, overking 
of the Indian tribes from the Atlantic sea- 
board to ' the falls of the rivers.' This poten- 
tate was naturally perturbed by the av- 
mal of English colomsts upon the Virginian 
lesboajd in 1585, and he and his subjects 
were probably instrumental in the extermi- 
Bttion of the early colonists, no traces of 
whom were ever found [see under Ralegh, 
Sib Walter]. On 30 April 1607 a second 
eolooy, sent out bv the Virginian Company of 
London, anchored in Chesapeake Bay. The 
fresh odlonists, who settlea at Jamestown, 
soon ent^ed into friendly relations with the 
natives. One of the most prominent of their 
aumber, Ckptain John Smith (1580 P-1631) 
fq. v.^ essayed the exploration of the Indians* 
cooatry. In Da^mber 1607 he sailed up the 
Cbickahominy river on the second of such 
expeditions, was captured by the Indians and 
eventually taJren to Powhattan's chief camp, 
aioQt eighteen miles southeast of Jamestown 

(5 Jan. 1608).^ According to the account of 
these transactions which he sent to England 
a few months later. Smith succeeded in con- 
vincing the king of the friendlineas of his in- 
tentions, and was accordingly sent back to 
Jamestown with a native escort. Eight years 
later, when writing a short account of Poca- 
hontas, then in EngLmd, for the benefit of 
Queen Anne, consort of James I, Smith em- 
bellished this plain tale with some romantic 
incidents. According to this later version, 
first published in 1622, Powhattan, after 
a parley with his chiefs, decided upon the 
Englishman's execution, and the natives 
were preparing to brain him with theirclubs, 
when Pocahontas, * the king's darling daugh- 
ter,' rushed forward and interposed her own 
head between Smith and his executioners, 
whereupon Powhattan ordered his life to be 
spared. Other writers corroborate Smith's 
statement that from 1608 Pocahontas was 
henceforward a frequent visitor at Jamestown, 
where she played with the children, and acted 
as an intermediary between the colonists and 
Powhattan. Smith returned to England on 

4 Oct. 1609, after which her regular visits to 
the English camp ceased. In Smith's earlier 
narrative, or * True Relation ' (1008), Poca- 
hontas is mentioned incidentally as a child of 
ten, ' who not only for feature, countenance, 
and proportion ' greatly exceeded the rest of 
her countrywomen, but was * the only non- 
pareil ' of tiie countiy. In the later * General 
History ' (1622) she is depicted as the good 
genius of the settlers, warning them of hostile 
schemes on the part of the Indians, and send- 
ing them provisions in times of scarcity. 

When, in the spring of 1612, Captain 
Samuel Argal, a leading colonist, was trading 
for com along the Potomac, it came to his 
ears that Pocahontas was staying on a visit 
with the chief of the district. Through the 
afi^ency of this chiefs brother, whom Argal 
alternately threatened and cajoled, the 
princess, now about sixteen years of age, 
was lured on board ArgaFs vessel, and taken, 

05 a hostage for the good behaviour of the 
Indian tribes, to Jamestown, where she 
arrived on 13 April 1612. In the following 
year she was converted to Christianity, and 
christened Rebecca. Powhattan appeared 
flattered when his daughter's projectea mar- 
riage with Rolfe was announced to him, and 
it was hoped that the match would cement 
a friendly alliance between the planters and 
the Indian potentate. It was followed by an 
exchange of prisoners and other overtures of 
good-will. In 1616 Sir Thomas Dale, who 
was acting as governor of the colony, carried 
Pocahontas, with her husband and child, to 
England, where she and her native attendants 




were hftndsomely received by the London 
company and others^ the qneen and ooartiers 
(who hod at first looked askance at Rolfe's 
anion) paying her marked attention. She 
renewed her acquaintance with her old friend 
Captain Smith, and attended the Twelfth 
Night masque of 1617 (Jonson's Christmas), 
in company with the queen. During her stay 
in town Simon de Passe enrraved the well- 
known portrait of her, the features of which 
are agreeable, modest, and not undignified. 
She is described in an inscrij^tion iipon the 
plate as 'Matoaka,(7/mRebecka,wiie of the 
worshipful Mr. Thos. Rolff. ^Etatis sues 
21 A* I6I6.' Another portrait in oils was 
painted by an Italian artist, and belonged 
to the Rev. "Wniitwell Elwin of Booton Rec- 
tory, Norfolk, whose family intermarried 
with the Rolfes; an excellent engraving 
from it appeared in the 'Art Journal (1885, 
p. 299). 

Pocahontas, although reluctant to return 
to America, pined under an English sky, and 
in March 1617, after all arrangements had 
b^en made for her departure, she died at 
Gravesend. In the parish register of St. 
George's Church, Gravesend, is the crude 
entry : * 1616, May 2j , Rebecca Wrothe, wy fFof 
Thomas Wroth, jfent., a Virginia lady borne, 
here was buried in ye chauncelP {Notes and 
QtierieSf 8rd ser. v. 123 ; cf. Omrt of James I, 
under date 29 March 1617). Several of her 
attendants proved consumptive, and gave 
trouble to the company after their mistress's 
death. Rolfe subsequently married Jane, 
daughter of William Pierce, and died in Vir- 

S'nia in 1628, leaving a widow with children. 
y the princess Rolfe left a son Thomas (bom 
in 1615), who aiter his mother's death was 
brought up by his uncle, Henry Rolfe of Lon- 
don. He returned to Virginia in 1640, and 
married there Jane, daughter of Francis Poy- 
thress, leaving a daughter Jane, who married 
Robert Boiling, and had many descendants. 
Ben Jonson introduced Pocahontas into 
his 'Staple of News' (1626), and since his 
day she has formed the title character of 
many works of prose fiction, by Sigoumey, 
Seba Smith, Samuel Hopkins, John Davis, 
and others. The romantic incident of the 
rescue is depicted in stone as a relief upon 
the Capitol, Washington 

^Capt. John Smith's works, ed. Arber, 1884; 
Wingneld's Discoarse of Virginia; Newport s 
Discoveries in VirgiDia ; Observations by George 
Percy (Purchas); Spelman's Relation of Vir- 
ginia: Whi taker's Good News from Virginia; 
and Hamor's True Discourse of the Present 
Estate of Tirgjnia— all written 1607-18 ; Stith's 
History of Virgraia; Brown's Genesis of the 
United States ; NewBngland Hist, and Genealog. 

Regist. January 1884 ; Nieholb's ProgilsMBS <H 
James I, iii. 243 ; Revue de Paris, t.xlii.(1882> 
211. 321 ; CaL Btate Papers, Bodl l-eiUia. 

Since xnoma« Fuller expreased doabt oi ihm 
veracity of Captain Smith in his Worthies, Mr. 
Charles Deane was tb« first, in a note to kis edi* 
tion of Wingileld's Discourse (1860), to impugn 
Smith's story of his rescue by Pocahontas. Mr. 
Deane repeated his doubts in a note to his edition of 
Smith's True Relation in 1 866, and the same view 
was supported in the Rev. E. D. Nelll's Vt^grinia 
Company in London (eh. v., pi^iniod separately 
as Pocahontas and ber Compftnlbmi^ London^ 
1869), and in the same writer's English CblonisA- 
tion in America (chap, iv.) Charles Dudley War- 
ner, in the Study of the Life and Writinffs of John 
Smith ( 1 88 1 ), treats the Pooafaontas episode frith 
sceptical levity. Deane*8 views weFs also sup- 
ported by Henry Adams in the North Aroerieaa 
Review, January 1867 ; by Henry Oab6t Lodge 
in his English Colonies in America ; by Juatift 
Winsor in History of America, vol. iii.; and, 
with some reservations, by J. Chnrham Palfrey in 
his Hist, of New ESngland ( 1 866), and by Mr. S. A. 
Doyle inhisEnglish in America: Virginia (1882). 
Bancroft found a place for the story in his nar- 
rative until 1879, when, in the centenary edition 
of his History of the (Jnited States, he abandoned 
it without expressing judgment. Coit Tyler, in 
his History of American literature, laments tha^ 
the * pretty story ' has lost historicHl credit. Pro- 
fessor S. R. Gardiner, in his Hietoiy of England 
(1883, iii. 168), regrets its demolition by histoH^ 
eal inqnirers. The balanee of tratand opinion is 
thus in favour of treating the resene epiaode as a 

Eoetical fiction. Its sulMtantial Correctaase is^ 
owever , con tended for by Wy ndham Roberteoti in 
Pocahontas and her Descendants, 1887« by Poio* 
dexter in his Capt. John Smith and his Critics 
(1893), by Professor Arber in his elaborate vin- 
dication of Smith (Smith's Works, ed. Arber, esp. 
p. cxvii), and by Mr. William Wirt Henry, ths 
most eloquent chamj^ion of the story, m his 
Address to the Virginia Historical Sociaty (Pro- 
ceedings, Pebmaiy 1882).] T. S. 

Oranwobth (1790-1868), loikl chancellory 
bom at Ofanworth in Norfolk on 18 Dec. 
1790, was elder son of Edmund Rolfe, onMte 
of Cran worth and rector of CockW-Clay, by 
his wife Jemima, fifth danghteor of WiUiain 
Alexander, and granddaughter of Measenger 
Mousey [q. v.], physician to Chelsea Hospital. 
His father was first cousin of Admiral LiOrd 
Nelson, while his mother was a nieee otf 
James, first earl of Galedon. He i^ecotved 
his early edncation at the grammaf school of 
Bury St. ^dmunds^where be wns the junior 
of Charles James Blotnfield [t|. v.l aftor- 
wards bishop Of London. He was then sent 
to Winehoster, where he obtained the silver 
medal for a Latin speeoh in 1607. Proooed-- 
ing to Trinity OoUoge, Oambtidge, he boi^me 




seventeenth wrangler in 1812, and gained one 
of tlie members' prizes fbr senior bachelors in 

1814. He graduated B.A. in 1812, M.A. in 

1815, and was elected a fellow of Downing 
Collie. Rolfe was admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn on 29 Jan. 1812, and was called to the 
bar on 21 May 1816. His progress as a 
junior was slow ; but he gradaal^ acquired 
a large hosinees in the chancery courts. At 
the general election in the spring of 1881 he 
unsuceessfoll^ contested Bury St. Edmunds 
in the whig interest. He was appointed a 
king*s oouDfiel in Trinity vacation 1832, and 
was called whhin the bar on the first day of 
the following Michaelmas term. He was 
elected a bencher of Lincoln's Inn on 2 Nov. 
1832, but left the society on 11 Nov. 1839, 
when he became a serjeant-at-law. At the 
general election in December 1832 he was 
returned to the House of Commons for 
Penrjn and Falmouth, and continued to 
represent that constituency until his ap- 
pointment to the judicial bench. He spoKe 
ror the first time m the House of Commons 
on 19 March 1883 {ParL DebaU»y 3rd ser. 
xvi. 817-9), but he seldom took part in the 
debates. Rolfe was appointed solicitor- 
general in Lord Melbourne s first administra- 
tion on 6 Nov. 1834, and resigned office in 
the following month, on Sir Kobert Peel's 
accesaon to power. On the return of the 
whigs to office, in April 1835, Kolfe was re- 
stored to the post of solicitor-general, and 
received the honour of knighthood on 6 May 
following. He was appointed a baron of the 
exchequer in the place of Sir William Henry 
Manle [q. v.], ana, having received the order 
of the coif, took his seat on the bench on 
1 1 Nov. 1889. Though Rolfe had only prac- 
tised in the coort of chancery, he had acouired 
experience in criminal cases while sittmg as 
recoxder of Bury St. Edmunds, a post which he 
had held for some years. With Abinger and 
Williams he took part in the trial oi John 
William Bean for shooting at the queen in 
August 1842 {B^ports of State Trials j new 
ser. iv. 1882-6). In March 1843 he presided 
at the trial of Feargus O'Connor and ftfby- 
eight other chartists for seditious conspiracy 
(i6. iv. 935-1231 ). In March 1849 he presided 
at the trial of Rush for the murder of Isaac 
Jermy [<}. v.] and his son. He acted as a 
eommissioner of the great seal from 19 June 
1850 to 15 July following, his colleagues 
beinj' Lord Langdale and Vice-chancellor 
ShadweO. Owing to ShadwelFs illness 
nothing bnt the routine business could be 
done, and the long arrears of appeals arising 
fran Cottenham^ absence remainied un- 
touched {Life ofXohn, Lord Camphell^ 1861, 
ii. 281). On 2 Nov. 1860 Rolfe was ap- 

pointed a vice-chancellor in the room of 
Shad well, and on the ISth of the same 
month was admitted to the privy council. 
He was created Baron Cranworth of Oran- 
worth in the county of Norfolk on 20 Dec. 
1850, and took his seat in the House of 
Lords at the opening of parliament on 4 Feb. 
1851 (Journals of the House of Lords, Ixxxiii. 
4). He made his maiden speech in the 
house during the discussion of Brougham's 
County Courts Extension Bill on 7 Feb, 
1861 {Pari, Debates, 3rd ser. cxiv. 178-9). 
When the court of appeal in chancery was 
created under the provisions of 14 & 15 Vict, 
cap. 83, Cranworth and Knight Bruce were 
appointed the first lords just ices (8 Oct. 1851). 
On the formation of Lord Aberdeen's 
cabinet in December 1862, Cranworth was 
promoted to the post of lord chancellor. Th^ 
great seal was delivered to him on the 28th, 
and he took his seat on the woolsack as speaker 
of the House of Lords on 10 Feb. 1853 
(Journals of the House of Lords, Ixxxv. 66). 
Foiur days afterwards he introduced a bill for 
the registration of assurances. At the same 
time he announced the intention of the go- 
vernment to deal with the question of the 
consolidation and simplification of the statute 
law, and was bold enough to hold out some 
hope that the proposed step would lead to 
the formation of a Code Victoria (Pari. 
Debates, 3rd ser. cxxiv. 41-6). A small 
board was nominated by Cranworth to con- 
solidate the statutes imder the superinten- 
dence of Charles Henrv Bellenden iter [q. v.] 
In the following year tnis board was replaced 
by a royal commission, over which Cranworth 
himself presided (see ParL Papers, 1854 
vol. xxiv., 1854-5 vol. xv.) The result of 
their deliberations led ultimately to the 
successive statute law revision acts passed 
during the chancellorships of Lords Camp- 
bell, Westbury, and Chelmsford. Though 
the Registration Bill passed through the 
House of Lords in spite of the strenuous 
opposition of Lord St. Leonards, it was 
dropped in the House of Commons. Cran- 
worth was more successful with his bill for 
the better administration of charitable trusts, 
which became law during the session (16 5: 
17 Vict. cap. 137). On 11 July 1863 he 
moved the second reading of the Transporta- 
tion Bill (Pari. Debates, Sxd ser. cxxix.7-13). 
This bill, which substituted penal servitude 
in lieu of transportation and adopted the 
ticket-ofj4eave system, passed through both 
houses with but little opposition, and re- 
ceived the royal assent on 20 Aug. 1863 
(16 & 17 Vict. cap. 99). In the session of 
1854 Cranworth carried through the house 
a bill for the further amendment of the 


1 60 


common-law procedure (17 & 18 Vict. cap. 
125) ; but neither the Testamentary Jum- 
diction Bill nor the Divorce and Matrimonial 
Causes Bill, which he introduced, passed 
into law (^ParL Debates, 8rd ser. cxxx. 703- 
720, cxxxiv. 1-12). Cranworth continued in 
his post on the formation of Lord Palmerston's 
administration in February 1855, in which 
year he was also aptK>inted a goyemorof the 
Charterhouse. He introduced a bill to facili- 
tate leases and sales of settled estates on 
11 May following (ib, cxxxviii. 398-9), but it 
failed to pass through the House of Commons. 
The delay of the ministerial measures of legal 
reform in this session was the occasion of 
an attack on Cranworth by Lord Lyndhurst, 
who pointed out 'the want of cordial co- 
operation between the lord chancellor and 
the law officers of the crown in the other 
house* {ib, cxxxix. 1189-96). Cranworth 
took part in the debate on Lord Wensley- 
dale's patent on 7 Feb. 1856 [see Parke, SIb 

314-27). The bill to facilitate leases and 
sales 01 settled estates passed through both 
houses in this session (19 & 20 Vict. cap. 
120); but neither the Appellate Jurisdic- 
tion Bill nor the Divorce and Matrimonial 
Causes Bill passed the commons. In the 
session of lo57 the government measures 
for the establishment of the probate and 
divorce court passed through both houses 
(20 and 21 Vict. caps. 77 and 80). Cran- 
worth, however, refused to distribute any of 
the patronage under these acts, and gave the 
whole of it to Sir Cresswell Cresswell [5. \X 
the first judge in ordinary. He resigned 
office on the accession of Lord Derby to 
power in February 1858. On 23 March fol- 
lowing he movea the second reading of a 
Land Transfer Bill and a Tenants for Life 
Bill, but neither of them became law during 
that session {Pari, Debates, clxix. 559-63). 
Cranworth was not offered the great seal on 
Lord Palmerston's return to office in June 
1859, as < his reputation had been so much 
damaged while chancellor by allowing 
Bethell to thwart and insult him ' (Life of 
John, Lord CampbelL ii. 868). He moved 
the second reading of the Endowed Schools 
Bill on 9 Feb. 1860 (Pari Debates, 8rd ser. 
dvi. 689-95). This bill, which enabled the 
children of dissenters to enjoy the benefit of 
the King Edward's schools, received j;he royal 
assent on 81 March following (23 & 24 Vict, 
cap. 11). * Cran worth's Act,' by which his 
name is remembered, became law during the 
session (23 & 24 Vict. cap. 145). Its ooiect 
was the shortening of conveyances, and it 

has now been superseded by Lord Caims's 
Conveyancing and Law of Property Act. 
He differed With Lord Westbury with regard 
to the Bankruptcy Bill of 1861, and opposed 
the appointment of a chief judge (Pari, De-^ 
bates, 3rd ser. dxiii. 122S-5). In the session 
of 1862 he introduced a bill for obtaining a 
declaration of title, as well as a Security 
of Purchasers Bill (t5. clxv. 873, 897-90S, 
clxvi. 1190-1). The former became law 
(26 & 26 Vict. cap. 67), but the latter waa 
dropped in the House of Commons. On 
Lonl Westbury's retirement Cranworth was 
reappointed lord chancellor (7 July 1865), 
and at the opening of parliament on 1 Feb. 
1866 he again tooK his seat on the woolsack 
(Journals of the House qf Lords, xcviii. 7). 
On 1 May 1866 he moved the second reading 
of the Law of Capital Punishment Amend- 
ment Bill {Pari, I>ebates, 3rd ser. dxxxiii. 
232-41), which passed through the lords^ 
but was withdrawn in the commons. In 
the following month he introduced a Statute 
Law Revision Bill (t^. clxxxiv. 210), but 
withdrew it before the second reading. He 
resigned the great seal on the formation of 
Lorn Derby's second administration in July 
1866. In the session of 1867 he took charge 
of Russell Gumey's Criminal Amendment 
Bill, and safely piloted it through the House 
of Lords {ib, clxxxvii. 933-4). in the session 
of 1868 he took charge of two other bills 
which had been sent up from the House of 
Commons, viz. the Religious Sites Bill and 
a Bankruptcv Amendment Bill, both of 
which passed into law {ib, cxcii. 233-4, 
cxciii. 806). Cranworth spoke for the last 
time in the House of Lords on 20 July 1863 
(ib. cxciii. 1474). He died after a short 
illness at No. 40 Upper Brook Street, Lon* 
don, on 26 July 1868, ac^ed 77, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Keston, the 
parish where his seat, ' Ilolwood Park,' was 
situate, and where there is a monument to 
his memory. He married, on 9 Oct. 1845, 
Laura, daughter of Thomas Carr of Fiognaly 
Hampstead, Middlesex, and of Esholt Heugh, 
Nortnumberland, who died in Upper Brook 
Street on 15 Feb. 1868, in her eighty-first 
year, and was buried at Keston. There were 
no children of the marriage, and the peerage 
became extinct upon Cranworth's death. 

Cranworth was a man of high personal 
character and strong common-sense He was 
a sound lawyer, and an acute and patient 
judge. He was not a successful speaker in 
parliament; but, though destitute of elo- 

?[uence and wit, his speeches were always 
istened to with respect. Owing to his ex* 
treme caution and timidity, Cranworth failed 
as a law reformer. He had * an unliappy 




kzuick, thooffh always with the best intexi- 
tions, of mudng exactly such proposals for 
their amendment as would entirely defeat 
the operation of some of Lord Westbur^s 
most masterly measures' {Law Magazme 
and Review, 1878, p. 724). Few men en- 
joyed greater pexsonal popularity. Lord 
Csmpbell declares ' there never lived a better 
man than Rolfe ' (Itfe of John, Lord Camp- 
bell, iL 125) ; wbUe GreviUe says : ^ Nobody 
is 80 s^reeable as RoUe— a clear head, vi- 
racity, mfonnation, an extraordinary plea- 
santness of manner without being sort or 
iSectedy extreme (pod humour, cheerfulness, 
and tact maJce his society on the whole as 
attractiTe as that of anybody I ever met * 
{Memoire, 2nd ytat, 1885, ii. 265). 

There is an oil portrait of Cnuiworth by 
George Richmond^ RA., in the National 
Portrait Gallery. A crayon drawing of Gran- 
worth by the same artist has been engraved 
by Francis HolL 

Cru&wortli's judgments are reported in 
Meeeon and Welsby j[v.-xvL), Welsby, Hurl- 
stone, and Qordon (i.-v.). Hall and Twells 
(iL), Macnagbten and Gordon ^iL^, De Gex, 
Maen^^ten, and Gordon (i.-viii.), De Grex 
and Jones (i. and ii.), De Gex, Jones, and 
Smith(iL-iT.)y01ark's ' House of Lords Cases ' 
(Iv.-n.), Moore*8 ^ Privy Gouncil Gases,' and 
the ' Law Reports,' English and Irish Appeal 
Gases (L-uL), Chancery Appeal Cases (i.) 

[F(MB*s Judges of England, 1864, iz. 261-8; 
Nash 8 Life of Richard, Lord Weetbory, 1888, 
i. ISS-^, 138, 150-1, 169, 168-70, ii. 10, 77, 144, 
149, 153, 168, 176 ; W. O'Connor Morris's Me- 
XQoits and ThonghUof a Life, 1896, pp. 129-30 ; 
BaadoB BeeollMtkms of the Home of Oommons, 
18M, pp. 222-3 : Times, 27-80 July 1868 ; Iaw 
zlv. 260-1, zeri. 416-16 ; Law Magsr 

and Baview, zzri. 278-84 ; lUustnted Lon- 
don Neva, I and 16 Aug. 1868 ; Gent. Mag. 
1868, nev ser. i. 663-4; Annual Begister, 1868, 
ii. 167-S ; G^. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, ii. 403 ; 
WhishaVs Synopsis of the Bar, 1836, p. 120 ; 
Oasabridge University Calendsr, 1894-6, pp. 
162, 608; Holgate's Winchester Commoners, 
1800-35, pp. 27, 40 ; W. Haig Browne's Oharter- 
heme Psat and Present^ 1879, p. 204 ; lincoln's 
Lm Bfigiaters ; OflSdal Betorn of Lists of Mem- 
ben of Pariiamsot, ii. 340, 362, 366 ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, 1800; Notes and Queries, 
^hwer.L 4M, ii. 66, 04, 8Ui ssr. viii. 168.1 

a. F. B. B. 

ROLLAHl), JOHN (Ji, 1600), Scottish 
poet, was probably son of John Rolland 
vho in 1481 was gnb-dean of Glas^w (see 
Bbxpsteb, xtL 1051). From a wnt among 
die T^iwg ehartera it appears that he was p, 
pRsbrter of the diocese of Glasgow, and 
that m 1666 he was acting as a notary at 
DalheidL He attests the document with 


the words ' Ego vero Joannes Rolland pres- 
byter Glasguensis Diocesis publicus sacra 
auctoritate apostolica notarius.' 

Before 1660 he composed a poem entitled 
* The Court of Venii8,^and about May 1660 
wrote a second poem called ^The Seven 
Sa^.' In the interval between the com- 
position of these poems he turned protestant ; 
the later poem strongly contrasts with the 
earlier in its reference to Rome, lliere is 
no evidence that he was alive after 1560, 
and the publication of all his works was 
doubtless posthumous. 

Rolland wrote : 1. <Ane Treatise callit the 
Court of Venus, dividit into Four Buikes 
newlie oompylit be John Rolland in Dal- 
keith,' Edinburgh, 1576. The circumstances 
attending the composition of this poem are 
related in the second of RoUand's works, and 
it was clearly composed before 1560, pro- 
bably dating £rom the reign of James V 
(1627-42) ; it was reproduced and edited for 
the Scottish Text So<nety by the Rev. Walter 
Gregor in 1889. 2. ' The Sevin Seaffis trans- 
latit out of prois in Scottis meter dv Johne 
Rolland in Dalkeith with ane Morahtie efber 
everie Doctours tale and seclike after the 
emprice tale, togidder with ane loving and 
lauoie to everie Doctour after his awin tale,, 
and ane exclamation and outcrying upon; 
the eznpereours wife after her fals contruvit 
tale,' Edinburgh, 1678; reprinted in 1590, 
1692, 1699. 1605, 1620, 1631. From internal 
evidence the poem is proved to have been 
written after the attack on Leith in February 
1560, and before the treatv of Edinburgh in 
July of the same year. The first edition was 
reproduced by the Bannatyne Club, vol. lix., 
and in Sibbald's ' CJhronicle of Scottish 
Poetry ' (c£ G. Buchner's * Die Historia Scp- 
tem ^pientum . . . nebst einer Untersuchung 
liber die Quelle der Sevin Seagis des Johann- 
Rolland von Dalkeith,' in YABiTHAesir'ft 
Erlanger Beitriige zur engliechen Phiioloffie), 
Sibbald also conjecturally ascribes to Rolland 
'The Tale of the Thrie Priestis of Peblis,'^ 
which was probably written about 1540,. 
and is printea in Pixucerton's 'Ancient Scot- 
tish Poems,' 1786, and by Sibbald in hia 
< (Jhronide of Scottish Poetxr,' 1802, ii. 227, 

Catharine Holland, daughter of another 
John Rolland, who married, m 1610, Dr. Wil- 
liam Gould, the principal of King's College, 
Aberdeen, founded in 1669 several Rolland 
bursaries at Marischal College, Aberdeen. 

[Reprints of Bolland*i two poems in the 
Scottish Text Society and the Bannatyne Club; 
Irving's Lives of Scottish Poets, ii. 297 ; Sib- 
bald's Chronicle of Scottish Poetry; Burke's 
Commoners ; Tanner's BibL Brit.-Hib.] 

W. A. 8a 




EOLLE, HENRY (1589 P-1666), judge, 
aecond eon of Robert Rolle (d. 1633) of 
Heanton, Devonshire (a scion of the hmily 
of Rolle of Stevenstone), by Joan, daughter 
of Thomas Hele of Fleet in the same county, 
was bom about 1689. . John Rolle (l<69a- 
1648^ [q. T.] was his brother. He matricu- 
lated from E^ter College at Oxford on 
20 March 1606^1607, and was admitted on 
1 Feb. 1608-9 of the Inner Temple, where 
he was called to the bar in 1618, was elected 
bencher in 1638, and reader in 1637 and 1638; 
but, owin^ to the prevalence of the plague, 
did not ^ve his reading until Lent 1639. 
Amon^ his contemporaries at theTemple and 
his intimate finends were Sir Edward Little- 
.ton (1689-1645)[q.y.], afterwards lord keeper 
and baron Littleton ; Sir Edward Herbert 
[q.y.l, afterwards attorney-general ; Sir Tho- 
mas Qardiner [q. v.], afterwards recorder of 
London; and John Selden [q. v.], by whose 
conversation and friendly rivalry ne profited 
no little in the study of Uie law and humane 
learning. Rolle practised with eminent 
success in the court of king's bench, was ap- 
pointed recorder of Dorchester in 1636, and 
was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law 
on 10 May 1640. 

He sat for Callington, Cornwall, in the 
last three parliaments of King James (1614 
to 162a-4), and for Truro in Uie first three 

Sirliaments of his successor (^1626 to 1629). 
e early identified himself with the popular 
party : no member was more urcent for the 
LnplMliment of BuckiDghamTkone moi« 
determined that supply must be postponed to 
the redress of grievances. On the outbreak 
of the civil war he adhered to the parUa- 
.rnent, contributed lOOf. to the defence fund, 
and took the covenant. His advancement 
to a Judgeship in the king's bench was 
one of the stipulationa included in the pro- 
nositions for peace of January 1642-3 ; on 
28 Oct. 1645 he was, sworn in as such, and 
on 15 Nov. 1648, pursuant to votes of both 
houses of parliament, he was advanced to the 
chief-justiceship of the court. After the 
execution of tne kiujg he accepted. 8 Feb. 
1648-9, a new commission as lord chief ju&- 
tioe of the upper bench on the understanaii^g 
that no change should be made in the funda- 
mental laws, and on the 13th of the same 
month he was voted a member of the council 
of state. His accession strengthened the go- 
vernment, and his charges on the western 
circuit contributed much to the settlement of 
the public mind. On 4 Aug. 1654 he was 
appointed commissioner of tne exchequer. 
IColle yielded the palm to none of his -con- 
temporaries either as advocate or judge, 
with the single exception of the great Sir 

JXatthew Hale [q. v.] His decisions, re« 
ported bv Style (Modem JReporU, 1658), 
rarely relate to matters of historic interest. 
Nevertheless he established in the case 
of Captain Streater, committed to prison 
-by o^er of thecouncU of state and thespeaker 
of the House of Commons for the publi- 
cation of seditious writings, the principle 
that a court of justice cannot review parHa*' 
mentary commitments if regular in form ; 
and his name is associated with one of 
the catues e^l^res of international law. Don 
Fantaleon Sa, brother of the Portuguese am- 
bassador, was arrested £0^ murder committed 
in an afirav in the New Exchange in the 
Strand. The fact was undeniable^ but the 
Don claimed the privilege of exterritoriality^ 
as bein^ of the household of the ambassador. 
The pomt was discussed by Rolle in con- 
sultation with two of his j^uisnes, two ad- 
miralty iud^s, and two civilians, and on 
16 Jan. 165&-4 was decided against the Don. 
The decision was without precedent, for it 
could neither be denied that the Don was of 
the household of the ambassador, nor that 
the privilege of exterritorialitv had thereto- 
fore been understood to extena even to cases 
of murder. At the trial, over which Rolle 
presided on 6 July following, the prisoner 
was conceded a jury, half English half Por- 
tuguese, but was denied the assistanoe of 
counsel, and compelled to waive his privilege 
and plead to the indictment by a threat of 
peine/orte et dtwe (pressing to death). He 
wi^ found guilty, sentenced to death, and 
executed at Tyburn on 10 July. 

On Ihe outbreak of Penruddock's insurreo 
tion, 12 March 1654-^6, Rolle was at Salis- 
bury onassise business, when he was surprised 
by the cavaliers under Sir Joseph Wagstaife, 
who coolly proposed to hang him [cf. Nicho- 

Penruddock's intercession, however, ne wa3 
released; he served as one of the commis- 
sioners for the trial of the insurgents at 
Exeter in the following May. ShorUy after- 
wards, being unable to decide against the 
merchant Cony, who had sued a custonis 
officer for levying duty from him hj force 
without authority of psrliament [cf. Max* 
ITABD, Sib Johk, 160^1690], he resigned 
(7 June 1665) rather thai\give further oifenoe 
to the' Protector, and was succeeded by Sir 
John Qlynne r<l«vO' ^!? died on 60 July 
1656, and was ouried in the church of Shap- 
wick, near Glastonbury, in which pariah, 
he had a house. By .his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas I'oot, aldennaAp 
of London, Bolle had issue an, only son, 
Francis, wjbo was knighted at Pprt^outlx 
OB 1 March 1664^ and was lord of th« 




manor of £a«t Titherley, Hampahire, and was 
chooen M.P. for Bridgewater 80 March 1660, 
for Banta 26 April 1676, Bridgewater again 
UFeb. 1678-9,and for Hants 21 Fob. 1680-1. 
At the bar BoUe made niany reports and 
afaridgzaenta of cases. His * Abridraent des 
plaakun Cases et Besolutions del Com- 
mim Ley' (London, 1668, 2 vols, fol.) is 
orefaeed 1^ Lis portrait and a memoir by Sir 
Matthew Hale, in which he is characterised 
as * a person of great learning and experience 
la the common law, profound judgment, 
iinffolarpnidence, great moderation, justice, 
ana int^ity/ His ' Reports do divers Cases 
ea le Court del Banke le Roy en le Temps 
del Hei^ de Roy Jacques,' appeared at 
London m 1676-6, 2 vols. toL 
[La Kara*8 Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. Soc), 

g). 30, SI, 189 ; Howard's Miae* GeneaL et 
arald. ii. 136 ; Hemoir by Sir Matthew Hale, 
pnfixedto RoUe's Abridgment; Wood's AtheoA 
Ozaa.«i.Blia«, iii. 416 ; Foster's Alumni Oxoo. ; 
lAoar Taiaple Books ; Dugdale's Orig. p. 168. 
Chrofl. Sar. D. 1U9 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. 
vl US ; Whitelocke'a Hem. passim ; Vivian's 
VistKtion of Devon, 1896, p. 664; CoUins's 
Peenge,eLL Brydges, Tiii. 619 ; Granger^s Biogr. 
Hat fi»L (2nd edit.), iii. 70; Walker's Hist. 
Iftifpend. ii. 1 19 ; Koble's Proteetoral House of 
Craavell, i. 430; Lords' Joorn. z. 687; CaL 
Suto Btpem, Dem. 1649-60 p. 6, 1661 p. 44, 
l$>^4 p. S60. 1 664 pp. 166, 169 : Cobbett's State 
liuk, T. 866, 461 et seq. ; LodloVs Memoirs, 
ei filth, L 412, 41 3 ; Thnxloo State Papers, iii. 
366 St aeq. ; Clarendon's Rebellion, sd. Macray, 
ht xif. §1 89, ISl et seq. ; Burton's Diary, It. 
47: B«tfl8^s Eiench. Mot. Nap. ii. 133 ; Manning 
and Bray's Surr^. ii. 667; Campbell's Chief 
JtmieM: Foas'i* Lives of the Judges; LVsons's 
%. Brit. ii. pi. ii. 387.] J. M. R. 

fiOLLI!, JOHN (159&-1648), merchant 
uid politician, fourth son of Kobert Holle 
[d. 1633) of Heanton, Devonshire, by his 
wife Joan (li. 1634), daughter of Thomas 
Htle of Fleet in the same county, was bap- 
:>«d at Petrockstow on 13 April 1598 
iTimx, risUtUiatu 0/ Devon, 1896, p. 654). 
Henry Rolle [^ v.], chief justice, was his 
c|j«r brother. John engaged in the Turkey 
^ade in London. He represented Callington 
bopough, Cornwall, in the parliaments of 1626 
■fd 1628 {Baturn o/MemberB, L468, 474). In 
:iie laUer year, in accordance with the order 
Si Uia commona, he refused to pay tonnage 
tad foundage. His silks and other goods, 
'4 tlis value of 1,617/., were seized by the 
ejstoarhouse officers. On 12 Nov. he brought 
ftTritof rm^vin, but execution was stopped 
bf onier or the council. A second writ, in 
Jumary 1629, was stopped bv order of the 
<^ciiequar. In Februair RoUe was served 
*i^ a subpoena in the Star-chamber, where 

he was called in question for his replevins. As 
the House of Commons was then debating 
the question of the seizure of the merchants' 
goods, the house made the Star-chamber's 
treatment of Rolle a matter of privilege 
{CommoTu^ JoumaU. i. 921-8, iu. 483). 
Although * a man or great trading ' at the 
time, Rolle declined to continue his business 
after the seizure of his goods. In January 
1630 he was again subpoenaed by the Star- 
chamber, and questioned for his speeches in 
the commons. In the Short and Long parlia- 
ments he represented Truro borough (JRe^ 
turn of Memhen, i. 480-1). The Long par- 
liament instructed the committee of trade 
to consider his case in May 1641 (ed. ii, 154, 
907). After lonff delay the case was re- 
ported on 7 May 1644 (t^. iii. 483), and the 
house resolved that satisfaction should be 
made to him of 1,517/. for the goods arrested, 
4,844/. aa interest on his remaining capital 
(6,887/.) in 1628, from which date he had 
refused to trade, and of 500/. for his four 
years' expenses in lawsuits in the exchequer 
and Star-chamber. In an ordinance of 
14 June 1644 the total fine of 8,641/. was 
ordered to be levied on the executors of the 
farmers of the customs in 1628, and of Sir 
William Acton, sheriff of London in that 
year (i*. iii. 580). In April 1645 Rolle was 
unsuccessfully nominated as a member of 
the committee of three for the command of 
the navy {ib, iv. 125). In 1647 he was co- 
executor of the will of his brother. Sir 
Samuel Rolle (1585 .P-1647). He died un- 
married in November 1648, and was buried 
at Petrockstow on the 18th (parish register, 
quoted in Viviak, Visitations, p. 654), ' 

[Vivian's Visitations of Devon, 1896, p. 6^4; 
authorities quoted in text ; Gardiner's Hist, vol. v.; 
Hamilton'sNotebookof Sir JohnNorthcote, p. 75; 
Old Pari. Hist. viii. 254 ; Whitelocke's Memorials, 
pp. 12, 87.178;Ru»hworth, 11.653-8.] W. A. S. 

ROtiLE, JOHN, Bakow Rollb of Steven- 
stone (1750-1842), eldest son of Denys Rolle 
of Bicton, Devonshire (d, 1797), by Anne, 
daughter of Arthur Chichester of Hall in 
the same county, was horn on 16 Oct. 1750, 
the same year in which his uncle Henry, 
created Baron RoUe of Stevenstone, 8 Jan. 
1747-8, died without issue. Returned to 
parliament for Devonshire on 4 Jan. 1780, 
Rolle retained the seat at the general elec- 
tions of April 1784 and June 1790. He was 
a staunch adherent of Pitt, held somewhat 
coarse ' common-sense ' views, and spoke fre- 
quently, but made no great figure as a de- 
bater. Having rendered himself obnoxious 
to the opposition by the severity of his com- 
jnents upon Fox^s recall of Rodney in 1782, 
and the levity with which he treated Fox's 

m2 ' 




complaints touching the violated rights of 
the Westminster electors, KoUe was made 
the hero of the ' Rolliad/ in which he was 
^bbetod as the degenerate descendant of 
Kollo, though the satire was principally 
aimed at Pitt and Dundas. Bj patent dated 
20 June 1796 the revived title of Baron 
HoUe of Stevenstone was conferred upon 
him ; and on 6 Oct. he took his seat in the 
House of Lords, in which, except to second 
the address to the throne on 26 June 1807 and 
that to the prince regent on 30 Nov. 1812, he 
hardly spoke. He voted against Earl Grey^s 
reform bill on its second reading, 13 April 
1882, and remained a strong conservative 
throughout life. He was colonel of the 
South Devon Militia and Boyal Devon 
Yeomanry, an active county magistrate, a 
good landlord, and a liberal benefactor to 
ike church. He died at Bicton House, near 
Exeter, on 8 April 1842. He married twice, 
viz. first, on 22 Feb. 1778, Judith Maria ((f. 
1820), only daughter of Heniy Walrond of 
Bovey,I)evon8hire ; and, secondly, on 24 Sept. 
1822, Louisa Barbara, second daughter of 
Kobert George William Trefusis, seventeenth 
baron Clinton, who survived him. He left 
issue by neither wife. 

A bust of Holle was exhibited in the Ko^al 
Academy exhibition in 1842 ; an en^ving 
of his portrait by Gruickshank is in Kyall^ 
'Portraits of eminent Conservatives and 
Statesmen,' 2nd ser. 

[Memoir in the work by Ryall above men- 
tioned and Qent. Mag. 1842, ii. 201 ; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Bridges, viii. 628 ; PoIe*8 Descrip- 
tion of Devonshire, pp. 163, 414; Hansard's Pari. 
Histw vol. xziY.-ix., and ParL Debates, ix. 580, 
xziv. 19, and 3rd ser. zii. 469 ; Lords' Joum. 
zli. 12; Wrazall's Posth. Memoirs, ed. Wheatley ; 
Greville Memoirs, C^eo. IV and Will. IV. iii. 
107, Vict. i. 108.] J. M.R. 

ROLLE, RICHARD,dbHahpolb(1290P- 
1349), hermit and author, born about 1290 
at Thornton in Yorkshire (probably Thorn- 
ton-le-Street^,W8athe son of William Rolle 
of Thornton in Richmondshire, and was sent 
by his parents to school at an early age, 
where he showed such sood promise that 
Thomas de Neville, archdeacon of Durham, 
sent him to Oxford, paying all the charges of 
his education. There he is said to have made 
rapid progress in his studies, but, being 
moved wiUi a stion||^ desire to devote hun- 
self to a religious life, at the age of nine- 
teen he left the university and returned to 
his home. Richard's ambition was not to 
enter any of the recognised communities of 
monks and friars, but to become a hermit 
and give himself up to contemplation. His 
mode of making his profession was to con- 

struct for himself a costume from two of his 
sister's kirtles, one white, the other grey, 
which she lent to him, and having bor- 
rowed also his father's rain-hood, he took 
up his abode in a wood near his father's 
house. His family naturally looked upon 
him as out of his senses. Richard, there- 
fore, fearing that he would be put under 
restraint, fled from his home and commenced 
a wandering life. Entering a certain church 
at Dalton, near Rotherham, to pay his devo- 
tions on the eve of the Assumption, he was re- 
cognised by the sons of John de Dalton, the 
squire of the place, who had known him at 
Oxford. The next day, the festival of the 
Assumption, he appeared sgain in church, 
and, putting on a surplice, took part in the 
service. At the mass he went, with the 
priest's permission, into the pulpit and 
preached with wonderful power. John de 
Dalton, having conversed with him, and 
satisfied himself as to his sanity, offered to 
provide him with a fitting cell, hermit's 
clothing, and the necessaries of life. This 
Richard accepted, and, establishing himself 
near his patron at Dalton, devoted himself to 
contemplation and devotional writings. The 
' Legenda' represent him as becoming com- 
pletely ecstatic, living in a spiritual wond, and 
naving many conflicts with devils, in all of 
which he is victorious. In his 'De Ineendio 
Amoris ' he describes in detail the stens by 
which he reached the highest point c^ divine 
rapture: the process occupied four years 
and three months. Richard soon began to 
move from place to place, and in the course 
of his wanderings came to Anderby in Rich- 
mondshire, where was the cell of an an- 
choress, Dame Margaret Kyrkby, between 
whom and Richard there had lonc^ existed 
a holy love. Here he procured tlie miraculous 
^covery of the recluse from a violent seizure. 
Subsequently he established himself at Ham- 
pole, near Doncaster, in the neiflrhbourhood 
of the Cistercian nimneryof St. Mary, which 
was founded there by William de Ciairefat 
in 1170 for fourteen or fifteen ntins. Here 
the fame of his sanctity and his learning 
became very great, bringing numerous visi- 
tors to his cell, and here he died on 
29 Sept. 1349. His grave at Hampole was 
visited by the faithful for many years after 
his death, and miracles— chiefly of healing— 
were reported to be worked there ; 20 Jan. 
was the day traditionally assigned to his 
commemoration. An 'office,' consisting of 

I»rayers and hymns, together with a aeries ol 
egends adapted to the canonical hours and 
the mass, was drawn up in anticipation of his 
canonisation, which did not take place. Th« 
legends there preserved are the chief source 




ofRiehud'abiognpliy. The 'office 'is printed 
in the Yoik BreTiaij (Siirtees Soc. vol. ii. 
up. T.), tnd from the Thornton MS. in Lin- 
coln CSithedral Library, by Canon Perry in his 
sdition of Bolle's < English Prose Treatises ' 

RoUe represented a reyolt aeainst many 
of the eonyentional yiews of religion in his 
day. He waa a yoluminous writer of deyo- 
tioml treatises or paraphrases of scripture. 
In his litexniT work he exalted the oontem- 
platiye life, denounced yioe and worldlinesSi 
and indnlged in much mystical rhapsodising. 
Bat he was by no means wholly unpractical 
in his methods of seeking to rouse in his 
eountiymen an actiye religious sense. He 
addressed them frequently m their own lan- 
goage. As a translator of portions of the 
bible into Knglish — the Psalms, extracts 
from Job and Jeremiah — he deseryes some of 
the ianie snbeequently acquired b^ Wiclif. 
While he was well read m patnstic lite- 
imtore, he had no sympathies with the sub- 
tleties of the schoolmen ; and when comment- 
ing on scripture ayoided any mere scholas- 
tic interpretation, although he often digressed 
into m^icism of an original type. His 
popnlanty was so ffreat that in after times 
' eyil men of LollaxSiy/ as they are described 
in the rhyming prefiuie to his yersion of the 
Psalms, endeayoured to tamper with his 
writing with the yiew of putting forth his 
authon^ ior their yiews. Thoefore the 
nuns of the Hampole conyent kept genuine 
copies in 'chain bonds' at their house. 

AoUe wrote in both Latin and English. 
His English works were written in ayigorous 
Northumbrian dialect, but they won imme- 
diate popularity all oyer Enghuid,and his difr- 
laetieal pecnlinrities were modified or wholly 
Rmoyed in the numerous copies made in 
soQtbem England. Many of his Latin works 
be liJTwiM^lf or his disciples translated into 
Bngli«h. With regard to the treatises which 
aist in both Latm and English yersions, 
it is often difficult to determme for which 
Tecsion Bolle was personally responsible. 
Two of Hollo's Latin ethical treatises, ' De 
Eaendatione Vit» ' and * De Incendio Amo- 
tii,' seem beat known in English translations 
Dade by Bicbard Misyn in 1484 and 1436 
respectiyelj ^see Mibtk, Richabd]. The 
Ei^iidi yersions haye been published by 
the Earlj English Text Society (1896). A 
great part of his literary remains is still un- 
p«iblisned. Manuscripts of his works are 
naskeroua in all public libraries — fifty-four 
tre in the Bodleian Library, forty-nine are 
in the British Museum, and forty-four in the 
Cambridge IJniyersity Library. Of his Eng- 
lish paraphrases of scriptures only those of 

the Psalms haye been printed. His rendering 
of Job in English yerse, entitled 'The IX 
leseons of the diryge whych Job made in hys 
trybulac^on . . . clepyd Pety Job,' remains m 
BCarl. MS. 1706 Qurt. 6)— ayolume oontaining 
many other of Kolle's tracts. An English 
yerse paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer, as- 
signed oylutson to Rolle, is in Harl. MS. 436. 
Of RoUe's English works, two prose trea- 
tises were printed by Wynkyn de Worde 
in a sinffle yolume in 1506, 4to, yiz. ' Rycharde 
Rolle Hermyte of Hampull in his oontem- 
placyons of the drede and loue of God with 
other dyuerse tytles as it sheweth in his 
table,' and ' The remedy ayenst the troubles 
of temptacyons' (Brit. Mus.) The latter 
was also reissued by Wynkyn de Worde in 
1506, 4to (an imperfect copy on yellum is 
in the British Museum) ; and again by 
Wynl^ de Worde in 1619, 4to (the copjy 
of . this edition in the British Museum is 
perfect, and is said to be unique). 

Rolle's chief Ezuflish work long remained 
in manuscript. It is the religious poem 
called the ' Pricke of Conscience.' This, he 
tells us, was written in English for the 
instruction of those who knew no Latin. 
Lydgate in his ' Bochas ' (f. 217 b) mentions 
Id perfit liring, which passeth pojsie, 
Bicnard hermite, contemplatiye of sentence, 
Drough in Englishe 'the prick of conscience.' 

Rolle's poem consists of a prologue and seyen 
books, treating respectively of the begin- 
ning of man^ lite, the unstableness of 
this world, death and why death is to be 
dreaded, purgatory, doomsday, the pains of 
hell and joys of heaven. Human nature is 
treated as contemptible, and asceticism is 
powerfully enjoined on the reader. The 
style is vigorous ; the yersification is rough. 
It is written throughout in rhyming cou- 
plets, the syllables of each verse varymg in 
number from eight to twelve, although never 
more than four are accented. The lines 
reach a total of 9,624. Rolle quotes freely 
from the scriptures and the fathers, and 
shows himself acquainted with Innocent Ill's 
' Be Contemptu Mundi ; ' Bartholomew 
Glanville's ' De Proprietatibus Rerum ; ' the 
' Compendium Theologicie Veritatis ; ' end 
the * fllucidarium ' of Honorius Augusto- 
dunensis. In title and subject, although 
not in treatment, the work resembles the 
English prose treatise, the 'Ayenbite of 
Inwyt ' (i.e. the ' Remorse of Conscience '), 
which Dan Michel of Northgate translated 
in 1840 into the Kentish dialect from the 
French (' Le Somme des Vices et des Vertus/ 
written by Fr^re Lorens in 1279). Rolle's 
poem was freely quoted by Warton in his 




of Englisli Poetry/ and by Joseph 
'ates in * Archseologia/ 1820, six. 

'Hwtory < 
Brooks Yi 

814*84. The whole was Sni printed^ in 
the Northumbrian dialect in which it was 
first written, ^m the Cottonian MS. Gblba 
E. ix. by the Hev. Richard Morris for the 
Philological Society in 1868. Manuscripts 
abound, not only of the ori^nal Northum- 
brian! which was modified and altered in end- 
less particulars by southern English copyista, 
but of translations into Latin. The latter 
bear the title of 'Stimulus Conscientiee.' 
There are eighteen English manuscripts in 
the British Museum ; collations of all these 
were published at Berlin in 1888 in a German 
dissertation by Dr. Percy Andrea. Dr. Biil- 
bring of Groningen has printed collations of 
thirteen other manuscripts, at Trinit-y Col- 
lege, Dublin, in Lichfield Cathedral Library, 
Sion College, London, Lambeth Palace, 
Cambridge university Library (Ee, 4, 35), 
Bodleian Library (Ashmole, 00). and else- 
where (cf. Transactumi of the Philological 
Society, 1889-90; Engltiche Studien, vol. 
xxiii. 1896; Heebig's Archiv, vol. Ixxxvi. 
890-2). Five manuscripts of the ' Pricke of 
Conscience 'are in the Cambridge University 
Library, and at least twelve are in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

Of hardly less interest than the ' Pricke of 
Conscience' is EoUe's English paraphrase 
of the Psalms and Canticles. The work was 
first fully printed at the Clarendon Press in 
1884 from a manuscript at University Col- 
lege, Oxford. This manuscript preserves 
BoUe's Northumbrian dialecL but is imper- 
fect. The editor (the Rev. H. R. Bramtey) 
has supplied the defects partly from a copy 
at Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge, and 
partly ftam one in the Bodleian Library. 
An imperfect Northumbrian manuscript is 
in the church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle-ou- 
Tyne (cf. Notee and QuerieSf 5th ser. i. 41^ 
42). Dr. Adam Clarke, the biblical com- 
mentator, owned a manuscript copy, and in 
his own work often quoted Bolle s com- 
mentary with approyat (Lbwib, History of 
the Translations of the Bible, 1789, pp. 12^16). 
A copy at Trinity College, Dublin, is in course 
of pn nt ing by the Early English Text Society. 

Ten Enghsh prose treatises by Rolle found 
in Robert Thornton's manuscript (dated 
about 1440) in the Lincoln Cathedral Library 
were edited for the Early English Text So- 
ciety by Canon Perry in 1^6. Thornton 
lived near Hampole; he ascribes seven of 
the treatises to * Kichard Hermite/ and the 
rest are assigned to Rolle on good internal 
evidence. The subjects of the treatises are 
respectively *0f the Vertu« of the Haly 
Name of Ihesuj' 'A Tale that Rycherdle 

Hermet made;' 'De in-perfecta contri- 
cione ; ' ' Moralia Ricardi Heremite de Ka- 
tura Apis ; ' * A Notabil Tretys off the Ten 
Comandementys ; ' * Of the Gyltes of the 
Haly Gaste ; '• * Of the Delyte and Yernyng 
of Gode ; ' ' Of the Anehede of Godd with 
Mannys Saule ; ' ' Active and Contemplative 
Life ; 'and the * Virtue of our Lord's Passion/ 

Mr. Carl Horstmann published in 1895-B 
in his ' Richard Rolle and his Followers/ 
' The Form of Perfect Living ' (prose), many 
short poems and epistles (from Cambr. Univ. 
MS. T. 64)| as well as ' Meditations on the 
Passion ' (prose) from Oambrid^ Addit MS. 
8042, and other pieces from Bntish Museioa 
M8. Arundel 607. 

Of Rolle's Latin works there was published 
at Paris in 1510, as an appendix to 'Speculam 
Spiritualium,' his ' De £)mendatioUe Yitse * 
or ' Peecatoris/ a short religious tract. In 
the same place and year appeared in a sepa- 
rate volume RoUe's ' Explanationes Ino- 
talnles/a commentary on the book of Job, 
in Latin prose. The latter is in part a 
translation from Rolle's *Pety Job' (in 
Harl. MS. 1706, art. 5). The * De Emen- 
datione ' was reissued at Antwerp in 1538, 
tether with 'De Incendio Amoris' and 
'Euloginm Nominis lesu.' Later reissues, 
with yarious additions of other Latin trea- 
tises (including Rolle's English paraphrases 
of the Psalms, Job, and Jeremiah turned into 
Latin^, appeared at Cologne in 15d5, and 
affain m 1586, when the volume was entitled 
'D. Richardi Pampolitani Anglosaxonis Ere- 
mite, viri in diuinis scripturis ac Teteri ilia 
solidaque Theologia eruditissimi, in Psal- 
terium Davidicum, atque aliadusedam sacrse 
Scriptures monumentacompendiosajustaque 
pia enarratio.' The Latin traotSi with the 
exception of the commentaries on scripture, 
were reprinted at Paris in 1618, and again 
in tom. xxvi. pp. 609 et sqq. of the ' Biblio- 
theca Patrum Maxima' at Lyons in 1677. 

[The Legenda appended to Rolle's Office, no- 
ticed above, is the main authority for Rolle*8 
•biography. See also the editions of his printed 
-works already mentioned; B. ten Brink's Ge- 
echidite der engl. Litt. vol. !. ; Studien zn 
Richard Bolle de Hampole, von J. Ullmann, in 
Englitche Studien, vol. vii. ; Harapole Studien, 
Ton G. Kribel, in Englische Studien, vol. viii. ; 
Ueber die Richard Rolle de Hampole xag»- 
schriebene Paraphrase der sieben Bu»«epBalmen, 
vonMazAdler, 188fi; Heinrich Middendorff's 
Studien iiber Eiohaxd Bolle, Magdeburg, 1888; 
Kitson's Bibliographia Anglo-Poetica ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.; Oudin's De ScriptoribuB Bcclesis, 
iii. col. 927-9 ; Morley's English Writers, iv. 
263-0 ; Hunter's South Yorlcshire, i. 868. Some 
assistance has been rendered by Oanon 0, G. 
Perry and. by Dr. Frank Heath.] 




ld78),diTiii6yboni in Londonytras admitted 
t BdMlir of Tiiaity CSoUege, Oambridge, on 
24 April 1646^ bemma s minor fellow on 
SSSept. 1647. and ym» appointed ' auUeotor 
ttftina' in 1660. He took orderty and in 
Aug!Utl667 was minister of Isle worth, Mid- 
dlewx, and weekly lecturer at Honnslow 
chapel. He was afterwards beneficed at Dun* 
ton, Backingbamshire. At the BeM^oratton 
he pronoonoed against the 'prodigious im* 
piety of mnrdering ' the king, but he was 
ejected frotn Dunton by the Aot of Uni« 
fonnity, 1662. He afterwards preached in 
direit places, asserting that but for ^ an im- 
pediment,' known to the srdibishop, he 
would haye woriied within the church* He 
was admitted doctor of physic at Cambridge, 
hj the kinff's letter manoatory, on 27 C£t. 
1676. Hettien publicly disayowed anything 
in Us of^iied or anonymous writings contrary 
to the principles acknowled^ by the choreh 
of Englsnd and the uniyersity of Cambridge. 
About 1678 he was appointed chaplain in 
ordinarr to the king, but mainly defioted 
himself to writing rdigious books. He was 

He published: 1. 'The Burning of Loa^ 
don oommemoxated and improy^ in CX 
IKscouiass,' ftc., London, 1667, 6vo; in four 
parts, wi^ titles and separate pagination. 
X, *Lamdon*B Resurrection, or the Rebuild- 
iuf of London,' London, 1668, 8yo. 8. 'A 
Sober Aitfwer to the Friendly Debate betwixt 
a Conformist and a Nonconformist^ written 
by way of a Letter to the Author' (Simon 
Patrick [q.T.], bishop of Ely), 8rd edit. 1669, 
published nnder the name of Fhilagathus. 
4. * Justification Justified, or the great Doc- 
trine of Justification stated,' in opposition to 
William Sherlock,Lond(m, 1674. 6. 'Loyalty 
sad Peace, or Two Seasonable Discourses,' 
London, 1678, 8yo. 

[Wood's Athens Oaum. ed. Bliss, iy. 106. 108 ; 
Pb^mer^s Koneoiiformist's HemoriAl, i. 298 ; CsL 
Scale Pamos, Bom. 1657-8, pp. 81, 264; Lips- 
comb's Hist, of Buckin^lusunshire, iii. 343; 
Cuopeys Annals of Cbmbndge, iii. 570 ; Oven's 
Voris, fld. Ooold. 1851, ii. 276 ; Orme's Life of 
Oiree, p. S80 ; Notes and Qnerios, 2Dd ser. ii. 
F $. 139 ; Syhrester^s Reliquiae Baxterianie, iii. 13 ; 
Lotes Icindly famished by W. Aidts Wright, esq. 
IloTls hAfl been eonfonnded with a Dr. Daniel 
Rolifs, whoee faneral sermon by Daniel Burgess 
[q. T.] yras pobKshed, Loadon« 16M, dedicated 
to his widow AHee.] C. F. & 

BOLLESTON, QEORGE (1829-1881), 
Linscre professor of anatomy and physioloffy 
a: Ozlbrd, was second son of Greorge Bol- 
Ircton, squixo and yicar of Maltbyi a yillage 

near Botherbam in the West Ridiuff of 
Yorkshire. He was bom at Midtby Hall on 
80 July 1829. He reoeiyed his early edu* 
cation from his ibther to such good effect 
that he was able to read Homer at sight by 
the time he was ten years old, and £e was 
aooustomed to say that he could then think 
in Qreek. He was sent to the grammar 
school at Gainsborough in 1889, and two 
years later ,to the collegiate school at Shef- 
field, at that time nndor the mastership of 
Br. George Andrew Jacob. At the age of 
seyenteen he won an open scholarship at 
Pembroke College^ Oxford, and matrieuutad 
on 8 Dec» 1846, though he did not come into 
residence until the following term« He 
worked hard during his undergraduate career, 
and obtained a fint dass in classics at the 
final examination for the B.A. degree in 
Michaelmas term 1860. The college elected 
him on 27 June 1851 to a feUowship esta- 
blished in 1846 by Mrs. ^iieppard for the 
promotion of the study of law and physic 
This £»llowship he held until his marriage 
in 1862, when he was elected an honorary 
fellow of the society. 

His election to Uie Sheppard Callowship ap- 
pears to haye determined KoUeston to follow 
the profession of medicine. In October 1851 
he entered sa a student at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital in London, Hying in Dyei^s Build- 
ings, Thayies Inn. He worked as sealously 
at the hospital as he had done at the uni- 
yersity, and he came under the influence of 
two remarkable leaders then attached to the 
school as physician and surgeon re^ctiyely, 
Sir George Burrows and fir William Law- 
rence [q- y.l He proceeded M. A. at Oxford 
in 1853, ana, haying qualified in due course 
as M.B. in 1854, he was admitted a doctor 
of physic in 1857. He was admitted a 
member of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London in 1856, and a fellow in 1859. 

Rolleston was appointed one of the phy* 
sicians to the Bntish ciyil hospitsl at 
Smyrna in 1855, towards the dose of the 
Crimean war, and in that capacity he had 
charge of surgical as well as of medical cases. 
Later in the year he went to Sebastopol, 
but soon returned to Smyrna, where his 
work wss so highly a^reoiated that he and 
three other ciyu practitioners were retained 
when the rest of the staff were sent home 
on the closure of the ciyil hospital at the 
end of the campaign. The four aoctors were 
directed to compile a report upon the sani- 
tary and other aspects 01 Smyrna. This re- 
port, containing much local information of 
freat yalue, was completed before Noyember 
856. Rolleston, after middng a tour in 
Palestine, returned to England in June 1857. 




For some time Rolleston acted as an as- 
sistant physician to the Hospital for Sick 
Children in Great Ormond Street^ London. 
But in 1867, on the death of James Adey 
Ogle [q. tX regias professor of physic in 
Oxford, Rolleston was elected, in nis stead, 
physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary, and was 
at the same time appointed by the dean and 
chapter of Christ Church Ijee's reader in 
anatomy, in succession to Dr. (afterwards 
Sir Henry Wentworth) Acland, the new 
regius professor of medicine. Rolleston con- 
tinued to practise as a physician in Oxford, 
but the development of scientific teaching in 
the university, mainly due t-o the energy of 
the new regius professor, soon led to the 
establishment of a Linacre professorship of 
anatomy and physiolo^. In 1860 Rolleston 
was called to that chair, and he filled it with 
conspicuous ability until his death. 

RoUeston's scientific work dates from this 
period. He was present at the historical 
meeting of the British Association at Oxford 
in 18^, when Richard (afterwards Sir 
Richard) Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley 
discussed with some heat, in reference to the 
Darwinian theory, the structural differences 
between the brains of men and monkeys. 
The controver^ set Rolleston to work upon 
the problem of brain classification, and he 
published his first results in a lecture at the 
Royal Institution on 24 Jan. 1862. Owen 
renewed the dispute with Huxley at the 
Cambridge meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in 1862, and Rolleston entered into the 
debate on Huxley's side. The questions of 
cerebral development and the classification 
of skulls maintained their interest for him 
until the end of his life. To his sug&restion 
is due the magnificent collection of human 
skulls in the Oxford Museum. 

The earlier years of his professorship were 
largely occupied in preparing his work on * The 
Forms of Animal Liie,' published in 1870. 
It was the first instance of instruction by the 
study of a series of types, a method which 
has since obtained general recognition in the 
teaching of biology. His intervals of leisure 
were spent with his friend Canon Green- 
well in examining the sepulchral mounds in 
various norts of Englana, the results being 
publishea in ' British Barrows, a Record of 
the Examination of Sepulchral Mounds in 
various parts of England,' Oxford, 1877. He 
thus became a skiUed anthropologist. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1862, and a fellow of Merton College in 
1872. In 1878 he delivered the Harveian 
oration at the Royal College of Physicians, 

Bollestott subsequently wasted much energy 

in university and municipal politics. He did 
much, however, to promote the study of 
sanit&ry science, and, as a member oi the 
Oxford local board, he was mainly instru- 
mental in causing the isolation of the cases 
of smallpox as they occurred during the 
epidemic of 1871, while to hb advocacy Ox- 
ford owes the system of main drainage which 
replaced the cesspools of previous genera- 
tions. In later hfe Rolleston was a strong 
advocate of the Permissive Bill, and he be- 
came from conviction a total abstainer for 
two years. He gave evidence before the 
commission appointed in 1874 to inquire into 
the practice oi experiments upon living ani- 
mals. He was in lavour of vivisection under 
fitting restrictions, and the act 39 & 40 Vict. 
cap. 77 was to a large extent drafted from 
his suggestions; but these were curiously 
perverted by the opponents of the bill. 

Failing health, accompanied by a nervous 
irritability, the result of overwork, obliged 
him to spend the winter of 1880-1 in the 
Riviera. Returning home with difficulty, 
he died in Oxford on 16 June 1881. He 
was buried in the cemetery at Holjfwell, 
Oxford. His professorship was subdivided 
at his death, Professor Henry Nottidge 
Moseley [q. v.] being entrusted with the 
chair of human and comparative anatomy, 
Professor Tylor with that of anthropolpgyi 
and Professor (Sir) John Burdon SanderBon 
(1828-1904), then regius professor of medi- 
cine, with that of physiologv. 

Rolleston married, on 21 Sept. 1861,Grace, 
the daughter of Dr. John Davy and the niece 
of Sir Humpluy Davy. They lived until 
1868 at 16 I^ew Inn Hall Street, Oxford, 
and then removed to the house which they 
had built in South Parks Road, close to the 
museum. Rolleston left seven children. 

Rolleston represented an admirable type 
of university professor. On his pupils he 
impressed the love of knowledge for its own 
sake and not from any mere monetary benefit 
which might accrue from it. While deeply 
learned in his special branch of study, he was 
well informed on all subjects. He was per- 
haps the last of a school of English natural 
historians or biologists in the widest sense of 
the term, for, with the training of a Francis 
Trevelyan Buckland [q. v.] or of a "William 
Kitchen Parker [q. v. J ne combined the cul- 
ture of a classical scholar, the science of a 
professor, and the gift of speech which be- 
longs to a trained lin^st and student of 
men. He was an attractive conversationalist, 
apt at quotation and brilliant in repartee. 
Warm-hearted and of sterling honesty, he 
was a good hater, and never abandoned a 
losing cause after he had convinced himself 




that it WM light. But the breadth and vast- 
neaa of his knowledjope led to eaieleasness of 
detail, and to some diffuae thinking and 'writ- 
ing. Hia Hteraiy style was often inTolved, 
and his essays were overloaded with refe« 

BoUeston nublished numerous papers and 
addreflMS,ana the foUowingbooks : 1. 'Forms 
of Animal Lafe^'Glarendon Fress, Oxford, 8to, 
1870; Snd edit, (edited and much enlaxved 
by Wm. Hatchett Jackson, FJLJ&X SVo, 
1888. 3. 'A Selection from his Saentifio 
Papers and Addresses, arranged and edited 
br Sir William Turner, with a biographical 
sietch by Br. E. B. Tylor,' was issued from 
the dazendon Press at Oxford in 1884, 
2 Tols. Sto, with portrait. 

A crayon portrait, drawn by W. E. Miller 
in 1877, hangs in the common room at Pem- 
broke Ckdlege, Oxford. It was presented by 
Pro fca sor Goldwin Smith, and bears a Latin 
qnateiin from his pen. This drawing is re- 
prodaced in the two-volume edition of his 
'CoUeeted Addresses.' A marble bust in 
the mnaemn at Oxford, executed from a 
study after death, by If . R. Pinker, hardly 
does justice to that massiveness of feature 
which, in his later life, lent a great charm 
and strength to Rolleston's face. 

[Pofooal knowledge ; obituary notioes by Sir 
W. H. nowaft F JL8., in Proc Hqral Soc. zzxiii. 
24-7; Dr. Tylor^s Bi(»raphical Sketch prefixed 
to the Collected Adcuesses; additional facts 
kindly eoDtributed to the writer by Dr. H. G. 
Solleston and by Mr. 0. 'Wood, the bursar of 
Pembroke College, Oxford.] D*A. P. 

KOLLO, ANDHEW, filth Lobb Hollo 
(1 roa-1765), bom in 1700, was the eldest son 
of Robert, fourth lord Rollo, by Mary, eldest 
dauffhter of Sir Harry Rollo of Woodside, 
StsTungahire, knight. Entering the army 
after he had attained the age of forty, he so 
distingoished himself at the battle of JDettin- 
gen in 1743 that he was promoted to a com- 
vany in the 22nd regiment of foot. On 1 June 
17€0 he was appointed major, and on 26 Oct. 
1756 lientenant-colonel. He succeeded his 
&ther on 8 March 1768, and the same year 
the legimmt nnder his command was des- 
patchM to take part in the expedition to 
Looisbin^, when it displayed great gallantry 
in effecting a landing at Cape Breton. He 
was stationed with his regiment at Louis- 
burg during 1759, and in the spring of 1760 
the 22nd and ^h regiments, under his 
command, proceeded from Louisburg up the 
rirer Lawrence to Quebec, whence, with the 
forces nnder Brigadier-general Murray, they 
adTaneed against Montreal, which surren- 
dered, and with it all Canada. On 19 Feb. 
1760 Lord Solb was appointed colonel, and 

at the same time also obtained the rank 
of brigadier-general in America. After the 
conquest of Canada he removed with the 
troops under his command to Albany, and 
thenceto New York. lnJunel761hewas8ent 
in command of twentv-six thousand troops 
to the West Indies, ana, landing in Dominica 
imder fire of the men-of-war, ne drove the 
French from their entrenchments, and in 
two days reduced the island to submission. 
He was then sent to take part in the opera- 
tions against Martinique, joining General 
Monckton in Carlisle Bay, Barbados, in De- 
cember 1761, and arriving with him at Mar- 
tinique on 16 Jan. 1762. The island surren- 
dered on 4 Feb., and Rollo, with his brigade, 
joined the forces of the Earl of Albemarle 
for the reduction of Havannah in the island 
of Cuba ; but before its surrender on 1 Aug. 
1762 ill-health compelled him to leave Cuba 
and set sailfor England. He died at Leicester 
on 2 June 1766, from a lingering illnees 
caught at Havannah, and was buried in 
St. Margaret's Churoh. By his first wife, 
Catherine, eldest of two daughters and co- 
heiresses of Lord James Murray of Donally, 
brother of John, first duke of AthoU, he had 
several children, of whom the only one who 
reached maturity was John, master of Rollo, 
who died at Martinique on 24 July 1762 
while serving as major in his father^s brigade. 
By his second wife, Elisabeth, daughter of 
James Moray of Abercaimey, Lord Rollo left 
no issue. 

[DoagWs Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 899- 
400; Scots Mag. 1765, pp. 279, 836; Gannon's 
Historica Records of the 22nd Regiment] 

T. F. H. 

BOLLO, JOHN, M.D. (d, 1809), surgeon, 
was bom in 8cotland,andreceived hu mmical 
education at Edinburgh. He became a sur- 
geon in the artillery in 1776, and served in the 
West Indies, being stationed in St. Lucia in 
1778 and 1779 and in Barbados in 1781. He 
published ' Observations on the Diseases im 
the Army on St. Lucia,' in 1781. He soon 
after returned to Woolwich as surgeon* 
general, and in 1785 published ' RemarKs on 
the Disease lately described by Dr. Hend^.' 
The disease was that fonki of elephantiasis 
known as ' Barbados leg.' In 1786 he pub- 
lished ' Observations on the Acute Dysentery,' 
and in 1794 became suneon-general. He 
printed at Deptford in 1797 'Notes of a 
Diabetic Case,' which described the improve- 
ment of an officer with diabetes who was 
placed upon a meat diet. In a second edition, 
publiriied in 1798, other cases were added, 
BO that the whole made a considerable volume 
of which a further edition appeared in 1806. 




He was frequently conralted about cases of 
diabetes, ana in treatment had the deoree of 
snccess which has alw^s followed the use 
of a nitrogenous diet. He published in 1801 
a 'Short Ac6ovakt of the Royal Artillery 
Elospital at Woolwich/ and in 1804 a 
' Medical Report on Cases of Inoculation,' in 
which he supports the yiewB of Jenner. He 
died at Woolwich on 3S Dec 1809. 

[Works ; Biogr. Diet, of Liring Anthers, 1816 ; 
Gent. Mag. 18U4 H. 1114, 1809 ii. 1289.1 

K. M. 

ROLLO, sometimes called ROLLOOK, 
Sib WILLIAM (d. 1645), royalist, was the 
fifth son of Andrew Rollo of Duncruib, 
Perthshire, croated 10 Jan. 1661 bv Ofaailes II 
while in Scotland Lord Rollo of Duncruib, 
by Catherine Dmmmond, fourth daughter of 
James, first lord Maderty. The famuV trace 
their descent from Richard de RoUo, an 
Anglo-Norman, who settled in Scotland in 
the reign of David I. The lands of Dun- 
cruib were obtained by charter on 18 Feb. 
1880 from Dayid, earl of Stratheam, by John 
de Rollo, who was notary public to Uie act 
of settlement of the crown of Scotland by 
Robert II on 27 March 1371, and was aftei^ 
wards secretary to Robert III ; the lands were 
erected into a free barony on 21 May 1640. 

Although his elder brother, James, second 
lord Rollo, was a follower of Argyll, whom 
he accompanied on board his galkypoTious 
to the battle of Inverlochy, Sir William 
RoUo oontiuued a staunch royalist. He 
suffered from a congenital lameness, but en- 
joyed a high reputation as a soldier. While 
serving in England as captain in General 
King's lifeguaras in 1644, he, at Montrose's 
request, truisferred his services to Montrose, 
whom he accompanied into Scotland. When 
they reached Carlisle, Rollo and Lord Ogilvie 
were sent forward in die^ise to report on 
the state of the countxy ( Wishaxt, Memoirs 
of Montrose, ed. 1898, p. 47). Their report 
was of such a despondent character that Mon- 
trose deemed special precautions necessary, 
and, in company witn Rollo and Colonel 
William Sib'bald, journeyed north to the 
highlands disffuised as a groom (ib. p. 60). 
Rollo held under Montrose the rank ai major, 
and commanded the left win? at the attack 
on Aberdeen {ib^ p. 66). After the action 
he was sent from Kintore with despatches 
to the king at Oxford, but fell into Uie hands 
of Arffyll, According to Wishart, he would 
have been immediat^y executed but for the 
interposition of Argyll, who gave him his 
life and liberty on condition that he would 
undertake the assassination of MontEOse. 
This, Wishart asserts, Rollo promised to dO| 

and beinff sent back to Montrose immed^ 
ately disdosed to him the whole matter (ib. 
p. 166); but such a strange story requires 
conoboration before it can be aooepted. 
Rollo was present at the battle of Alford on 
2 July 1646, sharinpf the command of tlie 
left wmg witii the Viscount of Aboyne. He 
aooompauied Montrose on his march south- 
wards, and is credited with putdnff to fiight 
two hundred covenanting horse with only ten 
men diuing the march through Fife. He 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Philip- 
hauffh on lo Sept. 1646, and executed at the 
market cross of Glasgow on 24 Oct. 

[Wisfaart's Memoirs of Montrose; Gordon's 
Bntanes Distemper and SpsSdiog's M^morialls 
(Spalding dub); I^apier's Montrose; Doiwlaa** 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 398.] T. F. B. 

1619), writer of Latin verse, was an elder 
brother of Robert Rollock [q. v.] He gra- 
duated at St. Andrews, was regent at King's 
College, Aberdeen, and then spent sevem 
years abroad, chiefly in France, where he 
studied at Poitiers, pe enjoyed the friendship 
of Scaliger. Returning to Scotland, he o weci 
to the recommendation of Thomas Buchanan 
his appointment (1680) as commissaty of St. 
Andrews and the Carse of Gowrie. In 1584 
he became master of the high school of 
Edinbuxgh. From this post he was removed 
in 1595, and subsequently held some office in 
connection with the courts of justice. His 
earliest dated epigram refers to the comet of 
1577. In an undated ' Apologia,' written at 
the end of his tenth lustrum, he speaks of 
his wife and numerous family. He died 
before 5 March 1619; on 20 Feb. 1600 the 
Edinburgh magistrates gave an allowance to 
his 'relict and bairns.^ His verses are to 
be found in Arthur Johnston's 'Delitie 
Poetarum Scotorum' (1687, 12mo,ii. 32S-67). 

[KollocVs Poems; Steven^s Hist of the High 
School of Edinburgh, 1849 ; McCrie's lAfe of 
Melville, 1856, pp. 381 sq., 396, 481.] A. O. 

ROLLOCK, PETER (J. 1626 F), bishop 
of Dunkeld and lord of session, was pro- 
bably connected with the old Scottish family 
of Hollo of Duncruib [see Rolls, Sib Wil- 
Lux]. He was educated for the law both 
at home and abroad, and passed as advocate 
prior to 1678 (Books qf Sederunt). About 
1685 he became titular bishop of Dunkeld, 
having no ecclesiastical function, but merely 
holding the title, and dealing with the tem- 
poralities of what was then a very dilapidated 
see. An act of parliament was passed in 1594 
so far abrogating the act of annexation as to 
allow him to exercise tiie rights of superiority 
(Acts ^f ike FswUamefUs qf Sootkmd^ iii. 




873, ir. 70). The general assembly of 1586 
ftppointsd a oommiaaion of ministers to take 
trial of him aa biflliop whether any occasion 
of slander could be fonnd in his life, conTersa- 
tioD, or doctrine, and the assembly of 1587 
ordered the commission to proceed (Book of 
the Vmenal Eirk, pp. 666, 600). 

In Joly 1587 Bollock was nominated by 
the pariiament <nie of the extraordinary lords 
of comcfl, i.e. to act when he should happen 
to be pre s en t or to be sent for by the innff. 
In this capacity he was shortly afterwards 
lent to Berwick as one of the commissioners 
to treat with ike English respecting the 
mtfisgement of the borders. On the death 
of Lord Cranaton-Rtddell, a lord of session, 
the king included his name in the leet for 
the raeant judgeahip ^8 March 1595), bat 
though he md not receive that appoiiitment, 
he was admitted on 19 May 1596 an extra- 
ordiaary lord ; and upon a reconstitotion of 
the ptivy council of Scotland on 14 Dec 
1696, he was appointed an ordinary lord. 

Id 1<X)6 he accompanied King James to 
England, and, according to Keith, was 
natiDalised there. During his absence, on 
15 Fek 1604, a ' Supersedere' was issued in 
his &T0Qr in respect of all actions in which 
he 1VBS conoemed until his return {Books of 
Menukf), He was again in Scotland bch- 
fore Oetober 1605, when ne^tiations were 
in pnmsa for obtaining his surrender of 
the biuiopric of Dunk^la. On 19 Jan. of 
thit year the lords commissioners of the 
kirk pointed out to the king that the bishopric 
VIS held by one who had no public function 
in the hark, and that it was an exceedingly 
poor see, scarcely worth four hundred merks 
Soots (less than 25t sterling), and asking 
that it might be conferred on a clei^gyman, 
JsmesNicolson( OrigmalLetter$ relating to the 
BedenattiealAff(nr$of8cotland,iAl), Lord 
Balmerino and the laird of Lauriston were 
deputed to treat with Rollock, to whom the 
king ptopoeed to grant the deanery of York 
hj way of compensation (ib, il. 859). Rol- 
loek oemitted the bishopric, but obtained 
nothing in its ]^ace. He was thenceforth 
known as < Mr. mer Bollock of Pilt^n.' 

Although he dili^ntly attended the Scot- 
tish council meetings, and took the new 
oath which in June 1607 the king imposed 
for securing the recognition of his authority 
in all matters ciril and ecclesiastical, yet on 
the reduction of the number of the privy 
coancil in Fehruary 1610 Rollock was dis- 
placed; and about the same time he was de- 
PHTed of his seat on the bench, to make room 
for John Spottiswood [q. t.], bishop of Qlas- 
gpw, afterwards arehbisnop of St. Andrews. 
AoUack, in a letter to the king, claimed to 

have served his majesty with all faithfulness 
and without one blemish, but his dismissal 
had given rise to the suspicion that he had 
offended his majesty, and he prayed for a 
renewal of the royal favour {(hiainal 
Letters, ut supra, p. 228). The whole Scot- 
tish bench of fifteen loras also appealed to 
the king on 11 Jan. 1610 for his restoration 
(jSf. p. 2^5 ; also the Metros Papers, p, 76, and 
original letter in the Denmiln Collection, 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). These ap- 
peals had the desired efiect, and on 5 April 
1619 the king ordered his restoration with 
the provision that this should form no pre- 
cedent for the establishment of a fifth extra- 
ordinary lord of session (Letters and State 
Papers of the Beign of King James VhV* 
186). Bollock again took the oath of omce 
and continued in his post until 1620, when 
he resigned it in favour of John, lord Ersktne. 

An attempt upon Bollock's lifb was made 
on 21 Sept. 1611, by two sons of a neip^h- 
bour, Matthew Finlayson of Eilleith, vnth 
whom he had a lawsuit. They waylaid 
him at the ))ack of Inverleith wliile he was 
on his way from Bestalrig to his house at 
Pilton, and shot at him with their pistols, 
but the weapons missed fire {Begister of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, ix. 260). In 1 616 
he was restored to his seat in the privy 
council. His last attendance is recorded in 
September 1625 {ib. in manuscript). Men- 
tion is made of his death in a charter of his 
estate of Pilton to his successor, who was 
his grand-nephew, 2 Aug. 1626 {Begistrum 
Magni Sigilh), 

KoUock married Elizabeth Weston, widow 
of John Fairlie, portioner of Restalrig, but 
appears to have had no lawful surviving 
issue. He had, however, a natural son, 
Walter Rollock. 

[Register of the Privy Ooancil, passim ; Bran- 
ton and Haig's Sftnators of the College of Jus- 
tice, pp. 236-7 ; Keith's Historical Cstalogae of 
the Scottish Bishops, p. 97 ; and the autliorities 
cited above.] H. P. 


(1556 P-1699), first principal of the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, bom about 1555, was son 
of David Bollock, laird of Powis, near Stir- 
ling, and Mary Livingstone, connected with 
the noble family of that name. Hercules 
Bollock fq. v.l was his elder brother. He was 
educated at the grammar sdiool of Stirling 
under Thomas Buchanan, a nephew of Geoi^ 
Buchanan the historian, and m 1574 he en- 
tered St. Salvator's College in the university 
of St. Andrews, where he so greatlv distin- 

Siished himself that soon after taking his 
.A. degree he was appointed one of the le- 




gents or pxtyfesson of the college. In 1580 he 
WM also made examiner of arts, and in the 
same year director of the faculty of arts. At 
this tmie he was continuing his studies in 
divinity, and James Melville states that in 
1660 'he had the honour to be his teacher 
in the Hebrew tongue ' {Diary ^ Wodrow Soc. 
p. 86). In 1583, on the recommendation 
of James Lawson [^. v.], he was appointed 
by ihe town council of Edinburgh to be 
sole regent of the newly founded colleg[e 
of James VI, afterwards Known as the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. His appointment was 
for one year certain ; but should the college 
be successful it was provided that he should 
be advanced to the highest post or title that 
miffht be created. His samrv was fixed at 
40£ Scots, with the students fees, 40». for 
sons of burgesses, and 8/. or more for other 
students ; the council moreover agreeing to 
'sustain him and one servant in their or- 
dinary expenses,' and to give him an aug- 
mentation not exceeding forty merks, should 
the fees from the students not afford him a 
sufScient salaiy. In 1585-6 he took the 
title of ' principal or first master.' He carried 
his class through to graduation in 1587, after 
which, other regents having been appointed, 
he gave up the teaching of philosophy, and, 
wiu the sanction of the presbytery 01 Edin- 
burgh, was appointed professor of theology 
at a salary 01 four hundred merks, retaining 
at the same time lus position as principaL 
On 5 Sept. 1587 he also began to preach, 
thouffh not as an ordained minister, every 
Sunoav morning in the East Kirk at seven 
AJi . ; but on 18 Dec. 1589 another was ap- 
pointed to that duty. In 1596 he entered 
on the full charge 01 the congregation. 

In 1590 RollMik was appointed assessor to 
the moderator of the general assembly, and 
in 1591 he was named one of a committee of 
the presbytery of Edinburgh to hold a con-' 
ference with the king on tne affairs of the 
kirk (Calderwoob, Mist, v. 130). In con- 
nection with the prosecution of the Earls of 
Angus, Huntly, and Errol for their attempts 

* against the true religion,' he was named 
one of a committee of the assembly to confer 
with a committee of the estates (t^. p. 277). 
In 1595 he was chosen one of a commission 
for the visitation of the colleges (ib, p. 371), 
And in the following year he was appointed 
with three other ministers to remonstrate 
with the king for his * hard dealing with the 
kirk^' and especially for his prosecution of 
David Black {ib, p. 463). Subsequently 
Bollock, who, accoraing to Calderwood, was 

* a godly man, but simple in the matters of 
the church government, credulous, easily led 
by counsel, and tutored in a manner by his 

old master, Thomas Buchanan ' (t^. viii. 47), 
was won over to support the policy of the 
kinff in church matters, and at the instance 
of the king's party he was chosen moderator 
of the assembly that met at Dundee in May 
1597. Accordmg to Calderwood, he ' kythed 

E discovered! hisown weaknessinfollowing the 
mmours of the king and his commissioners' 
(ib, V. 650). Rollo(3c supported the proposal 
made in 1595 that certain ministers should 
be allowed to sit and vote in parliament as 
biBhops, affirming that 'lordship could not 
be denied them that were to sit in parlia- 
ment, and allowance of rent to maintain 
their dignities ' (jib, p. 697). It was generally 
supposed that he himself was not averse to 
sucA a promotion in his own case. In 1598 
he becune minister of the Upper Tolbooth 
— ^probably the west portion of St. Qiles's 
Cathedral — and on 18 April of the same year 
he was admitted to Magdalen Church, after- 
wards Greyfriars. He died on 8 Feb. (old 
style) 159&-9, in his forty-fourth year. By 
his wife Helen, daughter of James, baron 
of Kinnaird, he had a posthumous daugh- 
ter, Jean, who married Robert Bahamquhal, 
minister of Tranent. 

Although 'grieved' at what he deemed 
Bollock's weakness in lending his aid to 
the king*s ecclesiastical policy, Calderwood 
admits tliat he was ' a man of good conversa- 
tion and a powerful preacher' (t5. p. 732). 
He was reckoned to be of ' great learning,* 
and he discharged the duties of professor and 

Principal of the university with great success, 
[e was the author of numerous theological 
works, the majority of them being com- 
mentaries or expositions of scripture which, 
although somewhat commonplace and super- 
ficial, are of interest as among the earliest 
of this species of literature in Scotland. 

Bollock's principal works are: 1. 'Com- 
mentarius in Epistolam ad Ephesios,' Edin- 
burgh, 1590 ; Geneva, 1693. 2. ' Commen- 
tarius in Librum Danielis Frophetee,' Edin- 
burgh, 1591 ; St. Andrews, 1594. 3. ' Analysis 
Epistolfls ad Bomanos,' Edinburgh, 1594. 
4. ' Quaestiones et Besponsiones aliquot de 
Fcedere Dei et de Sacramentia«' Edinburgh, 
1596. 5. < Tractatus de Efficaci Vocatione/ 
Edinburgh, 1597. 6. ' Commentarius in 
ntramque Epistolam ad Thessalonicenses, et 
Analysis in Epistolam ad Philemonem, cum 
Notis Joan. PiBcatoris,' Edinburgh^ 1598; 
Herbom, in Hesse-Nassau, 1601 ; translated 
under the title ' Lectures upon the First and 
Second Epistles to the Thessalonians,' Edin- 
burgh, 1606. 7. 'Certaine Sermons upon 
several places of the Epistles of Paul,' Eoin- 
burgh, 1599. 8. ' Commentarius in Joannis 
Evangeliumi una cum Harmonia ex iv Erao- 




gelistis in Mortem , Reaurrectioneniy et Ascen- 
sionem Dei/ Geneva, 16&9 ; Edinburgh, 1 599. 
9. ' Oomoentariiu in selectos aliquot Psal- 
mos/ GeoeTa, 1698, 1699; translated as 
*Aa Ezpoiition of some select Psalms of 
David,' Kdinbuigh, 1600. 10. ' Analysis Lo- 
sicainEputoIam ad(jkdatas,'£dinburffh,ld02; 
Ueneva, 1603. 11.' Tractatus brevis de Provi- 
dentia Dei, et Tractatus de Ezcommunica- 
tioiie,'aeneTa,1602; London, 1604. 12.'Com- 
mentarioa inEpistolam adGolos8ense8,'£din- 
buivli,1600;GeneTa,1602. 18.<ComaientariuB 
in Epiatolam ad Hebrseos,' Edinburgh, 1605. 
U. 'Conunentarius in Epistolas ad Ck>rinthio8,' 
Herbom,in Hesse-Nassau, 1600. 15. < A Trea- 
tise of God'a Effectual Calling,' translated by 
H. Holland, London, 1603. 16. 'Lectures 
upon the History of the Passion,' Edinburgh, 
1616. 17. ' Episcopal Government instituted 
brChxiat, and confirmed by Scripture and 
lieaaoa/ London, 1641. 'The Select Works of 
KoUock' were edited by William Gunn, D.D. 
(Wodiow Soc,Edinb.,2vols.l844andl849). 

[Ds YiU et Mort« Boberti Rollok, auctoribos 
Gtozgio Bobertson et Henrico Charteris (Banna- 
lyne Chib). 1826 ; Life by Charteris, vrith notes, 
prefixed to BollocVs Works (Wodrow Soc.); 
Hist bj Spotiswood and Calderwood ; Grant's 
Unirenity of Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

KOLPH, JOHN (179a-1870), Canadian 
insozgent aiid politician, eldest son of Dr. 
ThanaM Rolph, medical practitioner, by his 
wifeFruioes (Petty), was oom atThombury, 
6k>iioester8hire,on 4 March 1798. He was 
entered as a student at the Inner Temple 8 
Not. 1809, and soon after accompanied his pa- 
rents on a visit to Canada. He was there dur- 
ing the war with the United States in 1812, 
ind senred in it as a volunteer. On returning 
to Eiydandy he spent some time at Cambrid^, 
ind tlien tumoi to medicine, stndyiog in 
London at both GuVs and St. lliomas's Hos- 
pitals, and being admitted to membership of 
the Royal Collies both of Physicians and 
8amoB8^ He was called to the bar at the In- 
ner Temple 1 June 1821. A year before he had 
emigimted finally to Upper Canada, settling 
at first in Norfolk County (then the Talbot 
District), and was called to the bar of Upper 
Csnad* in Michaelmas term, soon practising at 
Dondas. ForatimehewasprofessionaladTiser 
of Colooel Thomas Talbot [q. v.], the colonial 
poneer in Upper Canada, hut Holi»h rapidly 
developedstrongly liberal political views, with 
vhich Talbot was cat of sympathy. Entering 
political life as a member of assembly for Mid- 
dlesex, Upper Canada, in 1824, he joined the 
relbrm party, and in 1828 was chairman of the 
committee of the hooae which reported the 
chaim aoainst the family compact party 
and Sir John Beverley Robinson [q. v.J 

Under the Baldwin ministry, on 20 Feb* 
1836, Rolj^h became a member of the execu* 
tive council, but resigning on 4 March as a 
protest against the methods of government, 
led the att^u^k upon Sir Francis Bond Head 

Sq. v.J In 1837 he joined William Lyon Mac- 
kenzie [q. V.I in his secret scheme for a rebel- 
lion a^inst tne existing government ; his tim- 
idity IS alleged to have precipitated the rising 
on 4 Dec. 1837, and to have largely contributed 
to its failure. It is said that he was not in favour 
of a direct appeal to arms, but desired a strong 
^pular demonstration to overawe the impe- 
rial government. He was still unsuspected 
by the government when the critical moment 
came, and was sent by the authorities to the 
rebels with a flag of truce : he urged Macken- 
zie to trust to a night attack, and promised aid 
from within Toronto. On the failure of the 
attack, Rolph joined the rebels openly, and 
subsequently fled with Mackenzie to the Uni- 
ted States. He took a promin^t part in op- 
ganisinff the executive committee at Buffiilo 
and in planning an invasion of Canada. When 
the movement collapsed he fled to Rochester, 
N.Y. (Djnrr, Upper Canada BebelHon), 

Before leaving Canada Rolph had resumed 
the practice of medicine. On the first decla- 
ration of anmesty he returned in 1843 to Can- 
ada, and settled down to practice, founding a 
school of medicine at Toronto at which he lec- 
tured regularly, and which was incorporated 
in 1853 as 'The Toronto School of Medicine.' 
In 1846 he was induced to enter the assembly 
of the now united Canadas as member for Nor- 
folk, and, joining the radical or * Clear-grit ' 
party, took office with the Hincks-Morin min- 
istry as commissioner of crown lands in 1851. 
His political views at the time were attacked 
by the opposition as socialist. He was de- 
scribed as one of the 'chiefs of that Clear-grit 
school which has broken up the liberalism of 
Upper Canada '(HiNCKs,i^emmi8cencf«). On 
8 Sept. 1854 the ministry resigned, and in 1857 
he retired from political life, and devoted him- 
self to social reform. Till 1868 he lectured 
at the Toronto School of Medicine. He died 
on 19 Oct. 1870 at Michell, near Toronto. 
Rolph was a man of powerful character, 
marred, it is said, by a love of finesse. He 
was married and left descendants in Canada. 

[Withzow's Hist of Canada ; Toronto Globe, 
21 Oct. 1870; Lindsey's life and Times of 
W. L. Mackenzie.] C. A. H. 

ROLT, Sib JOHN (1804-1871), judge, 
second son of James Rolt, merchant, of 
Calcutta, by Anne Braine, daughter of 
Richard Hioma, yeoman, of Fairford, 
Gloucestershire, and widow of Samuel 
Brunsdon, of the baptist mission at Seram- 
pore, was bom at Calcutta on 6 Oct, 1804. 




Brought to England by his mother about 
181U, he was educated at dissenting pri- 
vate achoola at Chipping Norton and Is- 
lington. His father aiea in 1818, and his 
mother in the following year; and about 
Christmas 1818 Rolt was apprenticed to a 
London firm of woollendrapers. Though 
his hours were long, he managed, by earlj 
rising and reading as he walked, to repair 
in a measure the defects of his education. 
On the expiration of his indentures in 1822- 
1828, he found employment in a Manchester 
warehouse in Newgate Street, which he 
exchanged in 1827 for a clerkship in a 
proctor^ office at Doctors' Common. His 
next step was to obtain two secretaryships 
— one to a school for orphans, the other to 
the protestant dissenters' school at Mill 
Hill. Meanwhile he pursued his studies, and 
entered in 1883 the Inner Temple, where he 
was called to the bar on 9 June 1837. Con- 
fining himself to the court of chancery, he 
rapidly acquired an extensive practice, and 
took silk in Trinity vacation 1846. After 
some unsuccessful attempts to enter parlia- 
ment, he was returned in the conservative 
interest for the western division of Glouces- 
tershire, 81 March 1857, and for ten years 
continued to represent the same constituency. 
In 1862 he carried through the House of 
Commons the measure commonly known as 
Holt's Act (25 and 26 Vict. c. 42), by which 
an important step was taken tp wards the 
fusion of law and e(}uity. In 1866 he suc- 
ceeded Sir Hugh Caims as attorney-general, 
29 Oct., and was knighted on 10 Nov. 

In parliament Rolt made no great figure, 
but he voted steadily with his party, and did 
the drudgery connected with tne carriage of 
the Reform Bill of 1867. On 18 July of 
that year he succeeded Sir George James 
Turner [q. ▼.] as lord justice of appeal, and 
on 3 Aug. was sworn of the privy council. 
Incipient paralysis, due to long-continued 
overwork, compelled his resignation in Fe- 
bruary 1868, and on 6 June 1871 he died at 
bis seat, Ozleworth Park, Wotton-under- 
Edge, Gloucestershire. Hisremains were in- 
terred on 12 June in Ozleworth churchyard. 

Rolt was neither a profound lawyer nor 
a great advocate; but he was thoroughly 
versed in chancery practice, had sound judg- 
ment, and quickness of apprehension. 

In early life Rolt abandoned dissent for 
the churcn of England, to which he became 
strongly attached. 

Rolt married twice : first, in 1826, Sarah 
(d, 1850), daughter 6f Thomas Bogworth of 
Bosworth, Leicestershire; secondly, in 1857, 
Elizabeth (d, 1867), daughter of Stephen 
Godson of Croydon. By his first wife he 

had issue, with four daughters, a son John, 
who succeeded to his esUite ; he had also a 
son by his second wife. 

[Times, S Jtme 1871 ; Law Journal, 9, 28 June 
1871 ; Law Thnes, 10 June 1871 ; LawBCag. and 
Law B«v. xxxii. ; Solicitors' Joum. 10 June 1871 , 
Ann. Rag. 1867 ii. 259, 1871 ii. 155 ; Law List; 
G«ot Mag. 1867, ii. 234, •*279 ; Foss's Biogr. 
Jnrid.; Nash's Life of Lord Westbnry ; . Return 
of Members of Pari, (official).] J. M. R. 

ROLT, RICHARD (1725 P-1770), mis- 
cellaneous writer, descended from a Hert- 
fordshire family (see Cussans, Hertfordshire^ 
passim), was born probably at Shrewsbury 
m 1724 or 1725. Placed under an excise 
officer in the north of England, he joined 
the Jacobite army in 1745, and was there- 
fore dismissed from his situation. He then 
went to Dublin, hoping to obtain employ- 
ment through the influence of his relatire 
Ambrose Philips [q. v.], but, owing to Philips*s 
death in 1749, failed to do so. While he was 
in Dublin he is said to have published in 
his own name Akenside's ' Pleasures of the 
Imagination.' This story appears to be un- 
true ; but, as Malone suggests, it is not im- 
probable that Rolt acquiesced in having the 
poem, which was published anonymously, 
attributed to him {JSuropean Magazme, 1803, 
ii. 9, 85 ; Boswbll, Life ofJokruon, ed. Hill, 
L 858, S59). Patronised by General Ogle- 
thorpe, Lord Middlesex, and others, Kolt 
published ' Cambria, a Poem in three books ' 
(London, 1749, 4to), dedicated to Prince 
George (afterwards Geomlll). His ' Poem 
... to the Memory of Sir W. W. Wynne, 
Bart.,* London, 1749, 4to^ was very favour- 
ably received. He then issued ' An Impar- 
tial Representation of the Conduct of the 
Several Powers of Europe engaged in tlie lat« 
general War . . . from 1789 . . . to . . . 1748' 
(4 vols. London, 1749-50, 8vo), which Vol- 
taire read ' with much pleasure ' (' Rolt's Cor- 
respondence with yoltairef European M^agu' 
zme, 1803, i. 98-100). Entirely def^ndent 
on authorship for a living, he is said to have 
composed more than a hundred cantatas, 
sonffs, and other pieces for yauxhall,Sadler*s 
Wells, and the theatres. His ' Eliaa, a new 
Musical Entertainment . . . the Music com- 
posed by Mr. Ame'C London, 1754, 8vo), and 
* Almena, an English Oj^era . . . the Music 
composed by Mr. Ame and Mr. Battishill' 
(London, 1764, 8to; another edit. Dublin 
[1764 P], 12mo), were successfully produced 
at Drury Lane Theatre on 20 Jan. 1757 and 
2 Nov. 1764 respectively (Qbkbbt). He, in 
conjunction witn Christopher Smart (a. v.], 
was employed by Gardner the bookseller to 
write a monthly miscellany, <Tke Umvarsal 




VititoE.' It la said that the authors were 
to reoaive one-thiTd of the profits, aad that 
the cootract was for ninetyonuxe years. Boa- 
w^ however, throws doubt on the reality 
of 'this supposed extraordinary contract' 
(BoawupKy L{fe qf Johnian, ed. Hill, iL 844, 

Rolt died on 2 March 1770, affed 45. He 
was twice married, and left a daughter by 
each of hia wives. His second wife, who 
sorvired him many yeftrs, was, by her 
mother, related to tne Percys of Worcester. 
After Bolt's death, Bishop Percy allowed 
her a pension. 

Bolt is accused of conceit and incompe- 
tanee. Though unacquainted with Br. John- 
ioa, he aaed to say, ' I am jnst come from 
Sam Johnson ' {ib. l 358). In the * Pasqui- 
osde ' (1753) he is described as < DuU Bolt 
long iteep'd in Sedgeley's nut-brown beer.' 
In addition to the works mentioned above, 
he pabliahed: 1. 'The Ancient Roseiad,' 
1753. 2. ' Memoirs of the Life of . • . Jamee 
Lindssay, Earl of Crawfurd and Linde- 
mjJ StCf London, 1753, 4to. 3. ' A New 
and Accurate History of South America,' 
&c, London, 1766, 8vo. 4. ' A New Dic- 
ttoaarr of Trade and Commerce,' &o., Lon- 
don, 1756, fol. ; 2nd ed. London. 1761, foL Dr. 
Johnson wrote the pre&ce to this ' wretched 
compilation ' (McOullogh), though he 
'never saw the man and never read the 
book.' ' The booksellers wanted a Preface. 
... I knew very well what such a dictionary 
thoold be, and 1 wrote a jpreface accordingly ' 
^oswxll). 5. ' The Lives of the Principal 
Befticmera, &c. . . . Embellished with the 
Hsada of the Beformers ... in Meaxotinto 
• . . by • . Houston,' London, 1759, [foL, 
and other works. He also edited from the 
tothoi^a manuscript ' Travels throujg^h Italy' 
(1766^, by Captain John Northall [^.v.] At 
the tune of his death he had projected a 
' History of the Island of Man,'which was 
mtbliahed in 1773, and a * History of the 
British Empire in North America' in six 
Tolnmes, which haa disappeared. 'Select 
Pieoea of the late R. Holt (dedicated to Lady 
Sondea, by Mary Bolt)/ sm. 8vo, was pub* 
lished in 1772 for the benefit of Bolf s widow. 

[Authorities Quoted ; Chahners's Biographical 
DieUoBsxy; xxvi. 35S-6 ; fiaker^i Biogr. Dnm. ; 
Niebols^ Litamiy lUastratioDS, iv. .687-^li 
Ti. 61, 62 ; JfcCoUoch's Literature of Political 
Eeonon^, p. 62.] W. A. a H^ 

KOMAmEL WILLIAM (1714-1795), 
divine, bom atHartl^ool on 25 Sept. 1714, 
wss younger son of WUliam Bomaine, a 
Frendi proteatant^ who came to England at 
ibe revocation of the edict of Nantes, and 

settled at Hartlepool, where ho carried on 
the trade of a corn-dealer. He became a 
loyal member of the church of England, and 
died in 1757. Romaine's letters attest the 
deep piety of his mother, who died in 1771. 

W hen about ten years old WiUiam was 
sent to the school founded by Bernard Gil- 
pin at Houghton4e-Si)ring, Durham, and 
matriculatea on 10 April 1731 at Hart Hall 
(afterwards Hertford College), Oxford, where 
he was noted as much for his untidy and 
slovenly dress as for his ability. Minting 
to Christ Church he mduated B.A. m 1734 
and M. A. in 1737. He was ordained deacon 
the year before, and became curate of Lew- 
Trenchard, Devonshire. While still a deacon, 
he had the audacity to break a lance with 
Warburton, in a series of letters about the 
'Divine Legation' — a subject which he pur- 
sued in his first two sermons before the 
university of Oxford (1789, 1741). He was 
ordained priest hj Hoadly (1738), probably 
to the curacy of Banstead. Surrey, which he 
held for some years with that of Horton 
in Middlesex. At Banstead he became ac- 
quainted with Sir Daniel Lambert, who 
made him his chaplain during hia office as 
lord mayor of London (1741).- 

His theological views had not then taken 
their ultimate shape. His earliest published 
works attest a settlement of belief on or- 
thodox lines and a lively interest in the 
apolop^etic and critical branches of theoloffy. 
To critical study Romaine soon made a solid 
contribution by editing a new edition of the 
Hebrew concordance of Marina de C^asio, 
.1748. The evangelical revival, which had 
not touched him in his Oxford days, changed 
the cuzient of his thought At first he 
was attracted by Wesley's tow of the 
Atonement, as made for all men and open 
freely to all that would accept it, and the 
righteousness of Christ as an inherent and 
not onl^ an imputed righteousness (see 
JVorks^ viii. 193). But in 1755 he had passed 
entirely to the side of Whitefield (see Ser- 
mons on the 107th Psalm,' }Vork8,y ol. iv.), and 
from thattime to the end of his life he remained 
the ablest exponent among th^ evaiufelicals 
of the highest Calvinistic doctrine, holdiog 
Wesley's views, especially in the matter of 
freewill and pe^ection, as a subtle reproduc- 
tion of the Romish theory of justification bj 
works i^e Works, viii. 125 — letter to his 
sister; 'Dialogue concerning Justification/ iL 
260 seq.) In a letter written in 1766 Romaine 
haa drawn the portrait pf ^a verv, very vain, 
proud vounjjf man,'* who 'knew almost every* 
thing but himself, and therefore was mighty 
fond of himself,' and 'met with many disap- 
pointments to his pride, till the Lord was 




pleased to let him see and feel the plague of 
his own heart * ( Works, yiii. 188). It has 
heen thought that the portrait was his own 
(ib. Til. 19). In 1748 he was appointed to a 
lectureship at the united parishes of St. 
George's, ^otolph Lane, ana St. Botolph's, 
Billingsgate, and entered on the career of a 
London cler&^yman. In 1749 he was insti- 
tuted to a douhle lectureship at St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-West. In 1760 ne became in 
addition morning preacher at St. George's, 
Hanover Sauare. About this time also he 
held for a little while the professorship of 
astronomy in Gresham College. His lectures 
must have been original ; he used to * attack 
some part of the Newtonian philosophy with 
boldness and banter.' In 1753 he published 
a pamphlet against the bill for naturalising 
the Jews. 

Romaine was now an ardent follower of 
Whitefield, proclaiming his belief not only 
to the citizens of St. Dunstan's, but to the 
fashionable world of St. George's. Perse- 
cution followed. The fashionable people of 
Hanover Square could not tolerate the poor 
folk that crowded to his preaching, al- 
though the old Earl of Northampton de- 
fended him, dryly remarking that no com- 
plaint was made of crowds in the ballroom or 
in the playhouse. Romaine consequently, 
at the request of the vicar, resigned his morn- 
ing lectureship at St. George's. Trouble next 
arose at St. Dunstan's; the parishioners com- 
plained that they had to force their way to 
their pews through a 'ragged, unsavoury 
multitude,' ' squeezing," shoving * * panting,' 
' riding on one another^s backs.' The rec- 
tor sat in the pulpit to prevent Romaine 
from occupying it {Monthly Beview, xxi. 
271). The matter was carried to the king's 
bench, and that court deprived him of one 
parish lectureship, supported b^ volimtary 
contributions, but confirmed him in the other, 
which was endowed with 18/. a year (1762), 
and granted him the use of the church at 
seven o'clock in the evening. The church- 
wardens, however, refused to open the church 
until the exact hour, and declined to light 
it. Romaine had frequentlv to perform ms 
office bjr the light of a single candle, which 
he held in his luind ; until l%rrick, the bishop 
of London (a predecessor of Romaine's in 
the lectureship) happening on one occasion 
to observe the crowd at the closed door, 
interfered, and obtained fair and decent ar- 
rangements for the service. 

Romaine stood almost alone. The uni- 
versity of Oxford refused him the pulpit of 
St. Mary's in consequence of two sermons 
(1757) preached before it, in which he de- 
claimed against moral rectitude being put 

in the place of justification by faith. The 
' Monthly Review ' treated his sermons and 
treatises with pitiless ridicule. A aermon, 
' The Self-exbtenoe of Jeeua,' 1765, on the 
divinity of Christ, was called an ' amazing 
rha^y.' ' The Life of Faith' (1703) was 
' a silly treatise, a stupid treatise, a nonsen* 
sical treatise, a fanatical treatise.' But Ro- 
maine reiterated his views and retracted 
nothing (Preface to * Sermon on 107th Psalm,* 
JForks, 1758, iv. p. xx). If men called the 
plain doctrines of scripture and the church 
' enthusiasm,' he hoped, he said, to live and 
die ' a church of England enthusiast ' («^. 
iv, p. cclxii). 

After his dismissal from St. Gorge's he 
was appointed chaplain by Lady Huntings 
don, preaching both in her Kitchen and in her 
drawmg-room. In 1756 he became curate 
and morning preacher at St. Olave's, South- 
wark ; in 1759 he removed to the same post 
at St. Bartholomew the Great ; and nearly 
two years afterwards to Westminster chapel, 
a chapel-of-ease to St. Margaret's, from which 
he was driven in six months by the hostility of 
the dean and chapter. The outlook in London 
seemed hopeless. Lord Dartmouth offered 
him a living in the country, and Whitefield 
wished him to take charge of a great church at 
Philadelphia at a salary of 600/. a year. But 
he declined to leave St. Dunstan's. He found 
occupation in preaching chari^ sermons, and 
assisted Archbishop Seeker at Lambeth. He 
also preached to Ingham's societies at Leeds, 
with Grimshaw at Haworth, in the new 
chapel at Brighton, and in Lady Huntingdon's 
chapel at Bath, where his learning made him 
not wholly unequal to his temporary col- 
league, Whitefield. 

£1 1764 Romaine became a candidate for 
the living of St. Anne's, Blackfriars, with 
St. Andrew of the Wardrobe, which was in 
the gift of the parishioners, and preached 
before them a straightforward and charac- 
teristic sermon. Tne poll of the parish 
issued in his favour, but was disputed; and 
it was not till 1766 that the court of chan- 
cery confirmed his right to the benefice. 
There, at last, he had an assured position 
and a satisfied congregation : the communi- 
cants on his first Good Fridav rose to the 
unprecedented number of five hundred, and 
on £aster-day there were as many as three 
hundred. A gallery had soon to be erected 
for tiie crowded congregations. Romaine 
stayed at Blackfriars for the remaining 
twenty-nine years of his life. Until John 
Newton's arrival in 1780, Romaine was the 
sole incumbent preaching the doctrines of 
the revival; and his learning made him 
always the central figure in it in Loadou 




He died on 26 July 1795, and his body 
WIS borne to Blmdoriars Uirouffh a dense 
eiowd, the city marshals preceding it on 
Ikonebaek, and nearly fifty private coaches 
fcUowiag. ' "^ 

In 17& he married Miss Price, by whom he 
bsd two sons and a daughter. A son, captain 
in the army, died in 1783 at Trinoomalee. 

Romaine was by nature reserved. He 
poMBssed little of those varied sympathies 
which made John Newton exceUent as a 
ipiritnaleoiinsellor. He was capable, too, of 
displays of hot temper. When he saw people 
talking in chnrdb,he would not only tan them 
on the shoulder, but sometimes Imock their 
hstds together. 

As a preacher he exercised ffteat power. 
His theology and his conception of the 
Ruitual lifo are most fuUy exhibited in 
ttuee treatises, <The Life of Faith' (1763), 
•The Walk of Faith' (1771), and 'The 
Trannih of Faith' (1706), wMch contain 
many passures fuU of tender and passionate 
devoticNL The idea of a spirttaal progress, 
whick the titles convey, is not realised. 
The same field of religious ideas is surveyed 
ia each treatise. The rormwhich the doctrine 
of deetion took in his creed was too extreme 
for BOBS even of his religious friends. Newton 
eoDfeand to TV^berforce that Romaine had 
made many antinomians ( Abbbt and Oveb- 
n>y, Sit. <^f the BwUsh Ckureh in the 
FS^kfemth OaUury, p. 374^. He was stroii{[ly 
cmosed to dissenters, holaing the Calvinist 
sMe of the articles as the essence of the 
diureh of Enoland. In the bitter Calvinist 
controver sy he was free from bitterness. 
When WUtefield's opposition was fiercest, 
John Wesley wrote to Lady Huntingdon 
that Romaine had shown ' a truly sympa- 
thising ^irit.' He adhered to the metrical 
psalms against the hvmns of Watts and 
Wesley ; nis revival of the old nicknames of 
' Watts's whims ' and < Watts's jingle,' in his 
strenuoos defence of psalmody (1775), gave 
ofeiee to Lady Huntingdon. 

A portrait of Romaine, painted in 1758 by 
F. Goteay was engraved by Houston, who also 
engraved anotlm by J. KusseU ; an engrav- 
ing of Romain<> in the '6h>8pel Maffasine ' (i. 
I2I) in wig and gown shows a Keen and 
animated fiuM. 

[Worics and Life, by Rev. W. B. Cadogan, 
S voIiL 1809; Christian Leaders of the East 
Cectozy, by Rev. J. G. Rjle, bishop of Lirer- 
pool, 1871 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. zii. 
42] H. L. B. 

(lelo-lSdS), oomptroller«eneral in Egypt, 
%ecooA son of Robert Govett Romaine, I 


vicar of Staines, Middlesex, was bom in 1815, 
and graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 18d7, UJL 1859). He was entered 
at the Inner Temple, 9 Nov. 1834, and was 
called to the bar 25 Jan. 1889. After 
practising in the courts, he was appcnnted 
m 1854, on the outbreak of the Crimean war, 
deputyjudge^vocateof the armvin the east, 
and there distinguished himself in many 
capacities. At the doae of the battle of the 
Auna, he voluntarily undertook the humane 
work of attending to the Russian wounded 
who had been \m neglected on the field of 
battle. Adventurous, fond of travel, a keen 
observer, his^-spirited, and zealous in all he 
I undertook, Romaine often proved himself 
exceedingly useful to Lord Raglan. The 
latter called him ' the eye of the army,' in 
reference to the long sight with which he 
was gifted, and it was owing to his wise 
counsel that the Crimean army fund was 
set on foot. In appreciation of his ser- 
vices he was made a companion of the Bath 
in 1857. At the general election of March 
1857 he unsuccessnilly contested the repre- 
sentation in parliament of Qiatham. Next 
month he was made second secretaiy to the 
admiralty. In June 1869 he became judge- 
advocate-ffeneral in India, where he remained 
until 1878. In 1876 the foreign office recom- 
mended Romaine to Ismail Pacha as member 
of the Egyptian Conseil du Tr^sor. Of that 
body he afterwards became president, and 
eventually under the Joint Control he acted as 
English comptroller-general of finances until 
he retired from public life in 1879. Romaine 
died at Old Windsor, 5 May 1898. at the 
age of seventy-six. He married, in 1861, 
francos, daughter of Henrv Tennant of 
Oadoxton Lodge, Glamorganshire. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar; Kinglake's Inva- 
sion of the Crimea ; McCalmont's Parliamentary 
Poll Book ; Annual Register ; Obituary Notices 
in the Times and Guardian.] W. R. W. 

1894), man of science, third son of the Rev. 
Georffe Romanes, was bom at Kingston, 
Canada West, on 20 Mav 1848. His father, 
who held the professorship of Greek in the 
university of Kingston, belonged to an old 
lowland Scottish family settled since 1586 in 
Berwickshire. His mother, Isabella Gair, 
whose vivacity was in marked contrast with 
the reticence of her husband, was daughter 
of Robert Smith (J. 1824), minister of Cro- 
marty. The father inherited a considerable 
fortune in 1848, and removed to England, 
settling at 8 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's 
Park, and visiting the continent from time 
to time. Gteorg^s early education was de« 




sultory, his constitatioir^mg delicate, and 
his fumlties slow in deyelopment. After 
reading for a time with a tutor, he entered 
in October 1867 at GonvLlle and Cains Col- 
lege, Cambridge^ obtaining in the following 
year a science scholarship there. He gra* 
dnated in the second class of the natural 
science tripos in 1870. Under the influence 
of Professor Michael Foster, he then worked 
at physiology, Francis Maitland Balfonr 
[q. T.l being a fellow-student. An early wish 
to take holy orders was abandoned, and after 
winning the Bumey prize at Cambridge in 
187S, for an essay * On Christian Prayer and 
Qeneral Laws/ he for a time read mathe- 
matics. Possessed of ample priyate means, 
he was under no necessity of working for a 
livelihood, and ultimately resolved to devote 
himself to scientific research. Darwin no- 
ticed an earl^ contribution made by him to 
* Nature ' (viii. 101), and sent him an en- 
couraging letter. This proved the founda- 
tion 01 a mendship which profoundly affected 
Homanes's studies, and lasted till Darwin's 

From 1874 to 1876 Romanes studied under 
Professor TSir^ John Burden Sanderson in 
the physiological laboratory at University 
Col^ge, London, and dated thence his first 
communication to the Boyal Society, on 
' The Influence of Injury on the Excitability 
of Motor Nerves.' He counted the advice, 
die teaching, the example, and the friend- 
ship of Professor Burdon Sanderson as- 
amon^ the most important determinants of 
his scientific career. In addition to the sti- 
mulus he received from Darwin in biological 
speculation, he was specially encouraged by 
him to apply the theory of natural selection 
to the problems of mental evolution. Darwin 
himself entrusted him with unpublished 
matter on instinct. 

While associated with Professor Sander- 
son, Bomanes initiated a series of researches 
on the nervous and locomotor systems of the 
meduses and the echinodermata. He con- 
ducted his observations in a laboratory which 
he built for the purpose at Dunskaith on the 
Cromarty Firth. The first-fruits of this in- 
vestigation were copimunicated to the Royal 
Society through Professor Huxley, and Ro- 
manes also made his results the subject of the 
Croonian lecture, which he was appointed by 
the Royal Society to deliver in -1876 ; the 
paper was published in the 'Philosophical 
Tninsacuons.' In the same year he read a 
paper before the British Association at Glas- 
gow. A second paper, in the * Philosophical 
Transactions,' followed in 1877, and a third, 
which concluded the researches on the me- 
doBss, in 1880. In the investigation on the 

ephinoderms Romanes was associated with 
Professor Cossar £ wart, and their joint work 
formed the subject of the Croonian lecture 
for 1881. These researchesi the results of 
which were subsequently set forth in a vo- 
lume of the ' International Scientific Series' 
(' Jellv-fish^ Star-fish, and Sea-urchins, Ner* 
vous Systems,' 1886), established the poution 
of Romanes as an original worker in science, 
and he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1879. Near the dose of his life 
he contributed to the society a summary of 
an experimental inquiry on ' Plant Excita- 
bility, showing that amid other work his 
interest in physiological investigation tiad 
not diminished. 

Meanwhile other problems, scientific and 
r^losophical, occupied his mind. At the 
Dublin meeting of the Britisli Assodation 
in 1878 he d^ivered a lecture on ' Animal 
Intelligence,' by which he became known to 
the wider pubbc that is interested in general 
scientific questions rather than in special 
lines of research. This lecture formed the 
starting-point of an important investigation. 
In 1881 he published m the 'Interaatiooal 
Scientific Series,' under the same title that 
he had given to his Dublin lecture, a collec- 
tion of data, perhaps too largely aaaeodotal, 
respecting the mental facultiea ik animals in 
relation to those of man. This work was 
followed in 1883 bv another on < Mental 
Evolution in Animals' (with Darwin's pos- 
thumous essay on instinct), and in I880 by 
th^ first instalment of ' Mental Evolution in 
Man,' dealing with the ' Origin of Human 
Faculty.' Further instalments, dealin^p with 
the intellect, emotions, volition, morals, and 
religion, were projected. Other Hues of work, 
however, intervened, and the design was 
never completed. The keynote of the whole 
series is the ^nk and fearless applica- 
tion of the principles of evolution as for- 
mulated by Darwin to the development of 

In addition to his special researches in 
physiology and mental evohitioo, Romanes 
mterest^ himself in the progress and deve- 
lopment of the theory of oiganie evolution. 
A lecture on this subject &livered at Bir- 
mingham and Edinburgh was published in 
the 'Fortnightly Review' (December 1881), 
and republished as a volume in the ' Nature 
Series.^ This essi^y, * On the Scientific Evi- 
dences of Organic Evolution,' may be re- 
garded as the germ from which were deve- 
loped his course of lectures on • The PhUo- 
sophy of Natural History,' delivered at 
Edinburgh (1880-00) during his tenure of a 
special professorship, founded l^ Lord Rose- 
\yajf and his subs^uent ooune on * Darwin 





»Hd.ift« DtrwiV ^elivM'ed'as Follerian 
profeinr of physiology at the Royal Insti- 
tatkm, a positum which he held for three 
jwn (188S~9n. The suhetance of these 
two oouisea oi lecturee was subaequently 
•fflbodied ia a treatise bearing the title of 
the FaUeriaa conrsei of which the first part 
was published in 1898; two other parts, 
eomf leting the work, were left ready for puh* 
licaljon at the time of his death. The first part 
deals with tl^ * Darwinism of Darwin ; ' the 
second part^ which appeared with a portrait 
of the author in lo96, deals with those 
post-Darwinian problems which inyolve 
Questions df heredity and utility; while 
the third part (at present unpublished]) con- 
tains a diacnsaion of the pronlems of isola- 
tion and of the author's theory of ' physio- 
logical selection.' This theory, which was 
regarded by Romanes as his chief substan- 
tire eontribtttion to eyolutionary doctrine, 
was first propounded by him, in a paper 
contribated to the Linnean Society in 1886, 
tile full title o^ which waa * Physiological 
Selection : an Additional Suggestion on the 
Origin of Species.' The suggestion is briefly 
as&Uows. It ^aa part of we body of bio- 
logieal doctrine that when a group of ani- 
Huls Gt plants belonging to any species is 
isdated by geographical barriers, that group 
tenda^ under the influence of its specialisea 
enriitMunent, to develop characters different 
(nm those of tlie main body of the species 
from whidi it is isolated. Eventually the 
diveigeDee of eLaracters may proceed so far 
aa to render the isolated group reciprocally 
sterile with the original species, and thua to 
render it not only morphologically but also 
physiolo^cally a distinct species. Komanes, 
m his I^nean paper, suggested that red- 
procalsterility between inmviduals not other- 
wise isolated may be the primary event, the 
eaose and not tne effect ; and that in this 
way a physiological barrier may be set up 
between two fproups of the individuids on- 
^iaally belonguig to one species and inhabit- 
Q^r tlie aame geographical area. The essen- 
tial feature <» the suggestion is that this 
pkyaiologic^l barrier may be primary and not 
aoonda^. The title of the paper was un- 
fortunate. ' Fbysioloffical Isolation ' would 
hsTs indicated the author's contention more 
ieearately thaji 'Phvsiolo^^l Selection/ 
ttd woold perhaps have more efiGdctually 
goaided him frcMa the attacks of those who 
ebsiged him with the intention of substi- 
tuting a new doctrine of the ori^pn of species 
&r tbAt which waa associated with the name 
of Darwin. The paper, which ^ave rise to 
moch eoDtrorersy, waa unquestionably spe- 
calative, and the main contention was not 

supported by a snffieisBt body of evidence 
to carry conviction. 

As early aa 1874 Bomanea suggested in 
letters to 'Nature' what he termed Hhe 
principle of the cessation of selection.' He 
argued that since organs are maintained at a 
level of maximum emcienoy through natmal 
selection^ the mere withdrawal or cessation 
of selection will lead to diminution and de- 
geileration of orgabs. He distinguished thia 

* cessation of sel^tion' from 'reversal of 
selection ' where such diminution or degene- 
ration is, through * the principle of economy ' 
of growth ' or otherwise, advantageous, and 
therefore promoted by natural selection. 
When Weismann advocated panmixia, which 
includes the effects of both cessation and re- 
versal of selection, Romanes reiterated his 
former contention {Nature, 18Q0, xli. 4d7), 
and returned to the subject in ' Darwin and 
after Darwin' (vol. iL) The matter has 
given rise to some discussion. It would 
seem that, though the cessation of selection 
may reduce the level of efficiency of an 
organ fh)m the maximum maintauied by 
natural selection to the mean efficiency in 
the individuals bom subeequently to the 
withdrawal of the eliminative influence, it 
cannot reduce it in any marked degree unless 
we call in a further * principle ' of the &ilure 
of heredity. That the mere cessation of 
selection cannot of itself lead to great re- 
duction was shown by Darwin before Ro- 
manes's letters were published (cf. Ori^ of 
Species, 6th edit. pp. 401-2). 

With regard to the vexed question of the 
inheritance of acquired characteristics, Ro- 
manes lent the weight of his support 
to the Xiamarckian side, but he constantly 
sought to put thd matter to the test of ex-^ 

Romanes's ' Essay on Christian Prayer and 
General Laws,' which won the Bumey prize 
at Cambridge in 1873, necessarily pursued 
the lines of orthodox apologetics ; but there 
is no reason to suppose that it did not in the 
main indicate the author's own views at the 
time when it was written. But when he 
issued in 1878, under the pseudonym of 

* Physicus,' a work entitled / A Candid Ex- 
amination of Theism,' he assumed towards 
orthodox religious beliefs a negative and 
destructive attitude. Powerfully written, 
and showing much dialectic skill, the ' Can<- 
did Examination ' made some stir both in the 
orthodox and the unorthodox camps. But 
five years later Romanes struck another note 
in an article in the ' Nineteenth Century ' 
on <The Fallacy of Materialism' (1882); 
while in the Rede lecture, which ne was 
chosen to deliver in Cambridge in 1885, he 





adopted the principles of monism, according 
to which matter and mind are of at least co- 
ordinate importance and diverse aspects of 
phenomenal existence. An article in the 
'Contemporary Beview' of the following 
year (1886) on ' The World as an Eject ' has 
distinctly theistic implications; while an 
^ Essay on Monism' (published after the 
author's death) goes lurther in the same 
direction. These modifications of philosophic 
opinion were accompanied by no less ]fro- 
found modifications of religious conviction. 
Near the close of his life Bomanes wss occu- 
pied in writing a 'Candid Examination of 
Beligion/ to be published under the pseudo- 
nym of * Metaphysicus.' Such notes for this 
work as were sufficiently complete were 
published after the author^ death under the 
editorship of Canon Gore. They indicate a 
return to the orthodox position^ and express 
a conviction that the &ult of the essay of 
1878 lay in an undue reliance on reason to 
the exclusion of the promptings of the emo- 
tional side of man's complex nature. 

Romanes married on 11 Feb. 1879, and, 
settling at 18 Cornwall Terrace, London, 
threw nimself with enthusiasm for the next 
ten years into the scientific and social life 
of London. He was for some years honorary 
zoological secretary of the Linnean Society, 
and a member of the council of University 
College, London. In 1890, warned by severe 
headaches of approaching ill-health, he re- 
moved from London to Oxford, where he 
had many Mends and where facilities for 
scientific work abounded. He took up his 
residence at an old house in St. Aldatesi 
opposite Christ Church, of which he became 
a member, being incorporated M.A. of the 
university of Oxford. There he mainly 
spent his remaining years as happily as his 
health permitted. In 1891 he lounded in 
the university a lectureship which bears his 
name ; under the terms of the foimdation a 
man of eminence was to*be elected annually 
to deliver a lecture on a scientific or literary 
topic The first Bomanes lecture, on ' Me- 
diaeval Universities,* was delivered by Mr. 
Qladstone on 24 Oct. 1892. In the same year 
Romanes's old college (Caius, Cambridge) 
made him an honorary fellow. Aberdeen 
University had conferred on him the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. in 1882. For some 
time berore his death Romanes sufiered from 
a disease — ^a condition of the arteries result- 
ing in apoplexy — ^the gravity of which he f uUv 
realised, facing the inevitable event with 
admirable fortitude. An occasional visit to 
Madeira or Costabelle gave only temporary 
relief. He died at Oxford on 23 May 1894, 
and was buried in Holywell cemetery. 

Romanes was through the greater part of 
his career an ardent sportsman, and fre- 
quently visited Scotland to indulge his sport- 
mg tastes. In private life he was a genial 
and delightful companion, and to those who 
knew him intimately a warm and staunch 
friend. His widow (Ethel, only daughter 
of Andrew Duncan, eai^., of Liverpool) sur- 
vived him, and edited his ' life ana Letters * 
(1896). He left ^ve sons and a daughter. 

The following is a list of his pin>Ushecl 
works : 1. 'A Candid Examination or Theism, 
by ^ Physicus," ' 1878. 2. * Animal InteUi- 
ffence,' 1881. 8. 'Scientific Evidences of 
Or^ic Evolution,' 1882. 4. ' Mental Evo- 
lution in Animals,' 1883. 6. 'Jelly-Fish, 
Star-Fish, and SearUrchins,' 1885. 6. < Men- 
tal Evolution in Man: Origin of Human 
Faculty,' 1888. 7. ' Darwin and after Dar- 
win,' pt. i. 1892. 8. 'An Examination of 
Weismannism,' 1893. 9. ' Thoughts on Re- 
ligion,' posth. 1895. 10. ' Mind and Motion: 
An Essi^ on Monism,' posth. 1895. 11. ' Dar- 
win and after Darwin,' pt. ii. posth. 1895. 
12. ' Essays,' 1896 (edited by the present 

Apart from these works and the scientifio 

Eapers which he read before learned societies, 
e was a frequent and versatile contributor 
to periodical literature and a writer of verse* 
a volume of which (containing a memorial 
poem on Charles Darwin) was ]^rivately 

Erinted in 1889. A selection from his poems 
as been published under the editorship of 
Mr. T. H. Warren, president of Magdalen 
College (1896). 

[Obituary notice in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, vol. Ivii. p. vii, by P^feasor J. 
Burdon-Sanderaon, F.B.8. ; obituary notice in 
Nature, 81 May 1894, by Professor £. Ray 
Lankestor, F.R.S, ; letter to the Times, 19 June 
1894, by Professor E. B. Poulton, F.B.S.; Ufa 
and Letters, by Mrs. G-. J. Bomanes, 1896.] 


ROMANS, BERNARD (1720P-1784P), 
engineer and author, was bom in Holland 
about 1720. He was educated in England, 
and about 1755 was sent to North America 
by the British government in the capacity 
of civil engineer. Between 1760 and 1771 he 
was living near the town of St. Augustine in 
East Floridai and was described as 'draughts- 
man.' He was also government botanist, and 
claimed to be the first surveyor settled in the 
state, then under Spanish rule. In 1776 he 
stated that during the preceding fourteen 
years he had been ' sometimes employed as a 
commodore in the king's service, sometimes 
at the head of large bodies of men in the 
woods, and at the worst of times master 
of a merchantman fitted in a warlike man-^ 




iier'(FoBOBy American AreMves, 4tli ser. iii. 
1967). He received a pension of 60^ for his 

On the outbreak of the revolution he 

i'oined the provincialSi and in the autumn of 
.775 was engaged b;^ the New York com- 
mittee of safety, it is said, on the recom- 
mendatioii of Waahinffton, to construct the 
fertifieattons at Fort Oonstitutioii, opposite 
West Point on the Hudson river. On 8 Nov. 
he reported that 'the plan we at present 
pursue is a very lame one' ^Fobcb). A 
veek later he sent in a petition and me- 
morial to the New York provincial conjpress, 
complaining that his promised commission 
M engineer and colonel had not been for- 
waxdM, and that his orders had been con- 
tradicted and overruled. He also prayed for 
an assistant, as his office was ' a very exer- 
cinnr one, keeping body and mind con- 
stan^y employed together' (ib, iiL 1868). 
The eomnussion never seems to have been 
giaated, though in some of his letters Bo- 
mans calls himself * coloneL' 

On 8 Feb. 1776, however, he was ap- 
pointed captain of the Pennsylvania artu- 
fety, which was serving at Tioonderoga 
during the greater part of the year (Sap- 
7BLL, Meoarat of Vie HevohUionary War, pp. 
178-81). On 18 March he applied to the 
New York committee of safety for the fulfil- 
ment of a resolution of the continental con- 
gress at Philadelphia to the effect that he 
should be paid up to the date of his new com- 
mission, adding uxat want of mone^ prevented 
his appearing at the head of his company 
/FoBcs, T. 405). On 10 May General 
Sehnyler wrote to Washington that as *a 
string of complaints ' had been lodged 
mguoMt Romans, he had sent for him to 
he tried at Albany (tb, vi. 413) ; and five 
days later Bene<£ct Arnold told Samuel 
Chase that 'Mr. Bomans's conduct by all 
aoeounts has been veiy extraordinary'' (id, 
p. 5SV)* The chaiges, which seem to have 
Bad recferenoe to connivance at depredations 
by his men, were not sustained, and Romans 
after his acquittal by the court-martial served 
lor three years afterwards in the ' continental' 
army. In 1779 he was ca^ured by the British, 
psobahly at Stoney Pomt on the Hudson, 
and was sent to England. His exchange was 
refbaedy and nfter the peace he again prac- 
tised in England as an engineer. £l 1784 he 
sailed for ^ew York, carrying with him a 
large sum of money, and, as he was never 
keazd of affain, is supposed to have been 
murdered onring the passsffe. Romans is 
said to have been introduced by Washington 
to Elissbeth Whiting, who became his wife ; 
■he died at New Yo% on 12 May 184a 

Romans was the author of the ' Oonclse 
Natural History of East and West Florida/ 
New York, 1776. In spite of typogra- 
phical errors and some pretentiousness of 
style, it contains highly valuable informa- 
tion. It has twelve copperplates, etched by 
the author, and an engraved dedication to 
John Ellis (1710P-1776} [q.v.], the natu- 
ralist. Only the first volume seems to have 
been issued. The work is now very rare. A 
copy, dated 1776, is in the British Museum. 

Another of Romans's works, also im- 
finished, is said to have been the earliest book 
printed at Hartford. This was his ' Annals 
of the Troubles in the Netherlands from the 
Accession of Charles V,' published in 1778. 
It is a compilation from * the most approved 
historians,' and was designed as ' a proper 
and seasonable Mirror for the present Ameri' 
cans.' Romans also published ' A Map of 
the Seat of Civil War in America,' 1776, 
12mo; and 'The Compleat Pilot for the 
Gulf Passage,' 1779, which seems to be 
identical with the appendix to the ' Natural 
History of Florida.' He also contributed in 
August 1773 a paper on improvements in 
the mariner's compass to the American 
Philosophical Society (Trans. Amer, PkUos, 
Soe, ii. 396), which he joined in 1771. 

[Force's Amer. Archives, 4th ser. vols. iii. v. 
vi. passim; Duyckinck's Cycl. Amer. Lit. i. 317» 
818; Wynne's Private Libraries of New York, pp. 
845-6; RicVs Bibl. Americ. Nova, i. 467; Fair- 
banks's Hist, of St. Augustine.] Q, La Gh. N. 

BOMANUS iJl. 624), bishop of Roches* 
ter, was probably among the missionaries 
sent with Augustine to Britain in 697 by 
Pope Qr^ry the Great. In 624, on the 
death of Meuitus, Justus was moved to the 
metropolitan see of Canterbury, and the 
bishopric of West Kent thus became vacant. 
Romanus was consecrated as second prelate 
in the same year by Justus, his predecessor, 
who soon after despatched him on a mission 
to Rome. He was shipwrecked and drowned 
in a storm off the coast of Italy, apparently 
before the death of Justus in 627, ' being 
sent to Pope Honorius by Archbishop Justus 
as his legate.' 

glede's Hi^t. Ecd. ii. 8, 20 ; cf. Bishop Stnbbs 
ict. Christian Biogr.] C. B. B. 

(d. 1296), archbishop of York, was son of 
John Romanus, subdean and treasurer of 
York. John Rokabits (d, 1256) the elder is 
described by Matthew Paris as one of the 
first Romans to seek preferment in England, 
and is stated to have been a canon of York 
for nearly fifty years (v. 644). He was canon 


1 8s 


of York on 23 Oct.l2I8,aiid on 1 March 1226 
received a dispensation from Honorius IIT, 
remoTing the defect of his doubtful legiti- 
macy, in consideration of his devotion to 
the Koman see {CaL Papal Heg, i. 60| 100; 
.Raikb, Hist, of Church <^ York, iii. 125). 
He was a friend of Archbishop Qraj, wbio 
made him first subdean of York in 1228, 
and was constantly employed by the papal 
see on various commissions in Enghmd 
(Mi.TT. Paris, iii. 218, iv. 251 ; CaL Papal 
Meg. i. 59, 76, 88, 160, 188, 193, 225). He 
was archdeacon of Richmond in 1241, but 
resigned that post before 16 July 1247, when 
he received a dispensation to hold the trea- 
surership of Yorn with his other benefices 
(ib, i. 225, 319 ; L£ Nbts, FmU JEool. AngL 
lii. 104, 136, 159^. He died before 2 Jan. 
1256, when Jonn Mansel fq. v.] became 
treasurer of York. Matthew Paris spedcs of 
him as very rich and avaricious (v. 5o4, 544). 
He held quit-rents and other property in the 
city of London (Hiat MSS. vomm, 9th Bep. 
App. pp. 4, 5, 15, 26, 37-8). There are two 
letters addressed to him by Robert Grosse- 
teste (Qrossbieste, EpistoUxy 65, 203-^, 
Rolls Ser.) He built the north transept and 
central tower of York Cathedral. He also 
founded a chantry in the minster for the 
souls of the donor and his parente, John and 
Mary,' and gave land to the vicars-choral to 
provide for his obit (Fasti JEboracenses, p. 
328n. ; Hist of Church of York, iii. 152). 
The archbishop was his son by a servant girl 
(Hbmii^gbubgh, ii. 70). 

John Romanus, the filture archbishop, re- 
ceived a dispensation from his illegitimacy, 
so far as regarded ordination and the hold- 
ing of benefices, from Otho, cardinal of St. 
I*?ichola8 in Carcere, presumably in 1237-8, 
when Otho was papal legate in England 
(CaL Papal Pep. i. 484). A bull of Inno- 
cent IV, in which he is styled remembrancer 
of the papal penitentiary, specially forbade 
John to accept a bishopric without papal per- 
mission (BAtusE, Misc* i. 211). John was, 
by his own account, educated at Oxford (cf. 
wiULiNS, Concilia, ii. 214). He received the 
livings of Bolton-in-Lunesdale in 1253, and 
Wallop in Hampshire about 1254, and on 
7 July 1256 had license of absence for %yq 
years while pursuing his studies (CaL Papal 
Reg. i. 332, 484). Afterwards he received 
the living of Melling, by dispensation from 
Alexander IV ; in 1268 he obtained the 
prebend of North Eelsey, Lincoln, and in 
1275 became chancellor' of Lincoln. On 
9 Deo. 1276, when he is described as chap- 
lain to Matthew de Ursinis, cardinal of St. 
Mary in Porticu, he had dispensation to re* 
tain the benefioos which he held, aad to 

iu^cept a bishopric, having been appointed to 
a professorship of theology at Paris. He 
taugrht theology at Paris for several yean 
(ibA. 451, 484; see Dsniflb, Cartularhim 
Urdv, Paris, i. 599, for a reference to the 
house of Master John Romanas in 1282). In 
1279 he exchanged the chancellorship and 
prebend of North Keleej for the preoentor- 
ship and prebend of Nassmgton, and on 7 Dec 
1279 was collated to the prebend of Wart- 
hill, York (Lb Nbvb, ii. 88, 92, 191, 196, 
iii. 220). After the death of Archbishop 
Wickwane, he was elected archbishop oi 
York on 29 Oct. 1285, and received the 
royal assent on 15 Nov. (Lb Nbvb, iii. 104; 
CaL Pat. Polls, Edward 1, 1281-92, p. 199). 
He at once went to Rome to receive papal 
confirmation. On 3 Feb. he obtained a re^ 
newed dispensation for his illegitimacy, and^ 
the validity of his election being questioned, 
was re-elected under a papal mandate, and 
consecrated by the bishop of Ostia on 10 Feb. 
{CaL Papal Peg. i. 483^; Lb Nbvb, iii. 
104). lie returned to England in Mardi, 
and received the temporalities on 13 April. 
Archbishop Peckham made the usual protest 
against the bearing of the cross by Koma- 
nus in the southern province (Letters from 
NoHhem Pegisters, 62-4; CaL Pat Polls, 
Edward 1, 1281-92, pp. 198-9, 229-30}. 

RonuuLUS was enthroned at York on 
Trinity Sunday, 9 June 1286. He waschiefiy 
concerned with the government of bis diocese, 
and took little part in public affairs. He was 
with the king m Gascony in the summer of 
1288. In 1291 he was summoned to render 
military service against Scotland, and was 
also occasionally summoned to parliament 
(Foidera, i. 753, 762, 802, 808-10, 882 ; ParL 
Writs, i. 25, 30-2,261). In August 1295 he 
was summoned to meet the cardinals at 
London (Cont. Gesvase, ii. 213). In his 
diocese Romanus had disputes with the dean 
of York, Robert de Scarbuzgh, and the chajK 
ter of Durham (Hist. Chiuireh of York, iii. 
212). Of more importance was a dispute 
with Anthony Bek [see Bbk, Ajfioirr I], 
bishop of Durham, as to the relations of the 
see of Durham to that of York. The king 
in vain endeavoured to arrange the dispute 
when the bishops were present at the funeral 
of Queen Eleanor in December 1290. An 
attempt at arbitration in the following 
July failed, and in November 1291 Romanus 
obtained leave to plead his cause at Rome 
(CaL Papal Peg. i. 448, 450). He was abroad 
as late as September 1292 (t&.i.497,50S), but 
his suit does not seem to have been suocessfiil. 
During his absence Bek imprisoned two of 
the archbishop's officials, and in oonseq^uenoe 
Romaiirus ordered Bek to be excommunicated 




in A letter from Viterbo on 8 April 1202 
(Lettera from Northern JR^ters, ^07). 
Edward took the matter up, and contended 
tliat the ezcomxnunication was an infringe- 
ment of his prerogative, since Bek was, as 
palatine, a temporid as well as a spiritual dig- 
nitary. "RomanuB was for a time imprison^ 
in tne Tower, but obtained his release and 
restonition to zoyal favour on payment of a 
fine of four thousand marks, at £aster 1298 
(Ckron. Latiercoet, p. 188; JEKst. Dtmelm. 
SaipL Tres, pp. 78, 98 ; Ann, Mm. iii. 876; 
lUa. ParL i. 102-5). At York itself Bo- 
manus continued the building of the minster. 
In 1288 he had obtained a papal indult to 
apply the first-fruits to this purfjose, and on 
6 April 1291 he laid the foundation-stone of 
the nave (CaL Papal M^, L 496; Hi$t 
of the Ckweh qf York^ ii. 409). He likewise 
foaaded the prebend of Bilton at York, and 
obtuned leaye from the pope to divide the 
prebends of Langtoft and Masham, but the 
s<^ane wfte vetoed by the king {CaL Paipal 
£ejf. L 496, 600). Bomanus was also a bene- 
factor of the church oi Southwell, where he 
founded several stalls (DueDALS, Mona$t, 
AnffL rL 1314-15). He died at Burton, near 
Beverly, on 11 ^wch 1296, and was buried 
in York Minster on 17 March. 

BoBunus wBsengaged in constant quarrels, 
and was probably hot-headed and indiscreet. 
Bepiqgbujgh describes him as a great theo- 
loj^iao and verr learned man, but maddened, 
as it were, with avarice (ii. 70-1). The York 
historian, however, says that he was hos- 
pitable amd munifieent beyond all his pre- 
deoeaaors. He kept up a great retinue, and 
was slways zealous for the welfare of his 
choieh {JaiU. f>f the Church qf Ywk, ii. 409). 
Bomanus preserved his interest in learning. 
In 1295 we find him writing on behalf of 
the university of Oxford (Wilkuts, Concilia^ 
iL 214), and he encouraged the attendance 
of clergy study ingtheolM^ in the chancellor's 
adiool at York ^ut. of the Church qf York^ 
iiL 220). A number of letters from Bo* 
Baans's register are printed in Baine's ' Let- 
ters from the Northern Begisters ' (pp. 84- 
105, 106^ and ' Historians of the Church of 
York* (iiL 212-20). A letter from Bomanus, 
refoaing to sanction the papal appropriation 
of the prebend of Fenton m the church of 
Y<nk| IS printed in * Fasti Eboracenses,' pp. 
342-4^ Some of the principal contents of 
the ' Begister ' are summarieed in the same 
work, pp. 880-40. Hemingburgh says that, 
ewinff to his early death, Bomanus left little 
wealuy and his executors were unwilling to 
act, ao that the cost of his funeral was de- 
frayed br others (iL 71). He, however, be- 
qoaathei a mill and fifteen acres of .land to 

the vicars-choral of the church of St. Peter, 
York (CaL Pat JRoUs, Edward 1, 1292-1801, 
pp. 852, 882). 

[Raine's Letters from the Northern Begisters ; 
Historians of the Church of York and its Arch- 
bishopB(both in BoUs Ser.); Ghron. de Melaa 
(Jb,) ; Cluron. de Lanercost (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Trivet's Annals, and Walter de Hemingburgh 
(Engl. Hist. Sec); Bliss's Oal. of Papal HegisUrs; 
Gal. Pat. Bolls, Edward I ; Dixon and Raine*a 
Fasti Eboracenses, pp. 827-49 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
£ccL Asglieante, ed. Hardy; other Huthorities 
qnoted.] 0. L. K. 

ROMEE, EMMA, afterwards Mrs. 
Alxohd (1814-1868), vocalist, bom in 
1814, was the daughter of John Romer and 
his wife, Sarah Cooper. She was a pupil of 
James Elliot, and later of Sir Qeorge Smart. 
Her first theatrical sppearance was an- 
nounced at Covent (burden Theatre for 
16 Oct. 1880, when, as Olara m the < Duenna,' 
she exhibited a soprano voice of gpreat volume 
and compass, together with considerable 
dramatic talent l^ut the faultiness of her 
voice-production, and failure in the tech- 
nique of her art, cheeked her immediate 

In 1884, however, after appearing at 
Covent Gaitlen as Zerlina in ' Era Diavolo ' 
and Rosina in the * Barber of Seville' (for 
her benefit), Miss Romer was anffsged at 
the English Opera House (L^ceuni), where 
she created the r61es of Eolia in Bamett's * 
'Mountain Sylph' and Zulima in Loder's 
' Nouijahad.' In the winter she returned to 
Covent Qarden, where, in 1886, as Amina 
in ' La Sonnambula,' she ' reached the top« 
most round of the ladder of &me '( Theatrical 
Observer'), But she immediately afterwards 
declined a minor part, and threw up her 
Covent Garden engagement. Subsequently, 
as Agnes in ^Der Treischiits' and Liska 
in ' Cer Vampyr ' (Lyceum, 1886), she 
won much admiration. In September 1885 
she married George Almond, an army con- 

After her marriage Mrs. Almond appeared 
at Covent Qarden as Esmeralda in ' Quasi- 
modo,' a pasticcio from the great masters. 
The death of Malibran in 1886 afforded her 
further opportunities, and she now filled the 
chief r6le6 in Englii^ and Italian opera at 
Drury Lane, appearing in ^Fair Rosamond' 
(1887), * Maid of Artols,' La Favorita,' ' Ro- 
bert le Diable,' 'Bohemian Qirl, ' Maritana,' 
and many other pieces. In 1852 she under* 
took the management of the Surrey Theatre, 
where, during three seasons, she brought out 
a series of operas in English. After the deadi 
of her husband, Mrs. Almond retired from 
her professioni settling at Margate. She 




died there, aged 64, on 11 April 1868, and 
was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

Her brother, Frank Homer, musical com- 
poeer and member of a publishing firm, died 
m 1889. Her sister Helen {d. 1890^ was 
wife of Mark Lemon [a. v.] Ann Romer 
(d, 1862), the vocalist, who married William 
Brough [q. v.], was Emma Homer's first 

[GroTe's Diet. iii. 164 ; Musical World, 1868, 
pp. 269, 285; Theatrical Obserrar, 1830-7, 
passim ; Phillips's EecoUections, i. 190 ; Fitz- 
ball's Dramatic Life, passim.] L. M. M. 

1862), miscellaneous writer, was the young- 
est dauffhter of Major-general John Augustus 
Romer by his wife, Marianne C uthbert . She 
married Major Hamerton of the 7th fusiliers 
in December 1818, but separated from him in 
1827, and resumed her maiden name. She 
was a firm believer in mesmerism and animal 
magnetism, and in 1841 published, in three 
volumes, 'Sturmer, a Tale of Mesmerism, 
with other Sketches from Life.' She next 
turned her attention to travel, and brought 
out in 1848, in two volumes, ^The Rhone, the 
Darro, and the Guadalquivir, a Summer 
Ramble in 1842.' Another edition appeared 
in 1847. The 'Quarterly Review Vlxxvi. 119) 
' characterised it as ' well written.' 

She died at Chester Square, London, 
27 April 1862, while at work on her last 
book, ' Filia Dolorosa, Memoirs of Marie 
Th6r^ Charlotte, Duchess d'AngouUme' 

S Madame Royale]. It was completed by Dr. 
ohn Doran [q*v.], and published in two 
Tolumes in 1862. 

Other works by Miss Romer are : 1. 'A 
Pilgrimage to the Temples and Tombs of 
Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine in 1846-6,' 
2 vols. 1846 ; 2nd ed. 1847. 2. *The Bird 
of Passage, or Flying Glimpses of many 
Lands,' 8 vols. 1849; some of the tales and 
sketches here printed had been published 

[AlliboDo's Diet. ii. 1860 ; Gent. Mag. 1852, 
i. 636.] E. L. 


i 1640-1713), military engineer, bom at The 
lague on 23 April 1640, was third son, in 
a family of six sons and five daughters, of 
Mathias Romer of Dusseldorf and Anna 
Duppengiezeer, who were married at Aiz-la- 
Chapelle on 2 Jan. 1637. His father was 
ambassador to Holland from the elector pala- 
tine, who stood god&ther to younfWoligang 
at ius baptism on 17 May 1640. Romer 
entered the service of the prince of Orange 
as a military engineer, and saw much service 

before 1688, when he accompanied Prince 
Wiftam to England. At that time he held 
the rank of colonel. 

By royal warrant of 13 May 1690 he was 
appointed engineer in Ireland at 20f . a day, 
to commence from 1 March 1689. He took 
part in the campaigns of 1690 and 1691, and 
was employed on the fortifications of Cork, 
Longford, and Thurles. He remained in 
Ireland until 1692, when he was appointed by 
royal warrant of 7 July chief engineer of the 
artillery train fitted out at St. Helen's for 
the expedition against the coast of France. 
On 26 July he embarked with fourteen thou- 
sand troops in transports, and joined the 
fleet at Portland, when the expedition was 
abandoned. In 1693 he was chief engineer 
of the ordnance train of the expedition to the 
Mediterranean; he served under Lord Bella- 
mont [see Ooote, Richard], and embarked 
in the fleet under Delaval, Killigrew, and 
Rooke, to convoy the so-called Smyrna fleet. 
On 8 May 1694 he was directed by royal 
warrant to report on the defences of Gnem- 
sev, and to lay out any additional works 
which were urgent, with a special allow- 
ance of 2O9. a day. A plan of Castle Comet, 
drawn by Romer when on this duty, is in 
the British Museum. 

At the beginning of 1697 Romer was 
ordered to New York, but objected to go on 
the proposed salary of 20^ per diem. The 
board of ordnance recommended that his 
warrant should be cancelled, and that he 
should be discharged from the kind's service. 
The king was, however, well acquamted with 
his value, and although the board had sus- 
pended him in February, in August the sus- 
pension was removed, ' from the time of its 
bein^ first laid on,' and Romer accompanied 
Lord Bellamont, the newlj appointed gx>- 
vemor, to New York as chief engineer and 
with ^ay of 30«. a day. Bellamont had so hi^ h 
an opinion of Romer that he was speciaUy 
allowed to retain his services beyond the 
term arranged. 

Romer made a plan of the Hudson River, 
New York, and the adjoining coimtry. In 
1700 he explored the territories of the five 
Indian nations confederated with the British, 
and made a map of his journey among them. 
These maps are in the British IldUiseum. 
From 1701 to 1703 he was engag^ in 
fortifying Boston harbour. He built on 
Castle Island a formidable work of defence, 
called Fort William, mounting one hundred 
guns. It was destroyed on 17 Marchl776, when 
the British evacuated Boston. Many years 
afterwards a slate slab with a Latin inscrip- 
tion was found among the ruins, giving the 
dates when the work was commenced and 




finished, and stating that it was constructed 
by Romer, ' a militarv architect of the first 
lanL* Romer constructed defensive posts 
sod forts in the Indian territories, and many 
of diem were executed at his own expense, 
for which he was nerer reimbursed. He 
wss a member of the council of NeW York 
proTinee; his knowled^ of the colony, and 
espectsllr of the Indians, was inTaluable 
both to Lord Bellamont and to Lord Com- 
buzy, who succeeded to the goyemment in 

In 1708 Bomer, who was suffering from 
* a distemper not curable in those parts for 
wiot of experienced surgeons,' applied to 
retam to England. The board of ordnance 
nererthelesa ordered him to go to Barbados 
in the West Indies, and it was only on the 
intcarrention of the council of trade, who 
reprefiented his eminent services, that on 
14 Aug. 1704 he was ordered home so soon 
as he should be relieyed. He remained in 
Ameiica until 1706. He coxnpleted the 
plans of Cattle Island, Boston Bay, which 
are now in the British Museum. On his 
homeward yoya^ he was captured by the 
French and earned to St. Malo, where he 
was liberated on parole. The usual offer of 
twenty seamen in exchange for a colonel was 
refused by the French commissioner of sick 
and woimded, and Romer returned to Eng- 
land to negotiate for an exchange. Theboara 
of ordnance suggested that the fVench might 
aooept the Marquis de Levy^ taken in the 
Salisbury, or Cheyalier Nangis. 

In September 1707 Romer visited Dussel- 
dorf, canying a letter of recommendation 
&om the queen to the elector palatine. In 
1708, his exchan^ having been effected, he 
was employed in deeigninff defences for 
Portsmouth, which were submitted to the 
board of onhianoe in the following year, and 
in the oonstmction of Blockhouse Fort at 
the entrance of Portsmouth Harbour. He 
continued in charge of the Portsmouth de- 
fences, occasionally visitinff other fortified 
towns, suc^ as Hs^ich, which he reported 
on in 1710, and places in Flanders, until 
his deatili on 16 March 1713. He was 
buried at Diisseldorf, where he had some 

A miniature of him, in uniform, done in 
middle age, is in possession of the family. 

His son, JOHV liAMBEBTlTB ROMBB (lo80- 

1754 P), bom in 1680, served in the train of 
utilleTy in Flanders, Spun, and on several 
fxpeditioDS, and in 1708 was ensign in Bri- 
gadier Booke's regiment. On 28 Aug. of that 
T«ar he was appointed by royal warrant assis- 
tant engineer to his father at Portsmouth, 
and was employed on works for protecting 

the shore near Blockhouse from the sea. In 
August 1710 be went to Ireland to settle 
his affairs. On 4 April 1718 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant in the 4th foot. In 
1715 he was placed on half-pay from his regi- 
ment, and on 20 April appomted engineer at 
Sheemess, his district comprising the de- 
fences of the Thames and Medway. He was 
employed at Portsmouth at the end of 1716, 
but returned to Sheemess on 7 April of the 
following year. At the end of July 1719 he 
loined the expedition to Vigo, under Lord 
Oobham, and took part in the capture of the 
citadel, which surrendered on 10 Oct. On 
his return home he was appointed engineer in 
charge of the northern district and Scotland, 
and arrived in Edinburgh on 19 March 1720. 
In Scotland he had under his charge the erec- 
tion of barracks, proposed by Field-marshal 
Wade, at Inversnaid, Ruthven, Bemenf , and 
Killiwhinen. He had also important de- 
fence work at Forts Augustus, William, and 
George. On 24 Sept. 1722 he was promoted 
engineer-in-ordinary, and on SO Oct. he went 
to the office of the board of ordnance in Lon- 
don, whence he carried out the administra- 
tion of the Scottish and northern engineer 
districts for many years. He was promoted 
to be sub-director of engineers on 1 April 
17dO, captain-lieutenant on 22 Dec. 1788, 
and captain in the 4th foot ^Barrell's regi- 
ment) on 19 Jan. 1789. In 1742 he became 
director of engineers. During 1745 and 
1746 he served under the Duke of Cumber- 
land in the suppression of the Jacobite re- 
bellion, and was wounded at Oulloden, 
16 April 1746. He retired from the service 
in 1761. The date of his death is not ^ven, 
but it is stated that he was buried m St. 
Margaret's, Westminster. He married, in 
1711, Mary Hammond, by whom he had a 
son John (1718-1775), many of whose 
descendants entered the army and distin- 
guished themselves in active service. 

Among plans drawn by John Lambertus 
Romer (in the British Museum) may be men- 
tioned Fort Augustus, Scotland, and the 
fortifications of Portsmouth in 1726. Two 
miniatures of him, in uniform, at about the 
ages of twenty and forty-five years, are in 
tne possession of his descendant, the Hon. 
Mrs. Wynn of Rfig Corven, Merionethshire, 
younger daughter of Colonel Robert William 
Homer of Brynceanlyn, Merionethshire (d. 
1889), great-great-grandson of John Lam* 
bertus Romer. 

[War OiBee Records , Royal EDgineers' Re- 
cords; Cal. State Papers; William Smith's Hist, 
of New York, by Carey, Philadelphia, 1792; 
Daniel Neal's Hist, of New England to 170Q, 
London, 1790 ; private sources.] B. H. V. 




1892), ezflorar, third son of Colonel Frede- 
rick Bomilly and Eliisabeth, daughter of ^ 
William Eluot, third earl of Minto, was 
bom in London on 15 March 1856, and edu- 
cated, firat at the Bey. C. A. Johns's school 
at Winchester, and then at Repton. He 
entered Christ Church, Oxford, on 10 Oct. 
1874, but took no degpree, leaTing to enter 
the business of Messrs. Melly & Co., mer- 
chants, of LiverpooL 

Of adventurous disposition, he joined in 
Fiji in October 1879 Sir Arthur Gordon, 
the ffovemor (afterwards Lord Stanmore). 
On 12 Nov. he accompanied his chief to 
Tonga, and in December to Eotumah, in 
connection with the annexation of that 
island. He arrived again in Fiii on 17 April 
1880, and returned to Kotuman on 18 Sept. 
1880%s deputy-commissioner on its annexa- 
tion to the British crown. Early in 1881, 
owing to continued ill-health, he rejoined 
Sir .^urthur Gordon, who had ffone to New 
Zealand as governor, but in March he was 
appointed aenuty-commissioner for the 
Western Pacinc, and started for his first 
long tour through these seas in H.M.S. 
Beagle. He visited New Hanover, the Ad- 
miralty group. Hermit Islands, Astrolabe 
Bay in New Guinea, the Louisiade archi- 
pelago, Woodlark Islands, and the Trobriands, 
After a visit on sick leave to England, suc- 
ceeded by a short stav in Fiji, he was ordered 
to New Guinea for the first time, at the end 
of 1883. In November 1884 he was one of 
the party which declared the British protec- 
torate over part of New Guinea. By some 
misunderstanding he hoisted the British flag 
in advance of the formal declaration of pro- 
tectorate. He gave effective aid in the early 
administratian of the new colony, and on the 
death of the chief administrator. Sir Peter 
Scratchlev, he acted as administrator in 
charge of the settlement from December 
1885 to the end of February 1886, but went 
to London in June, to supervise the New 
Guinea exhibits at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition. For these services he was 
created a O.M.G. On 17 Jan. 1887 he once 
again started for the Pacific, staying en 
route in Eeypt and Australia, and m June 
took up tae appointment of deputy-com- 
missioner and consul of the New Hebrides 
and Solomon Islands, residing chiefly at Port 
Moresby, New Guinea. His tad^ during 1888 
and 1889 was peculiarlv trying. There was 
a good deal of native hostility, and he was 
much isolated, owing largely, he believed, 
to the neglect of the home authorities. 
Finally, in 1890, he resigned his offices. 

In 1891 Romilly went out to Sirica in 

command of an expedition for the Northum« 
berland Mining Syndicate, and travelled for 
some time in Mashonaland. While there he 
contracted fever, and, returning home, died 
at Cecil Street, Strand, London, on 27 July 
1892. He was unmarried. 

Bomilly is dsecribed by Sir Arthur Goiv 
don (afterwards Lord Stanmore) as of ' a 
quick inteiligence, greatphysieal strength^ 
and an easy temper.* His writings prove 
that he possessed all the qualifications for an 
explorer of new lands and a student of native 
ways. A portrait forms the frontispiece of 
the memoir by his brother, Samuel H. Ro- 

Bomilly published : 1. ' A true Story of the 
Western Pacific in 1879-^/ London, 1882 
(2nd edit, with portrait, 1893). 2. <The 
Western Pacific and New Guinea,' London, 
1886. 8. < From my Verandah in New Gui- 
nea,' London, 1889. 

[Letters and Memoir of Hagh Hastings 
Romilly. London, 1893; Mennell's Diet, of Aus- 
tralian Biogr. ; ofllcial records; private informa* 
tion.] C. A. H. 

BOMILLT, JOHN, first Lobd Romilli 
(1802*1874), master of the roUs, second son 
of Sir Samuel Romilly [5. v.], by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Francis Garbett of Knill 
Court in Herefordshire, was bom on 10 Jan. 
1802. He was educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he became a wrangler, 
and graduated B.A* in 1823, and MA. in 
1826. In 1827 he was called to the bar at 
Gra^s Inn, of which society he had been 
admitted a member on 26 Jan. 1817, and 
of which for many years before hie death 
he was a bencher. In 1832 he entered 
parliament in the liberal interest as member 
for Bridport, a seat which he hdd tiU 1835, 
when Horace Twiss, Q.C., defeated him by 
eight votes only. In 1846 he again contested 
the same borough, and on a scrutiny was 
declared entitled to the seat. At the general 
election of 1847 he was elected member for 
Devonport. Meantime he had prospered at 
the chancery bar, became a queen's counsel 
in 1848, was appointed solicitor-general by 
Lord John Rumll in March 1848, was 
knighted, and was advanced to be attorney* 
general in July 185Q in the same administra* 
tion. While law of^cer his principal achieve* 
ment in parliament was carrying the En- 
cumbered Estates Act through the House of 
Commons, but he also introduced and carried 
through bills for improyin^ equitable proce- 
dure in Ireland, for makinff freehold land 
liable to the simple contract debts contracted 
by its late owner in his lifetime, and he ob- 
tained the appointmi^t of a commission foe 




the refona of the court of chancery. On 
2d Mjurehl851 he was, on Lord John Rttssell's 
neommendation, appointed master of the 
toUb, on the death of Lord Langdale, and 
was sworn of the priyy council. The lig^t 
of the master of the toUb to hold a seat in 
parliament had not yet heen taken away by 
the Jodieatafe Act (S6 & d7 Vict. c. 66, $ 9), 
and he ccmtiniied to represent Devonport 
in the House of Oommons till the g^eneral 
election of 1852 ; but, having lost his seat 
there, he sought no other, and was in fact 
the la£t master of the roUs who sat in the 
House of Commona. In addition to the dis- 
charge of boa judicial duties, h